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Vitamin D — Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation
Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, 85 East Newton Street, M-1013, Boston, MA 02118, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2012; in revised form: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
Abstract: Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a global pandemic. The major cause for vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure has been and continues to be the major source of vitamin D for children and adults of all ages. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a healthy skeleton throughout life. There remains some controversy regarding what blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be attained for both bone health and reducing risk for vitamin D deficiency associated acute and chronic diseases and how much vitamin D should be supplemented.
Keywords: vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; osteoporosis; fractures; cancer; type 2 diabetes mellitus; cardiovascular diseases; autoimmune diseases; infectious diseases
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Wacker, M.; Holick, M.F. Vitamin D — Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation. Nutrients 2013, 5, 111-148.
Wacker M, Holick MF. Vitamin D — Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation. Nutrients. 2013; 5(1):111-148.
Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F. 2013. "Vitamin D — Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation." Nutrients 5, no. 1: 111-148.