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Sustainability, Volume 9, Issue 6 (June 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Tourism Pedagogy and Visitor Responsibilities in Destinations of Local-Global Significance: Climate Change and Social-Political Action
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061082
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
This paper examines the issue of climate change pedagogy and social action in tourism, with particular interest in globally-significant destinations under threat from climate change. Little is understood of the role and responsibility of visitors as key stakeholders in climate change-related action or
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This paper examines the issue of climate change pedagogy and social action in tourism, with particular interest in globally-significant destinations under threat from climate change. Little is understood of the role and responsibility of visitors as key stakeholders in climate change-related action or the potential of such sites to foster environmental learning, as well as social and political action on climate change. Drawing on insights from Aldo Leopold and John Dewey, it is argued here that destinations that are valued intrinsically for their ecological and cultural importance are (or ought to be) sites of enjoyment and pedagogy, facilitating experiential learning, care, responsibility and civic action towards their conservation. An exploratory case study of visitors to the Great Barrier Reef offers corroborative insights for such a “reef ethic” as described in this paper, related to visitor experience, learning and action in this World Heritage Area. The results of this paper support the need for a stronger pedagogic role to be adopted by tourism experience providers and site managers to facilitate climate change literacy and responsible action (hence facilitating global environmental citizenship). Their responsibility and that of reef visitors is discussed further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment, Tourism and Sustainable Development)
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Staple Foodscape of Dar es Salaam
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061081
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
The city region foodscape is a relational space of spatially proximate as well as more distant relations. The current understanding of city region foodscapes will be enhanced by more analyses of what is happening in the African and Asian cities where rapid population
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The city region foodscape is a relational space of spatially proximate as well as more distant relations. The current understanding of city region foodscapes will be enhanced by more analyses of what is happening in the African and Asian cities where rapid population growth and urbanization, with all its challenges and opportunities, is predominantly taking place. This paper explores the city foodscape of one such city, the rapidly growing Dar es Salaam with over 4.5 million inhabitants. By following some important foods for eaters in the city, this paper draws a picture of the changing shape and nature of Dar es Salaam’s foodscape and draws out lessons for debates on city region food systems and urban food planning. It is found that key staple foods are coming from the rural hinterland through a food system that is not part of or modeled on the globally dominant corporate food system and as such represents a working alternative. This food system neither fits within administrative boundaries nor relies primarily on local production. We argue that more academic and policy attention needs to be given to understanding and reinforcing such middle-ground, neither local nor global, food systems that are delivering at city feeding scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue City Region Foodscapes)
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Open AccessArticle Coordinate Optimization of the Distribution Network Electricity Price, Energy Storage Operation Strategy, and Capacity under a Shared Mechanism
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061080
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The large scale deployment of renewable generation is generally seen as the most promising option for displacing fossil fuel generators. A challenge in integrating renewable energy resources (RERs) for distribution networks is to find approaches that ensure the long term sustainability and economic
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The large scale deployment of renewable generation is generally seen as the most promising option for displacing fossil fuel generators. A challenge in integrating renewable energy resources (RERs) for distribution networks is to find approaches that ensure the long term sustainability and economic profit of the Distribution Company (DisCo). In this paper, considering the air condition load demand side response, a coordinate optimization of the energy storage capacity and operation strategy is presented to maximize the economic profit of the DisCo. The operation strategy in the optimization is divided into two parts. Under the normal state, a price-based air condition quick response strategy is proposed, with both the comfort and economic efficiency of the users taken into account. Under the fault state, a sharing strategy of Generalized Demand Side Resources (GDSRs) is proposed to improve the utilization level of equipment based on the reliability insurance. Finally, the optimization is carried out on an improved IEEE-33 bus test system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and discuss the effect of the load demand response participation rate on energy storage configuration. At the same time, the effect of GDSRs on the safe load rate of the line is also presented. The research provides a reference for the optimization and utilization of GDSRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancing the Sustainability Narrative through a Deeper Understanding of Sustainable Development Indicators
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061078
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Different sustainability indicators tend to reflect different or even converse outcomes in terms of countries. A careful comparative study is needed to clarify whether these indicators are actually coherent with each other. We analyze and compare five sustainable development indicators. Pearson correlation was
[...] Read more.
