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Sustainability, Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This paper presents and compares different approaches of science–practice collaboration, in [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Tourism Pedagogy and Visitor Responsibilities in Destinations of Local-Global Significance: Climate Change and Social-Political Action
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061082
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper examines the issue of climate change pedagogy and social action in tourism, with particular interest in globally-significant destinations under threat from climate change. Little is understood of the role and responsibility of visitors as key stakeholders in climate change-related action or
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This paper examines the issue of climate change pedagogy and social action in tourism, with particular interest in globally-significant destinations under threat from climate change. Little is understood of the role and responsibility of visitors as key stakeholders in climate change-related action or the potential of such sites to foster environmental learning, as well as social and political action on climate change. Drawing on insights from Aldo Leopold and John Dewey, it is argued here that destinations that are valued intrinsically for their ecological and cultural importance are (or ought to be) sites of enjoyment and pedagogy, facilitating experiential learning, care, responsibility and civic action towards their conservation. An exploratory case study of visitors to the Great Barrier Reef offers corroborative insights for such a “reef ethic” as described in this paper, related to visitor experience, learning and action in this World Heritage Area. The results of this paper support the need for a stronger pedagogic role to be adopted by tourism experience providers and site managers to facilitate climate change literacy and responsible action (hence facilitating global environmental citizenship). Their responsibility and that of reef visitors is discussed further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment, Tourism and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Staple Foodscape of Dar es Salaam
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061081
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
The city region foodscape is a relational space of spatially proximate as well as more distant relations. The current understanding of city region foodscapes will be enhanced by more analyses of what is happening in the African and Asian cities where rapid population
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The city region foodscape is a relational space of spatially proximate as well as more distant relations. The current understanding of city region foodscapes will be enhanced by more analyses of what is happening in the African and Asian cities where rapid population growth and urbanization, with all its challenges and opportunities, is predominantly taking place. This paper explores the city foodscape of one such city, the rapidly growing Dar es Salaam with over 4.5 million inhabitants. By following some important foods for eaters in the city, this paper draws a picture of the changing shape and nature of Dar es Salaam’s foodscape and draws out lessons for debates on city region food systems and urban food planning. It is found that key staple foods are coming from the rural hinterland through a food system that is not part of or modeled on the globally dominant corporate food system and as such represents a working alternative. This food system neither fits within administrative boundaries nor relies primarily on local production. We argue that more academic and policy attention needs to be given to understanding and reinforcing such middle-ground, neither local nor global, food systems that are delivering at city feeding scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue City Region Foodscapes)
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Open AccessArticle Coordinate Optimization of the Distribution Network Electricity Price, Energy Storage Operation Strategy, and Capacity under a Shared Mechanism
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061080
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The large scale deployment of renewable generation is generally seen as the most promising option for displacing fossil fuel generators. A challenge in integrating renewable energy resources (RERs) for distribution networks is to find approaches that ensure the long term sustainability and economic
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The large scale deployment of renewable generation is generally seen as the most promising option for displacing fossil fuel generators. A challenge in integrating renewable energy resources (RERs) for distribution networks is to find approaches that ensure the long term sustainability and economic profit of the Distribution Company (DisCo). In this paper, considering the air condition load demand side response, a coordinate optimization of the energy storage capacity and operation strategy is presented to maximize the economic profit of the DisCo. The operation strategy in the optimization is divided into two parts. Under the normal state, a price-based air condition quick response strategy is proposed, with both the comfort and economic efficiency of the users taken into account. Under the fault state, a sharing strategy of Generalized Demand Side Resources (GDSRs) is proposed to improve the utilization level of equipment based on the reliability insurance. Finally, the optimization is carried out on an improved IEEE-33 bus test system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and discuss the effect of the load demand response participation rate on energy storage configuration. At the same time, the effect of GDSRs on the safe load rate of the line is also presented. The research provides a reference for the optimization and utilization of GDSRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancing the Sustainability Narrative through a Deeper Understanding of Sustainable Development Indicators
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061078
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Different sustainability indicators tend to reflect different or even converse outcomes in terms of countries. A careful comparative study is needed to clarify whether these indicators are actually coherent with each other. We analyze and compare five sustainable development indicators. Pearson correlation was
