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Special Issue "Sustainability Assessments of Buildings"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Umberto Berardi

Department of Architectural Science, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-416-979-5000 (ext. 3263)
Interests: integration of energy saving technologies (green roofs, double skin facades) in buildings; architectural acoustics (sound propagation, energy decay, shape optimization) and building acoustics (noise insulation, new natural materials); building simulation; sustainability assessment at building, community and city level

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is my great pleasure to invite you to submit your most recent research related to the sustainability assessments of buildings for this exciting Special Issue. The demand for this Special Issue raised from the floor, as more and more papers dealing with this topic were submitted to Sustainability in the last few months. The need to collect the recent research in this field became evident.

International research has confirmed that the built environment is the most promising sector for a rapid transition to sustainability. In this scenario, many examples of sustainable urban environments are showing the advantages of sustainability. Meanwhile, an increasing request for tools to assess their sustainability is recorded. The assessment of sustainability of the built environment is an essential step toward its promotion. However, large difficulties exist creating useful and measurable assessment indicators. The possibility to assess both products and processes for green buildings has been considered particularly important for a sector as inertial as that of the built environment.

Meanwhile, recent literature has discussed the importance to go beyond the sustainability assessment of single buildings and to enlarge the assessment scale to communities to meet all the different aspects of sustainability. In fact, a significant achievement in sustainability assessments has been the introduction of rating systems for the urban design. These increase the assessment scale and allow consideration of aspects not accounted for at the building scale. Examples of some aspects are the flows and the synergies between initiatives within the built environment and consequent social and economic effects of sustainability in the built environment. In this sense, the sustainability assessments of communities are proving to be much more than the summation of individual green elements, because the scaling-up results in complex interactions. Requests to go beyond the building-centric approach in sustainability assessments have favored the discussion about new possible areas of sustainability assessment within the built environment.

While buildings are striking the paradigm shift of being more and more energy efficient, to the point that zero energy buildings represent the target for policies in many countries, building sustainability keeps gaining a significant momentum. As energy efficient buildings accomplish one of the demand for building sustainability, this last target requires much more. In particular, the local requirements of sustainability prevents to define rigid solutions, and challenge the building sector to customize sustainable solutions to each and every case.

Which are hence the recent targets (and indicators) proposed for sustainability assessment of buildings? Which are the characteristics of sustainability assessments of historical and existing buildings? How building assessments integrate and complement with community scale assessments of sustainability? How is material use optimization resolving the demand for energy saving targets in buildings?

These are just some of the questions that this Special Issue will try to address, but clearly we aware that the theme for this Special Issue opens multi scale and open ended questions.

Dr. Umberto Berardi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

References

  1. Berardi, U. Beyond sustainability assessment systems: Upgrading topics by enlarging the scale of assessment. J. Sustain. Build. Technol. Urban Dev. 2011, 2, 276–282.
  2. Berardi, U. Sustainability assessment in the construction sector: Rating systems and rated buildings. Dev. 2012, 20, 411–424.
  3. Berardi, U. Sustainability assessments of communities through rating systems. Dev. Sustain. 2013, 15, 1573–1591.
  4. Bond, A.J.; Morrison-Saunders, A. Re-evaluating sustainability assessment: Aligning the vision and the practice. Impact Assess. Rev. 2011, 31, 1–7.
  5. Bourdic, L.; Salat, S. Building energy models and assessment systems at the district and city scales: A review. Res. Inf. 2012, 40, 518–526.
  6. Brandon, P.S.; Lombardi, P. Evaluating Sustainable Development in the Built Environment; Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2005.
  7. Cole, R.J. Building environmental assessment in a global market. J. Sustain. Build. Technol. Urban Dev. 2010, 1, 11–14.
  8. Conte, E.; Monno, V. Beyond the building centric approach: a vision for an integrated evaluation of sustainable buildings. Impact Assess. Rev. 2012, 34, 31–40.
  9. Du Plessis, C.; Cole, R.J. Motivating change: Shifting the paradigm. Res. Inf. 2011, 39, 436–449.
  10. Hahn, T.J. Research and solutions: LEED-Ing away from sustainability: Toward a green building system using nature’s design. Sustainability 2008, 1, 196–201.
  11. Sev, A. A comparative analysis of building environmental assessment tools and suggestions for regional adaptations. Eng. Environ. Sys. 2011, 28, 231–245.
  12. Sharifi, A.; Murayama, A. A critical review of seven selected neighborhood sustainability assessment tools. Impact Assess. Rev. 2013, 38, 73–87.