Different sustainability indicators tend to reflect different or even converse outcomes in terms of countries. A careful comparative study is needed to clarify whether these indicators are actually coherent with each other. We analyze and compare five sustainable development indicators. Pearson correlation was used to make a comparative study among them. Within the two groups, the indicators are positively correlated. The Sustainable Development Index (SDI) of the second group also shares a negative correlation with the Human Development Index. On the other side, the Emergy Sustainability Index was negatively correlated with the Environmental Performance Index, and had little or no correlation with the Environmental Sustainability Index. Furthermore, when examining the scores obtained from the different SDIs, the results demonstrate that they might present somewhat conflicting findings, if not considering their complementarity. This, from one side, depends on the fact that Human Development Index (HDI), Environmental Performance Index (EPI), and Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) provide a short-term local perspective on “sustainability”, while the Emergy-based Sustainability Index (EmSI) and Surplus Biocapacity are more long-term and global in their perspective. HDI, EPI, and ESI have a more social and economic focus, including indicators whose dynamics are disjoined from the natural one. The emerging differences might be explained through the analysis of the individual sub-indicators for each of the SDIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Social Impact Assessment of Rebuilding an Urban Neighborhood: A Case Study of a Demolition and Reconstruction Project in Petah Tikva, Israel
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061076
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
The rebuilding of deteriorating residential areas is being replicated rapidly throughout Israeli cities despite limited assessment of the social consequences. This paper presents the findings of a social impact assessment (SIA) applied to a demolition and reconstruction case study carried out in a
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The rebuilding of deteriorating residential areas is being replicated rapidly throughout Israeli cities despite limited assessment of the social consequences. This paper presents the findings of a social impact assessment (SIA) applied to a demolition and reconstruction case study carried out in a low-income neighborhood in Petah Tikva. The project represents a typical example of developer-led removal of low-rise, mixed tenure housing replaced by privately owned high-rise housing. A mixed-methods approach was used to explore the actual and potential social implications from different points of view held by the various public and private actors in the project. The research was based on the analysis of official documents, field observations, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders involved in the rebuilding process, and with affected community representatives. The case study was analyzed with regard to three components: the public engagement process, financial well-being, and community cohesion and stability. The assessment revealed insufficient public and municipal involvement, the displacement of the majority of low-income households, disregard for the provision of community infrastructure, and the weakening of community stability. The paper suggests various ways to improve the outcomes of the project for all the affected parties, and argues that incorporating the SIA mechanism in this particular form of urban renewal might improve strategic decision-making and promote urban sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Linkage among School Performance, Housing Prices, and Residential Mobility
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061075
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Ensuring equal opportunity of quality basic education is critical for a sustainable society, but access to high-quality public education is limited by the place of residence and income level of the household, especially under rigid geographic school assignment. This paper identifies multilateral linkages
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Ensuring equal opportunity of quality basic education is critical for a sustainable society, but access to high-quality public education is limited by the place of residence and income level of the household, especially under rigid geographic school assignment. This paper identifies multilateral linkages among academic performance of elementary school, housing prices, and residential mobility in Seoul. A spatial simultaneous equation system is applied to address feedback simultaneity and spatial interactions between local housing market and residential mobility. The results show that school performance positively affects both housing prices and population in-migration, but the increase in housing prices discourages the residential move into affluent school districts. Based on the finding that discouraging effect of housing price premium on population in-migration outweighs the population inflow attracted by school performance, this paper suggests policies to reduce the inequality of educational achievements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Hansen, A., et al. CUDe—Carbon Utilization Degree as an Indicator for Sustainable Biomass Use. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1028
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061074
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle Stochastic Characteristics of Manual Solar Shades and their Influence on Building Energy Performance
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061070
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Occupant behavior has a significant impact on building energy performance. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the stochastic characteristics of manual solar shades and their influence on building energy performance. A co-simulation for occupants’ stochastic control of manual solar shades was
[...] Read more.
Occupant behavior has a significant impact on building energy performance. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the stochastic characteristics of manual solar shades and their influence on building energy performance. A co-simulation for occupants’ stochastic control of manual solar shades was conducted and the statistic indicators (non-parameter tests and autocorrelation function) were calculated in order to identify potential occupant behavior patterns. The results show that occupants’ stochastic shade control behavior among different seasons is not statistically different and that shade control behavior is not completely stochastic. Meanwhile, the trend in the fluctuation of Sc changes with time. Furthermore, a new index was introduced to evaluate the effectiveness of manual solar shades in terms of energy performance. The result shows that the effectiveness of manual solar shades is only between 39.8% and 81.3%, compared with automatically controlled shades, and there is a large potential for improving the effectiveness of manual solar shades in different seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Reducing Global Warming Potential through Sustainable Intensification of Basmati Rice-Wheat Systems in India
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061044
Received: 13 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study examines the effects of tillage, residue management and cropping system intensification through the inclusion of green gram on the performance of the rice-wheat (RW) system in NW India. We hypothesized that zero tillage (ZT) with residue retention provides a means of
[...] Read more.
This study examines the effects of tillage, residue management and cropping system intensification through the inclusion of green gram on the performance of the rice-wheat (RW) system in NW India. We hypothesized that zero tillage (ZT) with residue retention provides a means of sustainably intensifying the RW system through lower production costs and higher economic profitability, whilst at the same time minimizing soil and environmental trade-offs. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated six combinations of tillage, residue management and green gram integration in RW rotation in northwest Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India. Treatments included in the study were: rice and wheat under conventional tillage (CT) with and without green gram (CTR-CTW, CTR-CTW+GG), both crops under zero-tillage (ZT) with and without green gram (ZTR-ZTW-R, ZTR-ZTW-R+GG) and both crops under ZT plus residues with and without green gram (ZTR-ZTW+R, ZTR-ZTW+R+GG). Based on two consecutive years of data, the net return from the RW system was significantly higher in the ZT than CT systems. Methane emissions were only observed under flooded conditions in CT rice plots; otherwise, emissions were negligible in all other treatment combinations. N2O emissions were dictated by N fertilizer application with no other treatment effects. Overall, ZT with residue retention resulted in the lowest global warming potential (GWP) ranging from −3301 to −823 kg CO2-eq ha−1 year−1 compared to 4113 to 7917 kg CO2-eq ha−1 year−1 in other treatments. Operational inputs (tillage, planting, and irrigation) and soil C sequestration had significant effects on total GWP. The water footprint of RW production system was about 29% less in CA-based system compared to CT-based systems. Our study concludes that ZTR-ZTW+R and ZTR-ZTW+R+GG in RW systems of northwestern IGP have the potential to be agronomically productive, economically viable with benefits also for the environment in terms of soil health and GHG emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Science in Conservation Agricultural Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Failure of Energy Mega-Projects in Chile: A Critical Review from Sustainability Perspectives
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061073
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
A number of successive energy crises over the last decade due to the lack of a balanced investment planning in the energy sector in Chile has led to a strong dependence on external sources and also doubled energy prices in the country, thus
[...] Read more.