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Different sustainability indicators tend to reflect different or even converse outcomes in terms of countries. A careful comparative study is needed to clarify whether these indicators are actually coherent with each other. We analyze and compare five sustainable development indicators. Pearson correlation was used to make a comparative study among them. Within the two groups, the indicators are positively correlated. The Sustainable Development Index (SDI) of the second group also shares a negative correlation with the Human Development Index. On the other side, the Emergy Sustainability Index was negatively correlated with the Environmental Performance Index, and had little or no correlation with the Environmental Sustainability Index. Furthermore, when examining the scores obtained from the different SDIs, the results demonstrate that they might present somewhat conflicting findings, if not considering their complementarity. This, from one side, depends on the fact that Human Development Index (HDI), Environmental Performance Index (EPI), and Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) provide a short-term local perspective on “sustainability”, while the Emergy-based Sustainability Index (EmSI) and Surplus Biocapacity are more long-term and global in their perspective. HDI, EPI, and ESI have a more social and economic focus, including indicators whose dynamics are disjoined from the natural one. The emerging differences might be explained through the analysis of the individual sub-indicators for each of the SDIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Social Impact Assessment of Rebuilding an Urban Neighborhood: A Case Study of a Demolition and Reconstruction Project in Petah Tikva, Israel
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061076
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
The rebuilding of deteriorating residential areas is being replicated rapidly throughout Israeli cities despite limited assessment of the social consequences. This paper presents the findings of a social impact assessment (SIA) applied to a demolition and reconstruction case study carried out in a
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The rebuilding of deteriorating residential areas is being replicated rapidly throughout Israeli cities despite limited assessment of the social consequences. This paper presents the findings of a social impact assessment (SIA) applied to a demolition and reconstruction case study carried out in a low-income neighborhood in Petah Tikva. The project represents a typical example of developer-led removal of low-rise, mixed tenure housing replaced by privately owned high-rise housing. A mixed-methods approach was used to explore the actual and potential social implications from different points of view held by the various public and private actors in the project. The research was based on the analysis of official documents, field observations, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders involved in the rebuilding process, and with affected community representatives. The case study was analyzed with regard to three components: the public engagement process, financial well-being, and community cohesion and stability. The assessment revealed insufficient public and municipal involvement, the displacement of the majority of low-income households, disregard for the provision of community infrastructure, and the weakening of community stability. The paper suggests various ways to improve the outcomes of the project for all the affected parties, and argues that incorporating the SIA mechanism in this particular form of urban renewal might improve strategic decision-making and promote urban sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Linkage among School Performance, Housing Prices, and Residential Mobility
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061075
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Ensuring equal opportunity of quality basic education is critical for a sustainable society, but access to high-quality public education is limited by the place of residence and income level of the household, especially under rigid geographic school assignment. This paper identifies multilateral linkages
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Ensuring equal opportunity of quality basic education is critical for a sustainable society, but access to high-quality public education is limited by the place of residence and income level of the household, especially under rigid geographic school assignment. This paper identifies multilateral linkages among academic performance of elementary school, housing prices, and residential mobility in Seoul. A spatial simultaneous equation system is applied to address feedback simultaneity and spatial interactions between local housing market and residential mobility. The results show that school performance positively affects both housing prices and population in-migration, but the increase in housing prices discourages the residential move into affluent school districts. Based on the finding that discouraging effect of housing price premium on population in-migration outweighs the population inflow attracted by school performance, this paper suggests policies to reduce the inequality of educational achievements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Hansen, A., et al. CUDe—Carbon Utilization Degree as an Indicator for Sustainable Biomass Use. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1028
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061074
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle Stochastic Characteristics of Manual Solar Shades and their Influence on Building Energy Performance
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061070
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Occupant behavior has a significant impact on building energy performance. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the stochastic characteristics of manual solar shades and their influence on building energy performance. A co-simulation for occupants’ stochastic control of manual solar shades was
[...] Read more.
Occupant behavior has a significant impact on building energy performance. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the stochastic characteristics of manual solar shades and their influence on building energy performance. A co-simulation for occupants’ stochastic control of manual solar shades was conducted and the statistic indicators (non-parameter tests and autocorrelation function) were calculated in order to identify potential occupant behavior patterns. The results show that occupants’ stochastic shade control behavior among different seasons is not statistically different and that shade control behavior is not completely stochastic. Meanwhile, the trend in the fluctuation of Sc changes with time. Furthermore, a new index was introduced to evaluate the effectiveness of manual solar shades in terms of energy performance. The result shows that the effectiveness of manual solar shades is only between 39.8% and 81.3%, compared with automatically controlled shades, and there is a large potential for improving the effectiveness of manual solar shades in different seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Reducing Global Warming Potential through Sustainable Intensification of Basmati Rice-Wheat Systems in India
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061044
Received: 13 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study examines the effects of tillage, residue management and cropping system intensification through the inclusion of green gram on the performance of the rice-wheat (RW) system in NW India. We hypothesized that zero tillage (ZT) with residue retention provides a means of
[...] Read more.
