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Effect of Added Carbohydrates on Glycemic and Insulin Responses to Children’s Milk Products
School of Molecular Bioscience and Boden Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Fonterra Research Centre, Private Bag 11029, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2012; in revised form: 12 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
Abstract: Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs) containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. The ingredient lists and nutrition information panels were used to calculate the percentage of declared carbohydrates contributed by added carbohydrates and a subset of seven products was tested for their glycemic index (GI) and insulin responses in healthy adults. The glycemic load for each product was calculated. In total, 58 products (n = 24 in Malaysia and n = 34 in Indonesia) were surveyed. Added carbohydrate content (excluding fibre) ranged from 0 to 21.5 g per serve. Milk powders without added sources of carbohydrate had similar GI values to standard liquid whole milk. Products containing maltodextrins, corn or glucose syrups increased the GI by more than 2-fold, and glycemic load (GL) by 7-fold compared to milk powders with no added carbohydrates. Insulin responses were significantly but not strongly correlated with glucose responses (r = 0.32, p < 0.006). Children’s milk powders containing higher levels of added carbohydrate ingredients elicit higher glucose and insulin responses than liquid or powdered whole milk.
Keywords: milk; carbohydrate; glycemia; insulinemia; glycemic index
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Brand-Miller, J.; Atkinson, F.; Rowan, A. Effect of Added Carbohydrates on Glycemic and Insulin Responses to Children’s Milk Products. Nutrients 2013, 5, 23-31.
Brand-Miller J, Atkinson F, Rowan A. Effect of Added Carbohydrates on Glycemic and Insulin Responses to Children’s Milk Products. Nutrients. 2013; 5(1):23-31.
Brand-Miller, Jennie; Atkinson, Fiona; Rowan, Angela. 2013. "Effect of Added Carbohydrates on Glycemic and Insulin Responses to Children’s Milk Products." Nutrients 5, no. 1: 23-31.