A number of successive energy crises over the last decade due to the lack of a balanced investment planning in the energy sector in Chile has led to a strong dependence on external sources and also doubled energy prices in the country, thus posing a significant challenge to the local economy. With the purpose of reaching long-term goals while simultaneously addressing short-term urgencies, Chile seeks to build a consistent and integrated energy policy in order to attract investment in the sector. Despite an overall attractive investment climate and encouraging market conditions in the country, the energy sector has been adversely affected, in particular, by the communities’ opposition to mega-projects based on their expected environmental and social impacts. The study highlights recent experiences of energy generation mega-projects in terms of addressing aspects of sustainability. Based on these experiences, it discusses underdeveloped role of environmental evaluations and the main regulatory challenges ahead, recommending then public policies to effectively address these challenges. Full article
Open AccessArticle Integrating Sustainability in Organisations: An Activity-Based Sustainability Model
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061072
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Organisations have become interested in using integral management systems to increase their sustainable value. Although global integration models address sustainability in organisations, these models present shortcomings and limitations and do not describe how to achieve the integration of sustainability. This paper proposes an
[...] Read more.
Organisations have become interested in using integral management systems to increase their sustainable value. Although global integration models address sustainability in organisations, these models present shortcomings and limitations and do not describe how to achieve the integration of sustainability. This paper proposes an Activity-Based Sustainability (ABS) integration model that complements other models from an inside-out perspective. Its assessment follows a procedure similar to that proposed by the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) model of cost accounting. The model assigns impacts from activities in the value chain of a process to the objects of impact (products, services, clients, or markets) that must be managed in terms of sustainability. The main limitations of the ABS model are the need to identify and describe processes, to locate every activity that constitutes the value chain, and to quantify the impacts of these activities. The ABS model is presented as an alternative to link sustainable management accounting and sustainable communication, as well as sustainable management control and sustainability assessment. It connects these sustainable elements through the bilateral identification of the linkages among skills, processes, and practices. It also links these aspects with the contribution to sustainable development and the development of competitive advantages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Volatility Spillover between Water, Energy and Food
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061071
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Water, energy, and food and are strongly interconnected, and the sustainability of the whole world depends on this link. The aim of this article is to analyze the volatility spillovers between indexes representing the financial component of this nexus. We use a multivariate
[...] Read more.
Water, energy, and food and are strongly interconnected, and the sustainability of the whole world depends on this link. The aim of this article is to analyze the volatility spillovers between indexes representing the financial component of this nexus. We use a multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model with daily data in which the water variable is proxy by equity index that represents the performance of the industry involved in water business both at the global and local levels. For the food and energy sectors, we use two sub-indexes of the S&P Goldman Sachs (GS)-Commodity Index. Our results highlight the existence of a financial nexus between water, energy, and food that was particularly exacerbated during 2008 crisis. Evidence therefore suggests the need to better investigate the policy options that can be used to reduce price volatility in a framework of the rising relevance of sustainability issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Securing Retirement at a Young Age. Exploring the Intention to Buy Longevity Annuities through an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behavior
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061069
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the early 90s, Italy has undergone radical changes in the regulations of the public pension system aimed at mending its main drawbacks and improving sustainability in the long run. The reforms were intended to recover the national economy through a significant reduction
[...] Read more.
Since the early 90s, Italy has undergone radical changes in the regulations of the public pension system aimed at mending its main drawbacks and improving sustainability in the long run. The reforms were intended to recover the national economy through a significant reduction of benefits by increasing, particularly for younger people, individual responsibility for the accumulation of retirement wealth. Adopting an enhanced version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which includes affective reactions, the present paper aims to understand the factors influencing the intention to enroll in a private pension plan through the purchase of longevity annuity coverage on the part of young adults. A purposive sample of 7480 Italian people aged 25–35 participated in the survey. Collected data were analyzed adopting an ordinal logistic regression (OLR) model. The findings confirm the predictive power of the TPB in the financial field of longevity annuity buying, show that anticipated affective reactions increase the predictive power of the TPB model, and reveal that the influence of the investigated constructs varies alongside people’s willingness to purchase. The outcomes provide useful recommendations to the policy maker and private companies to favor the adoption of wide-spread desired behaviors among citizenships. Full article
Open AccessArticle Governing a Sustainable Business Ecosystem in Taiwan’s Circular Economy: The Story of Spring Pool Glass
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061068
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
The business ecosystem has provided a new paradigm for management research. Most research in the field has focused on profit-driven industries, neglecting the area of the circular economy. This research sets out to capture the mechanisms that the leading firm in the circular
[...] Read more.
