Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 58-81; doi:10.3390/nu5010058
Review

Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health

Received: 24 October 2012; in revised form: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Although gut diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, mucositis and the alimentary cancers share similar pathogenetic features, further investigation is required into new treatment modalities. An imbalance in the gut microbiota, breached gut integrity, bacterial invasion, increased cell apoptosis to proliferation ratio, inflammation and impaired immunity may all contribute to their pathogenesis. Probiotics are defined as live bacteria, which when administered in sufficient amounts, exert beneficial effects to the gastrointestinal tract. More recently, probiotic-derived factors including proteins and other molecules released from living probiotics, have also been shown to exert beneficial properties. In this review we address the potential for probiotics, with an emphasis on probiotic-derived factors, to reduce the severity of digestive diseases and further discuss the known mechanisms by which probiotics and probiotic-derived factors exert their physiological effects.
Keywords: microbiota; microbiome; modifiers; probiotics; biofactors; probiotic-derived factors; probiotic mechanisms; supernatants; intestinal function
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MDPI and ACS Style

Howarth, G.S.; Wang, H. Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health. Nutrients 2013, 5, 58-81.

AMA Style

Howarth GS, Wang H. Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health. Nutrients. 2013; 5(1):58-81.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Howarth, Gordon S.; Wang, Hanru. 2013. "Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health." Nutrients 5, no. 1: 58-81.

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