Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 253-266; doi:10.3390/nu5010253
Article

Does Milk Cause Constipation? A Crossover Dietary Trial

1 Department of Rural Health NSW, University of Newcastle, Tamworth, NSW 2340, Australia 2 Tamworth Rural Referral Hospital, Tamworth, NSW 2340, Australia 3 Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Canberra, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia 4 School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia 5 School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia 6 School of Medicine, Bond University, Robina, QLD 4226, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2012; in revised form: 26 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 22 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
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Abstract: The aims of this study were to: (1) determine whether replacement of cow’s milk protein with soy resolves Chronic Functional Constipation (CFC); and (2) investigate the effects of cow’s milk β casein A1 and cow’s milk β casein A2 on CFC. Children diagnosed with CFC were recruited to one of two crossover trials: Trial 1 compared the effects of cow’s milk and soy milk; Trial 2 compared the effects of cow’s milk β casein A1 and cow’s milk β casein A2. Resolution of constipation was defined as greater than eight bowel motions during a two week intervention. Thirteen children (18 to 144 months) participated in Trial 1 (6 boys, 7 girls). Nine participants who completed the soy epoch all experienced resolution (p < 0.05). Thirty-nine children (21 to 144 months) participated in Trial 2 (25 boys, 14 girls). Resolution of constipation was highest during the washout epoch, 81%; followed by cow’s milk β casein A2, 79%; and cow’s milk β casein A1, 57%; however, the proportions did not differ statistically. The results of Trial 1 demonstrate an association between CFC and cow’s milk consumption but Trial 2 failed to show an effect from type of casein. Some other component in cow’s milk common to both A1 and A2 milk may be causing a problem in these susceptible children.
Keywords: constipation; child; hypersensitivity; soy; casein

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MDPI and ACS Style

Crowley, E.T.; Williams, L.T.; Roberts, T.K.; Dunstan, R.H.; Jones, P.D. Does Milk Cause Constipation? A Crossover Dietary Trial. Nutrients 2013, 5, 253-266.

AMA Style

Crowley ET, Williams LT, Roberts TK, Dunstan RH, Jones PD. Does Milk Cause Constipation? A Crossover Dietary Trial. Nutrients. 2013; 5(1):253-266.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crowley, Elesa T.; Williams, Lauren T.; Roberts, Tim K.; Dunstan, Richard H.; Jones, Peter D. 2013. "Does Milk Cause Constipation? A Crossover Dietary Trial." Nutrients 5, no. 1: 253-266.

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