The business ecosystem has provided a new paradigm for management research. Most research in the field has focused on profit-driven industries, neglecting the area of the circular economy. This research sets out to capture the mechanisms that the leading firm in the circular economy uses to govern its business ecosystem. The research strategy adopted is a longitudinal case study of the largest glass recycling company in Taiwan, Spring Pool Glass. Our findings illustrate that continuous value capture is the key to governing a sustainable business ecosystem in the glass recycling industry. The mechanisms include continuous value capture to enter new markets, using stakeholder networks to enlarge the business ecosystem, brand image and corporate social responsibility, company capabilities and research and development in the recycling process, and reacting to government policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Can Green Traffic Policies Affect Air Quality? Evidence from A Difference-in-Difference Estimation in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061067
Received: 1 April 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Air pollution has been a serious challenge for human sustainable development. Researches show that emissions from the transport sector have been found to be a main source of air pollution in cities. Governments have implemented numerous green traffic policies to mitigate harmful emissions.
[...] Read more.
Air pollution has been a serious challenge for human sustainable development. Researches show that emissions from the transport sector have been found to be a main source of air pollution in cities. Governments have implemented numerous green traffic policies to mitigate harmful emissions. However, the problem as to whether the green traffic policies are effective, and the extent to which the policies affect air quality remain unknown. This paper is the first attempt to apply a difference-in-difference method to investigate how a specific green traffic policy (in our case, the green traffic pilot cities program) affects air quality. The estimates show that the pilot program is associated with consistent reductions in annual concentration of pollutants. In pilot cities of China, the annual concentration of SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 decrease by 10.71 percent, 11.26 percent and 9.85 percent, respectively, after the implementation of the green traffic pilot cities program. The results show that the green traffic pilot has a noticeable improvement on air quality of the pilot cities, implying that government intervention has a positive influence on pollution prevention in the transport sector. Moreover, the green traffic system construction can be popularized in other cities to mitigate air pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of GHG Mitigation Measures in Rice Cropping and Effects of Farmer’s Characteristics: Evidence from Hubei, China
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061066
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Greenhouse Gas emissions from agricultural activities, such as rice cropping, have been proven to be an important cause of climate change, with constant barriers and constraints in the implementation and promotion of mitigation measures among farmers in China. However, there has been a
[...] Read more.
Greenhouse Gas emissions from agricultural activities, such as rice cropping, have been proven to be an important cause of climate change, with constant barriers and constraints in the implementation and promotion of mitigation measures among farmers in China. However, there has been a lack of research focusing on specific mitigation measures and their characteristics. In this paper, we applied the expert assessment and best-worst scaling method to evaluate mitigation measures in rice cropping from the perspectives of effectiveness and applicability. The results showed that no mitigation measure in rice cropping was best from both an effectiveness and applicability viewpoint. However, the study found that “reducing the use of chemical fertilizers” was the most effective one, while “applying soil testing and formulated fertilization” was the most applicable one. Additionally, the older farmers spending more time on non-agricultural jobs and farming more plots of land were more likely to believe that mitigation measures related to the management of input elements would be more applicable compared to soil and water management or some types of new science and technology. Finally, we suggested that the agricultural extension agencies should popularize input elements management such as improvement of fertilizer or seeds among older farmers, and meanwhile promote soil cultivation management and new technologies for agriculture in areas where the land is more concentrated such as plains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Using an AHP-ISM Based Method to Study the Vulnerability Factors of Urban Rail Transit System
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061065
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
As a sustainable means of public transportation, urban rail transit system undergoes rapid expansion in China. How to provide a safe and reliable service has been the subject of growing attention in this context. However, such work is challenging because rail transit systems
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As a sustainable means of public transportation, urban rail transit system undergoes rapid expansion in China. How to provide a safe and reliable service has been the subject of growing attention in this context. However, such work is challenging because rail transit systems are quite vulnerable and influenced by a set of interacting factors. Studying these vulnerability factors will contribute significantly to the operation of rail transit system. From this perspective, this paper made an exploration of the vulnerability factors based on an integrated method consisting of AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and ISM (Interpretative Structural Modeling). Based on literature review, 21 vulnerability factors were identified. Subsequently, expert elicitation was employed to ascertain the importance of each factor and the interrelations among them. The results suggest that management and individual factors have the highest importance weights and the interrelations among vulnerability factors could be expressed as a five-layer structure, in which management factors were inclined to be at the lower level. The research provides valuable information for decision makers to take proactive strategies and reinforcement policies to guarantee safety operation of urban rail transit system and ensure urban public safety, which could promote the sustainable development of cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Risk Assessment and Management)
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Open AccessArticle The Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Geo-Economic Relationships between China and ASEAN Countries: Competition or Cooperation?