This study examines the effects of tillage, residue management and cropping system intensification through the inclusion of green gram on the performance of the rice-wheat (RW) system in NW India. We hypothesized that zero tillage (ZT) with residue retention provides a means of sustainably intensifying the RW system through lower production costs and higher economic profitability, whilst at the same time minimizing soil and environmental trade-offs. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated six combinations of tillage, residue management and green gram integration in RW rotation in northwest Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India. Treatments included in the study were: rice and wheat under conventional tillage (CT) with and without green gram (CTR-CTW, CTR-CTW+GG), both crops under zero-tillage (ZT) with and without green gram (ZTR-ZTW-R, ZTR-ZTW-R+GG) and both crops under ZT plus residues with and without green gram (ZTR-ZTW+R, ZTR-ZTW+R+GG). Based on two consecutive years of data, the net return from the RW system was significantly higher in the ZT than CT systems. Methane emissions were only observed under flooded conditions in CT rice plots; otherwise, emissions were negligible in all other treatment combinations. N2O emissions were dictated by N fertilizer application with no other treatment effects. Overall, ZT with residue retention resulted in the lowest global warming potential (GWP) ranging from −3301 to −823 kg CO2-eq ha−1 year−1 compared to 4113 to 7917 kg CO2-eq ha−1 year−1 in other treatments. Operational inputs (tillage, planting, and irrigation) and soil C sequestration had significant effects on total GWP. The water footprint of RW production system was about 29% less in CA-based system compared to CT-based systems. Our study concludes that ZTR-ZTW+R and ZTR-ZTW+R+GG in RW systems of northwestern IGP have the potential to be agronomically productive, economically viable with benefits also for the environment in terms of soil health and GHG emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Science in Conservation Agricultural Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Failure of Energy Mega-Projects in Chile: A Critical Review from Sustainability Perspectives
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061073
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
A number of successive energy crises over the last decade due to the lack of a balanced investment planning in the energy sector in Chile has led to a strong dependence on external sources and also doubled energy prices in the country, thus
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A number of successive energy crises over the last decade due to the lack of a balanced investment planning in the energy sector in Chile has led to a strong dependence on external sources and also doubled energy prices in the country, thus posing a significant challenge to the local economy. With the purpose of reaching long-term goals while simultaneously addressing short-term urgencies, Chile seeks to build a consistent and integrated energy policy in order to attract investment in the sector. Despite an overall attractive investment climate and encouraging market conditions in the country, the energy sector has been adversely affected, in particular, by the communities’ opposition to mega-projects based on their expected environmental and social impacts. The study highlights recent experiences of energy generation mega-projects in terms of addressing aspects of sustainability. Based on these experiences, it discusses underdeveloped role of environmental evaluations and the main regulatory challenges ahead, recommending then public policies to effectively address these challenges. Full article
Open AccessArticle Integrating Sustainability in Organisations: An Activity-Based Sustainability Model
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061072
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Organisations have become interested in using integral management systems to increase their sustainable value. Although global integration models address sustainability in organisations, these models present shortcomings and limitations and do not describe how to achieve the integration of sustainability. This paper proposes an
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Organisations have become interested in using integral management systems to increase their sustainable value. Although global integration models address sustainability in organisations, these models present shortcomings and limitations and do not describe how to achieve the integration of sustainability. This paper proposes an Activity-Based Sustainability (ABS) integration model that complements other models from an inside-out perspective. Its assessment follows a procedure similar to that proposed by the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) model of cost accounting. The model assigns impacts from activities in the value chain of a process to the objects of impact (products, services, clients, or markets) that must be managed in terms of sustainability. The main limitations of the ABS model are the need to identify and describe processes, to locate every activity that constitutes the value chain, and to quantify the impacts of these activities. The ABS model is presented as an alternative to link sustainable management accounting and sustainable communication, as well as sustainable management control and sustainability assessment. It connects these sustainable elements through the bilateral identification of the linkages among skills, processes, and practices. It also links these aspects with the contribution to sustainable development and the development of competitive advantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Volatility Spillover between Water, Energy and Food
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061071
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Water, energy, and food and are strongly interconnected, and the sustainability of the whole world depends on this link. The aim of this article is to analyze the volatility spillovers between indexes representing the financial component of this nexus. We use a multivariate
[...] Read more.