Keywords

  • sustainable buildings
  • sustainability assessments
  • building resilience
  • energy efficiency
  • environmental design

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Two-Stage Integer Programing Model for Building Retrofit Planning for Energy Saving in South Korea
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2087; doi:10.3390/su9112087
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
Due to the heightened concerns of global environmental problems caused by the heavy use of fossil fuels, the sharp increase of energy use in the building sector has been recognized as an important environmental issue. One solution for efficient energy consumption in the
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Due to the heightened concerns of global environmental problems caused by the heavy use of fossil fuels, the sharp increase of energy use in the building sector has been recognized as an important environmental issue. One solution for efficient energy consumption in the building sector is building retrofits. This study proposes a two-stage integer programing model to select building retrofit materials and retrofit planning. The first model is based on a multi-objective optimization that derives an optimal retrofit strategy considering both energy savings and retrofit costs. Using the results of the first model, the second model finds an optimal retrofit plan to minimize losses for the building owner. Based on a real general hospital building in Korea, a simplified case building was used to verify the proposed models and for experimental analyses. According to the results of the second model, the building owner could adopt a building retrofit with less than 30–40% of the initial budget when compared to the total retrofit costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Realising Operational Energy Performance in Non-Domestic Buildings: Lessons Learnt from Initiatives Applied in Cambridge
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1345; doi:10.3390/su9081345
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The gap between the intended and actual energy performance of buildings is increasingly well documented in the non-domestic building sector. Recognition of this issue has led to the availability of a large range of initiatives that seek to ensure energy efficient building operation.
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The gap between the intended and actual energy performance of buildings is increasingly well documented in the non-domestic building sector. Recognition of this issue has led to the availability of a large range of initiatives that seek to ensure energy efficient building operation. This article reviews the practical implementation of three such initiatives in a case study building at the University of Cambridge. The notionally high-performance office/laboratory building implemented two voluntary design frameworks during building planning and construction: the voluntary rating scheme BREEAM and a bespoke Soft Landings framework called the Cambridge Work Plan. The building additionally meets the energy reporting criteria for the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), a legislative requirement for many publicly owned buildings in the UK. The relative impact of these three approaches for optimising building energy performance is reviewed through a mixed methods approach of building occupant and operator interviews, document analysis and energy performance review. The building’s core functions were revealed to consume 140% more energy than the building logbook estimate for the same needs. This difference, referred to widely as the energy performance gap, is larger than the majority of reported UK university buildings in the energy reporting database CarbonBuzz. The three implemented initiatives are demonstrated to be inadequate for reducing the energy performance gap in the case study, thus a number of alternative energy efficiency approaches are additionally reviewed. Common to the three approaches used in the case study is a lack of verification of actual building performance despite ambitious sustainability targets, due to a heavy focus on the design-stage and few follow-up mechanisms. The paper demonstrates the potential of energy efficiency initiatives that are focussed on operational performance as a core criterion (such as the Living Building Challenge) together with those that ensure the creation of realistic energy estimates at the design stage (such as the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) Technical Memorandum 54). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems for Future Urban Energy Retrofitting Scenarios
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1252; doi:10.3390/su9071252
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, there is an increasing concern about sustainable urban energy development taking into account national priorities of each city. Many cities have started to define future strategies and plans to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Urban energy scenarios involve the consideration