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061064
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
In the last 30 years, China’s economic power has experienced great changes and has brought about a profound impact on the world economy. This led us to ask a question: do changes in China’s economic power shift the geo-economic relationships between China and
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In the last 30 years, China’s economic power has experienced great changes and has brought about a profound impact on the world economy. This led us to ask a question: do changes in China’s economic power shift the geo-economic relationships between China and its neighboring countries? To answer this question, we researched the evolution of geo-economic relationships between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Using the Euclidean distance method, we explored the changes in these geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries from 1980 to 2014. Our findings resulted in five conclusions: (1) Over time, geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries remained relatively stable. (2) Geographically, the main geo-economic relationships between China and continental ASEAN countries were complementary, while the main geo-economic relationships between China and island ASEAN countries were competitive. (3) Geopolitics and geo-culture were attributed to the changes in geo-economic relationships. (4) The evolution of geo-economic relationships was characterized by path dependence. (5) Geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries could be classified into four types: game type, with high cooperation and competition; complementary type, with high cooperation and low competition; fight type, with low cooperation and high competition; and loose type, with low cooperation and competition. Our findings contribute to improving the understanding of geo-economic relationships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Nuclear Power and Resource Efficiency—A Proposal for a Revised Primary Energy Factor
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061063
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
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Abstract
Measuring resource efficiency can be achieved using different methods, of which primary energy demand is commonly used. The primary energy factor (PEF) is a figure describing how much energy from primary resources is being used per unit of energy delivered. The PEF for
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Measuring resource efficiency can be achieved using different methods, of which primary energy demand is commonly used. The primary energy factor (PEF) is a figure describing how much energy from primary resources is being used per unit of energy delivered. The PEF for nuclear power is typically 3, which refers to thermal energy released from fission in relation to electricity generated. Fuel losses are not accounted for. However; nuclear waste represents an energy loss, as current plans for nuclear waste management mostly include final disposal. Based on a literature review and mathematical calculations of the power-to-fuel ratio for nuclear power, PEF values for the open nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) option of nuclear power and different power mixes are calculated. These calculations indicate that a more correct PEF for nuclear power would be 60 (range 32–88); for electricity in Sweden (41% nuclear power) PEF would change from 1.8 to 25.5, and the average PEF for electricity in the European Union (EU) would change from 2.5 to 18. The results illustrate the poor resource efficiency of nuclear power, which paves the way for the fourth generation of nuclear power and illustrates the policy implication of using PEFs which are inconsistent with current waste management plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Waste Management and Sustainability of Nuclear Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Food System Sustainability across Scales: A Proposed Local-To-Global Approach to Community Planning and Assessment
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061061
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 15 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
Interest in food systems sustainability is growing, but progress toward them is slow. This research focuses on three interrelated challenges that hinder progress. First, prevailing visions lack a concrete definition of sustainability. Second, global level conceptions fail to guide responses at the local
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Interest in food systems sustainability is growing, but progress toward them is slow. This research focuses on three interrelated challenges that hinder progress. First, prevailing visions lack a concrete definition of sustainability. Second, global level conceptions fail to guide responses at the local level. Third, these deficiencies may lead to conflicting initiatives for addressing sustainable food systems at the community level that slow collective progress. The purpose of this article is to (1) describe the development of a framework for assessing food system sustainability which accommodates local-level measurement in the context of broader national and global scale measures; and (2) to propose a process that supports community determinacy over localized progress toward sustainable food systems. Using a modified Delphi Inquiry process, we engaged a diverse, global panel of experts in describing “success” with respect to sustainable food systems, today’s reality, and identifying key indicators for tracking progress towards success. They were asked to consider scale during the process in order to explore locally relevant themes. Data were analyzed using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) to facilitate a comprehensive and systematic exploration of key themes and indicators. Key results include a framework of indicator themes that are anchored in a concrete definition of sustainability, stable at national and global scales while remaining flexible at the local scale to accommodate contextual needs. We also propose a process for facilitating community-level planning for food system sustainability that utilizes this indicator framework. The proposed process is based on insights from the research results, as well as from previous research and experience applying the FSSD at a community level; it bears promise for future work to support communities to determine their own pathways, while contributing to a more coordinated whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Investigating Impacts of Environmental Factors on the Cycling Behavior of Bicycle-Sharing Users
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061060
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
As it is widely accepted, cycling tends to produce health benefits and reduce air pollution. Policymakers encourage people to use bikes by improving cycling facilities as well as developing bicycle-sharing systems (BSS). It is increasingly interesting to investigate how environmental factors influence the
