Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of “Maltese Mushroom” (Cynomorium coccineum) by Means of Multiple Chemical and Biological Assays
Next Article in Special Issue
Sodium Intakes of US Children and Adults from Foods and Beverages by Location of Origin and by Specific Food Source
Previous Article in Journal
Selenium in Bone Health: Roles in Antioxidant Protection and Cell Proliferation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Vitamin D Interactions with Soy Isoflavones on Bone after Menopause: A Review
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 111-148; doi:10.3390/nu5010111
Review

Vitamin D — Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation

 and *
Received: 15 October 2012; in revised form: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Minerals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6394 KB, updated 11 January 2013; original version uploaded 10 January 2013]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a global pandemic. The major cause for vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure has been and continues to be the major source of vitamin D for children and adults of all ages. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a healthy skeleton throughout life. There remains some controversy regarding what blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be attained for both bone health and reducing risk for vitamin D deficiency associated acute and chronic diseases and how much vitamin D should be supplemented.
Keywords: vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; osteoporosis; fractures; cancer; type 2 diabetes mellitus; cardiovascular diseases; autoimmune diseases; infectious diseases vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; osteoporosis; fractures; cancer; type 2 diabetes mellitus; cardiovascular diseases; autoimmune diseases; infectious diseases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Wacker, M.; Holick, M.F. Vitamin D — Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation. Nutrients 2013, 5, 111-148.

AMA Style

Wacker M, Holick MF. Vitamin D — Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation. Nutrients. 2013; 5(1):111-148.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F. 2013. "Vitamin D — Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation." Nutrients 5, no. 1: 111-148.


Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert