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Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health
School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Roseworthy Campus, South Australia 5371, Australia
Centre for Paediatric and Adolescent Gastroenterology, Children, Youth and Women's Health Service, North Adelaide, South Australia 5006, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2012; in revised form: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
Abstract: Although gut diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, mucositis and the alimentary cancers share similar pathogenetic features, further investigation is required into new treatment modalities. An imbalance in the gut microbiota, breached gut integrity, bacterial invasion, increased cell apoptosis to proliferation ratio, inflammation and impaired immunity may all contribute to their pathogenesis. Probiotics are defined as live bacteria, which when administered in sufficient amounts, exert beneficial effects to the gastrointestinal tract. More recently, probiotic-derived factors including proteins and other molecules released from living probiotics, have also been shown to exert beneficial properties. In this review we address the potential for probiotics, with an emphasis on probiotic-derived factors, to reduce the severity of digestive diseases and further discuss the known mechanisms by which probiotics and probiotic-derived factors exert their physiological effects.
Keywords: microbiota; microbiome; modifiers; probiotics; biofactors; probiotic-derived factors; probiotic mechanisms; supernatants; intestinal function
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Howarth, G.S.; Wang, H. Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health. Nutrients 2013, 5, 58-81.
Howarth GS, Wang H. Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health. Nutrients. 2013; 5(1):58-81.
Howarth, Gordon S.; Wang, Hanru. 2013. "Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health." Nutrients 5, no. 1: 58-81.