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As it is widely accepted, cycling tends to produce health benefits and reduce air pollution. Policymakers encourage people to use bikes by improving cycling facilities as well as developing bicycle-sharing systems (BSS). It is increasingly interesting to investigate how environmental factors influence the cycling behavior of users of bicycle-sharing systems, as users of bicycle-sharing systems tend to be different from regular cyclists. Although earlier studies have examined effects of safety and convenience on the cycling behavior of regular riders, they rarely explored effects of safety and convenience on the cycling behavior of BSS riders. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate how road safety, convenience, and public safety affect the cycling behavior of BSS riders by controlling for other environmental factors. Specifically, in this study, we investigated the impacts of environmental characteristics, including population density, employment density, land use mix, accessibility to point-of-interests (schools, shops, parks and gyms), road infrastructure, public transit accessibility, road safety, convenience, and public safety on the usage of BSS. Additionally, for a more accurate measure of public transit accessibility, road safety, convenience, and public safety, we used spatiotemporally varying measurements instead of spatially varying measurements, which have been widely used in earlier studies. We conducted an empirical investigation in Chicago with cycling data from a BSS called Divvy. In this study, we particularly attempted to answer the following questions: (1) how traffic accidents and congestion influence the usage of BSS; (2) how violent crime influences the usage of BSS; and (3) how public transit accessibility influences the usage of BSS. Moreover, we tried to offer implications for policies aiming to increase the usage of BSS or for the site selection of new docking stations. Empirical results demonstrate that density of bicycle lanes, public transit accessibility, and public safety influence the usage of BSS, which provides answers for our research questions. Empirical results also suggest policy implications that improving bicycle facilities and reducing the rate of violent crime rates tend to increase the usage of BSS. Moreover, some environmental factors could be considered in selecting a site for a new docking station. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identifying Clusters of Complex Urban–Rural Issues as Part of Policy Making Process Using a Network Analysis Approach: A Case Study in Bahía de Los Ángeles, Mexico
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061059
Received: 1 January 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
Improving human settlements diagnosis is a key factor in effective urban planning and the design of efficient policy making. In this paper, we illustrate how network theory concepts can be applied to reveal the topological structure of functional relationships in a network of
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Improving human settlements diagnosis is a key factor in effective urban planning and the design of efficient policy making. In this paper, we illustrate how network theory concepts can be applied to reveal the topological structure of functional relationships in a network of heterogeneous urban–rural issues. This mapping is done using clustering algorithms and centrality value techniques. By analyzing emergent groups of urban–rural related issues, our methodology was applied to a rural community, considering in this exercise environmental matters and real estate interests as a way to better understand the structure of salient issues in the context of its urban development program design. Results show clusters that arrange themselves not by an obvious similarity in their constituent components, but by relations observed in urban–rural settings that hint on the issues that the urban development program must focus. Due to its complex nature, the classification of these emerging clusters and how they must be treated in traditional planning instruments is a new challenge that this novel methodology reveals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Investigations of Water Balances of a Dune-Interdune Landscape during the Growing Season in the Horqin Sandy Land, Northeastern China
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061058
Received: 21 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
Dune-interdune is the main landscape pattern of desert areas, such as the Horqin sandy land of Northeastern China. Exploring the temporal and spatial variation of the water balance is crucial for efficient vegetation restoration at the micro-landform scale. The SWMS-2D model was used
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Dune-interdune is the main landscape pattern of desert areas, such as the Horqin sandy land of Northeastern China. Exploring the temporal and spatial variation of the water balance is crucial for efficient vegetation restoration at the micro-landform scale. The SWMS-2D model was used to estimate the seasonal variations of the water balance including evapotranspiration, soil water storage changes, lateral flow and drainage, and to examine the effects of micro-landforms (i.e., the top, upper, down, and bottom positions of the dune slope, and the interdune lowland area) on these components from May to October 2013 and 2015. Results showed that the soil water content was sensitive to rainfall pulses, particularly large precipitation events. Over 70% of the total evapotranspiration occurred from June to August, with a maximum daily value of 6.56 mm. At a monthly scale, evapotranspiration was not synchronous with precipitation. The ratio of evapotranspiration to precipitation was 1.84, 0.39, 2.49, 0.93, 2.26, and 1.14 in May, June, July, August, September, and October 2013 (a wet year), respectively; and 2.40, 1.11, 0.69, 2.14, 1.07, and 1.11 in 2015 (a dry year), respectively. The components of the water balance were significantly different among different micro-landforms. Evapotranspiration of a lowland area was greater than that in other micro-landforms, and the value in the wet year (2013) was significantly greater than that in the dry year (2015). However, water consumption in the lowland area was similar in both years. At the top, upper, down, and bottom positions of the dune slope, the ratio of evapotranspiration to precipitation in the wet year (2013) was 96%, 97%, 86%, and 96%, respectively; while in the dry year (2015), the ratio was 103%, 103%, 88%, and 104%. Therefore, in the dry year, evapotranspiration was generally larger than precipitation, indicating that almost all water from precipitation was evaporated. The lateral flow of the root zone from top to bottom accounted for only a small portion of water budget at the growing season scale. The results could be generalized to other similar region with corresponding model calibration, and would help to reveal seasonal variations of water balance components under the local topography, climate, soil, and vegetation conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Effects of Government Policy and Drought from 1984 to 2009 on Rangeland in the Three Rivers Source Region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061033
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 19 June 2017
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Abstract
The Three Rivers Source Region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a key area that has extensive impacts on much of the population and economy of China as well as several Southeast Asian countries. The rangeland in this area has undergone degradation, the driving
