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Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1064; doi:10.3390/su9061064

The Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Geo-Economic Relationships between China and ASEAN Countries: Competition or Cooperation?

1
Research Center for Energy Economics, School of Business and Administration, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, Henan, China
2
Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, 53706 WI, USA
3
Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
4
School of Computer Science, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000, Henan, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 20 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Abstract

In the last 30 years, China’s economic power has experienced great changes and has brought about a profound impact on the world economy. This led us to ask a question: do changes in China’s economic power shift the geo-economic relationships between China and its neighboring countries? To answer this question, we researched the evolution of geo-economic relationships between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Using the Euclidean distance method, we explored the changes in these geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries from 1980 to 2014. Our findings resulted in five conclusions: (1) Over time, geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries remained relatively stable. (2) Geographically, the main geo-economic relationships between China and continental ASEAN countries were complementary, while the main geo-economic relationships between China and island ASEAN countries were competitive. (3) Geopolitics and geo-culture were attributed to the changes in geo-economic relationships. (4) The evolution of geo-economic relationships was characterized by path dependence. (5) Geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries could be classified into four types: game type, with high cooperation and competition; complementary type, with high cooperation and low competition; fight type, with low cooperation and high competition; and loose type, with low cooperation and competition. Our findings contribute to improving the understanding of geo-economic relationships. View Full-Text
Keywords: geo-economic relationships; competition and cooperation; patterns and characteristics; China; ASEAN countries geo-economic relationships; competition and cooperation; patterns and characteristics; China; ASEAN countries
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, S.; Zhu, A.; Ge, Y.; Liu, Y.; Xue, X. The Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Geo-Economic Relationships between China and ASEAN Countries: Competition or Cooperation? Sustainability 2017, 9, 1064.

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