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Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 208-222; doi:10.3390/nu5010208

Trust Your Gut: Galvanizing Nutritional Interest in Intestinal Cholesterol Metabolism for Protection Against Cardiovascular Diseases

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, 216 Advanced Technology Laboratory Building, 1392 Storrs Road, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
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Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Abstract

Recent studies have demonstrated that the intestine is a key target organ for overall health and longevity. Complementing these studies is the discovery of the trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux pathway and the emerging role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport. The surfacing dynamics of the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the intestine provides an attractive platform for intestine-specific nutritional intervention strategies to lower blood cholesterol levels for protection against cardiovascular diseases. Notably, there is mounting evidence that stimulation of pathways associated with calorie restriction may have a large effect on the regulation of cholesterol removal by the intestine. However, intestinal energy metabolism, specifically the idiosyncrasies surrounding intestinal responses to energy deprivation, is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to review recent insights into cholesterol regulation by the intestine and to discuss the potential for positive regulation of intestine-driven cholesterol removal through the nutritional induction of pathways associated with calorie restriction.
Keywords: trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE); reverse cholesterol transport (RCT); intestine; liver X receptor (LXR); peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ); calorie restriction; sirtuin; fasting; NAD(+) trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE); reverse cholesterol transport (RCT); intestine; liver X receptor (LXR); peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ; (PPARδ); calorie restriction; sirtuin; fasting; NAD(+)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Wegner, C.J.; Kim, B.; Lee, J. Trust Your Gut: Galvanizing Nutritional Interest in Intestinal Cholesterol Metabolism for Protection Against Cardiovascular Diseases. Nutrients 2013, 5, 208-222.

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