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The Three Rivers Source Region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a key area that has extensive impacts on much of the population and economy of China as well as several Southeast Asian countries. The rangeland in this area has undergone degradation, the driving factors of which have been extensively investigated in previous studies. However, the effect of policy on rangeland was not analyzed by subdividing the study period according to the timing of the rangeland policies. The role of dry conditions during the process of degradation has not been studied. Therefore, the period from 1984 to 2009 was subdivided into five periods according to the timing of the relevant government policies based on long-term field investigation. The mean annual normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and its relationship to dry conditions, policy, temperature, precipitation, and moisture index were analyzed for the five periods. According to our analysis, dry conditions mainly occurred in non-vegetation-growing months, and they did not affect the status of the rangeland. The privatization of rangeland and livestock caused the number of livestock to increase, resulting in a decrease in the mean annual NDVI from 1984 to 1993. The policies of “Green-to-Grain” and eco-migration caused livestock numbers to decrease and the NDVI to increase after 1994. Physical factors such as temperature, precipitation, and moisture also affected the status of the rangeland. Increased temperature had positive effects on rangeland in most areas, but its effect was offset by increased numbers of livestock from 1984 to 1993. Precipitation had positive effects only in drier areas in which the precipitation in the vegetation-growing months was less than 400 mm. In general, the policies of “Green-to-Grain” and eco-migration improved the status of rangeland, and helped improve sustainable use of the rangeland. The methods used in this study could be applied to other case studies of rangeland. Governments should continue to implement compensation policies to maintain the improved condition of rangeland in the area and expand those policies to other rangeland areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Technology Credit Scoring Based on a Quantification Method
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061057
Received: 14 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract
Credit scoring models are usually formulated by fitting the probability of loan default as a function of individual evaluation attributes. Typically, these attributes are measured using a Likert-type scale, but are treated as interval scale explanatory variables to predict loan defaults. Existing models
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Credit scoring models are usually formulated by fitting the probability of loan default as a function of individual evaluation attributes. Typically, these attributes are measured using a Likert-type scale, but are treated as interval scale explanatory variables to predict loan defaults. Existing models also do not distinguish between types of default, although they vary: default by an insolvent company and default by an insolvent debtor. This practice can bias the results. In this paper, we applied Quantification Method II, a categorical version of canonical correlation analysis, to determine the relationship between two sets of categorical variables: a set of default types and a set of evaluation attributes. We distinguished between two types of loan default patterns based on quantification scores. In the first set of quantification scores, we found knowledge management, new technology development, and venture registration as important predictors of default from non-default status. Based on the second quantification score, we found that the technology and profitability factors influence loan defaults due to an insolvent company. Finally, we proposed a credit-risk rating model based on the quantification score. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fostering Sustainable Travel Behavior: Role of Sustainability Labels and Goal-Directed Behavior Regarding Touristic Services
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061056
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract
Individuals around the globe engage in sustainable consumption in their everyday life, e.g., when it comes to individual transportation. Although tourism behavior contributes to global carbon emissions to a considerable extent, consumers’ awareness of sustainability in the tourism industry is still underresearched. Placing
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Individuals around the globe engage in sustainable consumption in their everyday life, e.g., when it comes to individual transportation. Although tourism behavior contributes to global carbon emissions to a considerable extent, consumers’ awareness of sustainability in the tourism industry is still underresearched. Placing eco-labels next to tourist offers on websites might direct consumer’s perception towards more sustainable offers. By employing eye-tracking techniques and surveys, this research aimed at linking information about sustainable tourist offers, perception of eco-labels and subsequent perception and preferences of tourism services. In Study 1, eight existing hotel offers with sustainability certification (four different labels) were selected and their websites presented to 48 participants (four websites each), whose eye movements were tracked. After looking at each website, they rated the overall appearance of the website. Based on the results, in the second study, participants’ (n = 642) awareness of labels, their values and attitudes regarding sustainable behavior were found to influence their preference for certified tour operators. In addition, individuals’ ideas of their perfect holidays were captured to allow a better understanding of their motivation. This research proposes implementing appropriate sustainable labeling in the tourism industry to increase awareness about sustainability among travelers and subsequently increase sustainable travel behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Consumer Behavior) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle The Future of North Rhine-Westphalia-Participation of the Youth as Part of a Social Transformation towards Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061055
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract
The future belongs to the youth, but do they really have a say in it? Learning processes with regard to a successful socio-ecological change must start in childhood and adolescence in order to succeed in social transformation. The youth cannot be a passive
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The future belongs to the youth, but do they really have a say in it? Learning processes with regard to a successful socio-ecological change must start in childhood and adolescence in order to succeed in social transformation. The youth cannot be a passive part in a changing society—they have to be actively included in its design. When allowed to participate, young people can make important and effective contributions—which should not be reduced to sub-projects and opportunity structures. In a socio-political context, participation means involvement, collaboration, and commitment. In the context of intra- and inter-generational equity, as the core part of sustainable development, participation strategies should be developed that allow for a permanent and purposeful involvement of children and adolescents. Participation of young people is an important and appropriate step in strengthening those who are so strongly affected by the planning processes but are otherwise powerless. A successful involvement and participation of non-professional actors requires a target group-oriented method, a supportive culture of participation, as well as clarity and decision latitude. Abiding by these rules leads to central results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 6th World Sustainability Forum - Selected Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Patterns of Forest in the Transnational Area of Changbai Mountain from 1977 to 2015: A Comparative Analysis of the Chinese and DPRK Sub-Regions