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Nowadays, there is an increasing concern about sustainable urban energy development taking into account national priorities of each city. Many cities have started to define future strategies and plans to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Urban energy scenarios involve the consideration of a wide range of conflicting criteria, both socio-economic and environmental ones. Moreover, decision-makers (DMs) require proper tools that can support their choices in a context of multiple stakeholders and a long-term perspective. In this context, Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support Systems (MC-SDSS) are often used in order to define and analyze urban scenarios since they support the comparison of different solutions, based on a combination of multiple factors. The main problem, in relation to urban energy retrofitting scenarios, is the lack of appropriate knowledge and evaluation criteria. The latter are crucial for delivering and assessing urban energy scenarios through a MC-SDSS tool. The main goal of this paper is to analyze and test two different methods for the definition and ranking of the evaluation criteria. More specifically, the paper presents an on-going research study related to the development of a MC-SDSS tool able to identify and evaluate alternative energy urban scenarios in a long-term period perspective. This study refers to two Smart City and Communities research projects, namely: DIMMER (District Information Modeling and Management for Energy Reduction) and EEB (Zero Energy Buildings in Smart Urban Districts). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle An Analysis of the Most Adopted Rating Systems for Assessing the Environmental Impact of Buildings
Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1226; doi:10.3390/su9071226
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rating systems for assessing the environmental impact of buildings are technical instruments that aim to evaluate the environmental impact of buildings and construction projects. In some cases, these rating systems can also cover urban-scale projects, community projects, and infrastructures. These schemes are designed
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Rating systems for assessing the environmental impact of buildings are technical instruments that aim to evaluate the environmental impact of buildings and construction projects. In some cases, these rating systems can also cover urban-scale projects, community projects, and infrastructures. These schemes are designed to assist project management in making the projects more sustainable by providing frameworks with precise criteria for assessing the various aspects of a building’s environmental impact. Given the growing interest in sustainable development worldwide, many rating systems for assessing the environmental impact of buildings have been established in recent years, each one with its peculiarities and fields of applicability. The present work is motivated by an interest in emphasizing such differences to better understand these rating systems and extract the main implications to building design. It also attempts to summarize in a user-friendly form the vast and fragmented assortment of information that is available today. The analysis focuses on the six main rating systems: the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology (BREEAM), the Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB), the Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQETM), the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), and the Sustainable Building Tool (SBTool). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Stochastic Characteristics of Manual Solar Shades and their Influence on Building Energy Performance
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 1070; doi:10.3390/su9061070
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Abstract
Occupant behavior has a significant impact on building energy performance. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the stochastic characteristics of manual solar shades and their influence on building energy performance. A co-simulation for occupants’ stochastic control of manual solar shades was
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Occupant behavior has a significant impact on building energy performance. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the stochastic characteristics of manual solar shades and their influence on building energy performance. A co-simulation for occupants’ stochastic control of manual solar shades was conducted and the statistic indicators (non-parameter tests and autocorrelation function) were calculated in order to identify potential occupant behavior patterns. The results show that occupants’ stochastic shade control behavior among different seasons is not statistically different and that shade control behavior is not completely stochastic. Meanwhile, the trend in the fluctuation of Sc changes with time. Furthermore, a new index was introduced to evaluate the effectiveness of manual solar shades in terms of energy performance. The result shows that the effectiveness of manual solar shades is only between 39.8% and 81.3%, compared with automatically controlled shades, and there is a large potential for improving the effectiveness of manual solar shades in different seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Performance of Vacuum Glazing in Office Buildings in Korea: Simulation and Experimental Studies
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 936; doi:10.3390/su9060936
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 2 June 2017
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Abstract
Window performance in buildings is very important for energy saving. Many efforts have been made towards saving energy in buildings, and research has focused attention on enhancing the thermal performance of windows. Vacuum glazing has attracted much interest as a means of enhancing
