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Does Milk Cause Constipation? A Crossover Dietary Trial
Department of Rural Health NSW, University of Newcastle, Tamworth, NSW 2340, Australia
Tamworth Rural Referral Hospital, Tamworth, NSW 2340, Australia
Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Canberra, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia
School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
School of Medicine, Bond University, Robina, QLD 4226, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2012; in revised form: 26 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 22 January 2013
Abstract: The aims of this study were to: (1) determine whether replacement of cow’s milk protein with soy resolves Chronic Functional Constipation (CFC); and (2) investigate the effects of cow’s milk β casein A1 and cow’s milk β casein A2 on CFC. Children diagnosed with CFC were recruited to one of two crossover trials: Trial 1 compared the effects of cow’s milk and soy milk; Trial 2 compared the effects of cow’s milk β casein A1 and cow’s milk β casein A2. Resolution of constipation was defined as greater than eight bowel motions during a two week intervention. Thirteen children (18 to 144 months) participated in Trial 1 (6 boys, 7 girls). Nine participants who completed the soy epoch all experienced resolution (p < 0.05). Thirty-nine children (21 to 144 months) participated in Trial 2 (25 boys, 14 girls). Resolution of constipation was highest during the washout epoch, 81%; followed by cow’s milk β casein A2, 79%; and cow’s milk β casein A1, 57%; however, the proportions did not differ statistically. The results of Trial 1 demonstrate an association between CFC and cow’s milk consumption but Trial 2 failed to show an effect from type of casein. Some other component in cow’s milk common to both A1 and A2 milk may be causing a problem in these susceptible children.
Keywords: constipation; child; hypersensitivity; soy; casein
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MDPI and ACS Style
Crowley, E.T.; Williams, L.T.; Roberts, T.K.; Dunstan, R.H.; Jones, P.D. Does Milk Cause Constipation? A Crossover Dietary Trial. Nutrients 2013, 5, 253-266.
Crowley ET, Williams LT, Roberts TK, Dunstan RH, Jones PD. Does Milk Cause Constipation? A Crossover Dietary Trial. Nutrients. 2013; 5(1):253-266.
Crowley, Elesa T.; Williams, Lauren T.; Roberts, Tim K.; Dunstan, Richard H.; Jones, Peter D. 2013. "Does Milk Cause Constipation? A Crossover Dietary Trial." Nutrients 5, no. 1: 253-266.