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061054
Received: 8 April 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
The transnational area of Changbai Mountain (TACM) is crucial to sustainable development in Northeast Asia owing to its abundant forest, which helps in maintaining biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services. However, the spatiotemporal patterns of forest in the TACM have been poorly understood across
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The transnational area of Changbai Mountain (TACM) is crucial to sustainable development in Northeast Asia owing to its abundant forest, which helps in maintaining biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services. However, the spatiotemporal patterns of forest in the TACM have been poorly understood across the whole region. The objectives of this study were to quantify the spatiotemporal patterns of forest in the TACM from 1977 to 2015, investigate the causes of forest dynamics, and assess the impacts of forest dynamics on habitat quality. To do this, we first extracted the forest in the TACM from Landsat images acquired in 1977, 1988, 1999, 2007, and 2015 using visual interpretation. Then, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of forest in the TACM from 1977 to 2015 using landscape metrics and compared the dynamics of forest between the area in China and the area in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). After that, we investigated the driving forces of forest dynamics and the impacts of forest dynamics on habitat quality. We found that the TACM experienced a noticeable forest decrease—from 1.57 million ha in 1977 to 1.48 million ha in 2015, a decline of 5.78%—and underwent a forest fragmentation process. In particular, the sub-region in the DPRK had a much larger decrease (17.75%) than the sub-region in China (2.86%). We found that timber harvesting, urban expansion, agricultural reclamation, and typhoon disasters were the main driving forces behind forest decreases in the TACM. Specifically, agricultural reclamation was the most important factor in the DPRK sub-region, while urban expansion was the dominant factor in the Chinese sub-region. Furthermore, such forest loss and fragmentation has resulted in declines in habitat quality across both sides of the TACM. Thus, we suggest that more effective forest management with cooperation between China and DPRK is needed to maintain and improve forest coverage in the TACM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sand and Dust Storms: Impact Mitigation
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061053
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
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Abstract
Sand and dust storms (SDS) play an integral role in the Earth system but they also present a range of hazards to the environmental and economic sustainability of human society. These hazards are of considerable importance for residents of dryland environments and also
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Sand and dust storms (SDS) play an integral role in the Earth system but they also present a range of hazards to the environmental and economic sustainability of human society. These hazards are of considerable importance for residents of dryland environments and also affect people beyond drylands because wind erosion can occur in most environments and desert dust events often involve long-range transport over great distances (>1000 km). This paper makes an assessment of the scale of SDS impacts by totalling the countries affected using an appraisal of peer-reviewed published sources, arriving at a conservative estimate that 77% of all parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) are affected directly by SDS issues. We then present a synthesis of the environmental management techniques designed to mitigate SDS hazards for disaster risk reduction and review policy measures, both historical and contemporary, for SDS impact mitigation. Although many SDS hazards are well-known, the processes involved and their impacts are not all equally well-understood. Policies designed to mitigate the impacts of wind erosion in agricultural areas have been developed in certain parts of the world but policies designed to mitigate the wider impacts of SDS, including many that are transboundary, are geographically patchy and have a much shorter history. Further development and wider implementation of such policies is advocated because of the recent marked increase in wind erosion and associated dust storms in several parts of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dust Events in the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Life Satisfaction of Downtown High-Rise vs. Suburban Low-Rise Living: A Chicago Case Study
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9061052
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been a long-standing debate about whether urban living is more or less sustainable than suburban living, and quality of life (QoL) is one of several key measures of the social sustainability of residential living. However, to our knowledge, no study to
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There has been a long-standing debate about whether urban living is more or less sustainable than suburban living, and quality of life (QoL) is one of several key measures of the social sustainability of residential living. However, to our knowledge, no study to date has examined life satisfaction among residents of downtown high-rise living compared to residents living in suburban low-rise housing. Further, very few studies have utilized building or neighborhood-scale data sets to evaluate residents’ life satisfaction, and even fewer have controlled for both individual and household-level variables such as gender, age, household size, annual income, and length of residence, to evaluate residents’ life satisfaction across different living scenarios. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate residents’ satisfaction with their place of residence as well as overall life in general via surveys of individuals living in existing high-rise residential buildings in downtown Chicago, IL, and in existing low-rise residential buildings in suburban Oak Park, IL. Over 1500 individuals were contacted directly, resulting in over 500 responses. The number of fully completed responses for this study was 177, including 94 from residents of four downtown high-rise buildings and 83 from residents in suburban low-rise homes. Residents living in downtown high-rise buildings had significantly higher life satisfaction scores than residents living in suburban low-rise homes when controlling for demographic differences; however, the differences were small, as housing type explained less than 5% of the observed variance in life satisfaction outcomes. The research also evaluated five life satisfaction domains including travel, accessibility, social interaction, safety, and overall residential environment (ORE). In all cases, residents of the downtown high-rises reported higher satisfaction levels, although the scores on all these five satisfaction domains reported from both urban scenarios were very high. Moreover, all five satisfaction domains were highly associated with each other, and accessibility and safety were found as the strongest predictors of ORE for individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Sustainability and Justice)
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