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Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 283-301; doi:10.3390/nu5010283
Article

Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

1
, 2
, 3
 and 4,*
Received: 8 November 2012; in revised form: 3 January 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Nutrition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [583 KB, uploaded 22 January 2013]
Abstract: Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy — milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein — milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars — soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars — soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber — fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat — cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol — eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D — milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium — milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium — milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium — salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets.
Keywords: NHANES; energy intake; nutrients; children; adolescents; food groups NHANES; energy intake; nutrients; children; adolescents; food groups
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Keast, D.R.; Fulgoni, V.L.; Nicklas, T.A.; O'Neil, C.E. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. Nutrients 2013, 5, 283-301.

AMA Style

Keast DR, Fulgoni VL, Nicklas TA, O'Neil CE. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006. Nutrients. 2013; 5(1):283-301.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E. 2013. "Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006." Nutrients 5, no. 1: 283-301.


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