Water, energy, and food and are strongly interconnected, and the sustainability of the whole world depends on this link. The aim of this article is to analyze the volatility spillovers between indexes representing the financial component of this nexus. We use a multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model with daily data in which the water variable is proxy by equity index that represents the performance of the industry involved in water business both at the global and local levels. For the food and energy sectors, we use two sub-indexes of the S&P Goldman Sachs (GS)-Commodity Index. Our results highlight the existence of a financial nexus between water, energy, and food that was particularly exacerbated during 2008 crisis. Evidence therefore suggests the need to better investigate the policy options that can be used to reduce price volatility in a framework of the rising relevance of sustainability issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Securing Retirement at a Young Age. Exploring the Intention to Buy Longevity Annuities through an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behavior
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061069
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Since the early 90s, Italy has undergone radical changes in the regulations of the public pension system aimed at mending its main drawbacks and improving sustainability in the long run. The reforms were intended to recover the national economy through a significant reduction
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Since the early 90s, Italy has undergone radical changes in the regulations of the public pension system aimed at mending its main drawbacks and improving sustainability in the long run. The reforms were intended to recover the national economy through a significant reduction of benefits by increasing, particularly for younger people, individual responsibility for the accumulation of retirement wealth. Adopting an enhanced version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which includes affective reactions, the present paper aims to understand the factors influencing the intention to enroll in a private pension plan through the purchase of longevity annuity coverage on the part of young adults. A purposive sample of 7480 Italian people aged 25–35 participated in the survey. Collected data were analyzed adopting an ordinal logistic regression (OLR) model. The findings confirm the predictive power of the TPB in the financial field of longevity annuity buying, show that anticipated affective reactions increase the predictive power of the TPB model, and reveal that the influence of the investigated constructs varies alongside people’s willingness to purchase. The outcomes provide useful recommendations to the policy maker and private companies to favor the adoption of wide-spread desired behaviors among citizenships. Full article
Open AccessArticle Governing a Sustainable Business Ecosystem in Taiwan’s Circular Economy: The Story of Spring Pool Glass
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061068
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
The business ecosystem has provided a new paradigm for management research. Most research in the field has focused on profit-driven industries, neglecting the area of the circular economy. This research sets out to capture the mechanisms that the leading firm in the circular
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The business ecosystem has provided a new paradigm for management research. Most research in the field has focused on profit-driven industries, neglecting the area of the circular economy. This research sets out to capture the mechanisms that the leading firm in the circular economy uses to govern its business ecosystem. The research strategy adopted is a longitudinal case study of the largest glass recycling company in Taiwan, Spring Pool Glass. Our findings illustrate that continuous value capture is the key to governing a sustainable business ecosystem in the glass recycling industry. The mechanisms include continuous value capture to enter new markets, using stakeholder networks to enlarge the business ecosystem, brand image and corporate social responsibility, company capabilities and research and development in the recycling process, and reacting to government policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Can Green Traffic Policies Affect Air Quality? Evidence from A Difference-in-Difference Estimation in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061067
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Air pollution has been a serious challenge for human sustainable development. Researches show that emissions from the transport sector have been found to be a main source of air pollution in cities. Governments have implemented numerous green traffic policies to mitigate harmful emissions.
[...] Read more.
Air pollution has been a serious challenge for human sustainable development. Researches show that emissions from the transport sector have been found to be a main source of air pollution in cities. Governments have implemented numerous green traffic policies to mitigate harmful emissions. However, the problem as to whether the green traffic policies are effective, and the extent to which the policies affect air quality remain unknown. This paper is the first attempt to apply a difference-in-difference method to investigate how a specific green traffic policy (in our case, the green traffic pilot cities program) affects air quality. The estimates show that the pilot program is associated with consistent reductions in annual concentration of pollutants. In pilot cities of China, the annual concentration of SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 decrease by 10.71 percent, 11.26 percent and 9.85 percent, respectively, after the implementation of the green traffic pilot cities program. The results show that the green traffic pilot has a noticeable improvement on air quality of the pilot cities, implying that government intervention has a positive influence on pollution prevention in the transport sector. Moreover, the green traffic system construction can be popularized in other cities to mitigate air pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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