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Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006
Food & Nutrition Database Research, Inc., 1801 Shadywood Lane, Okemos, MI 48864, USA
Nutrition Impact, LLC, 9725 D Drive North, Battle Creek, MI 49014, USA
Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College, Department of Pediatrics, 1100 Bates Avenue, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Didactic Program in Dietetics, 261 Knapp Hall, Louisiana State University AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2012; in revised form: 3 January 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Abstract: Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy — milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein — milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars — soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars — soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber — fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat — cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol — eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D — milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium — milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium — milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium — salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets.
Keywords: NHANES; energy intake; nutrients; children; adolescents; food groups
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Keast, D.R.; Fulgoni, V.L.; Nicklas, T.A.; O'Neil, C.E. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. Nutrients 2013, 5, 283-301.
Keast DR, Fulgoni VL, Nicklas TA, O'Neil CE. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. Nutrients. 2013; 5(1):283-301.
Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E. 2013. "Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006." Nutrients 5, no. 1: 283-301.