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Window performance in buildings is very important for energy saving. Many efforts have been made towards saving energy in buildings, and research has focused attention on enhancing the thermal performance of windows. Vacuum glazing has attracted much interest as a means of enhancing the thermal performance of windows by strengthening insulation performance. However, the performance of vacuum glazing differs based on various component combinations, therefore, further study on vacuum glazing is needed. In this paper, through simulations, the authors confirmed the heat transfer value (U-value) of the vacuum glazing composed of various combinations (glass type, number of layers, interval of pillar, etc.). A physical test of vacuum glazing was also performed using standard test methods of windows and the U-value of the vacuum glazing by various intervals of the pillar position was confirmed. The simulation revealed a U-value for vacuum glazing of 0.682–1.466 W/m2·K as per the interval of the pillar position, the performance of solar heat gain, and visible light transmission. The U-value of the double vacuum glazing was calculated as 0.607–1.154 W/m2·K and was similar regardless of the interval of pillar position, the performance of solar heat gain, and visible light transmission. Based on the results of the energy simulation, in the case of a used low U-value of vacuum glazing, the heating and cooling energy consumption in buildings decreased by 2.46%, than when low-e glass and argon gas filled layers were used in windows. Furthermore, in double vacuum glazing, the heating and cooling energy consumption in buildings decreased by 3.91%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Green Buildings in Singapore; Analyzing a Frontrunner’s Sectoral Innovation System
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 919; doi:10.3390/su9060919
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
The building sector in Singapore consumes up to half of the nation’s total energy. The government has therefore been urging the transformation of the industry by targeting 80% of all buildings to be green-certified by 2030. Thus far, Singapore has done relatively well,
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The building sector in Singapore consumes up to half of the nation’s total energy. The government has therefore been urging the transformation of the industry by targeting 80% of all buildings to be green-certified by 2030. Thus far, Singapore has done relatively well, and is widely viewed as frontrunner in this respect. This paper addresses the question: what are the benefits and limitations of Singapore’s sectoral innovation system in spurring an energy transition in the building sector, in particular by up-scaling the use of green building technology? The Sectoral Innovation Systems (SIS) theoretical framework was used to analyze the Singapore case. Four SIS components were assessed: technological regime, market demand, actor interactions and networks, and institutional framework. The benefits of Singapore’s sectoral innovation system identified in the analysis basically concern aspects of all of the four elements of SIS. Particular success factors concerned the launching of an integrated strategy to support green building innovations (i.e., the Green Mark policy scheme), implementing support policies, and setting up test beds. Furthermore, a masterplan to engage and educate end-users was implemented, knowledge exchange platforms were set up, regulations on the use of efficient equipment in buildings were issued, and standards and a certification system were adopted. The results also shed light on key barriers, namely, the reluctance of building users to change their habits, ineffective stakeholder collaboration, and green buildings innovation support coming from the government only. Measures in place have been moderately effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Why Are Naturally Ventilated Office Spaces Not Popular in New Zealand?
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 902; doi:10.3390/su9060902
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we investigated the reason(s) why natural ventilation is not as popular as air-conditioned or mixed-mode ventilation systems in Green-rated office buildings in New Zealand. To achieve this, we had three objectives. Firstly, we reviewed the Green Star criteria for thermal
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In this paper, we investigated the reason(s) why natural ventilation is not as popular as air-conditioned or mixed-mode ventilation systems in Green-rated office buildings in New Zealand. To achieve this, we had three objectives. Firstly, we reviewed the Green Star criteria for thermal comfort in office buildings to ascertain which ventilation system the NZ Green Star rating tool promotes. Secondly, we ascertained the perception of occupants in office buildings regarding thermal comfort. This was followed by an interview with building experts regarding factors that affect the use of natural ventilation in New Zealand offices. The findings showed that the NZ Green Star thermal comfort criteria encourage the use of mechanical ventilation over natural ventilation which results in designers opting for air conditioning systems in office designs. We observed that occupants of naturally ventilated spaces were least satisfied with the thermal comfort of their offices when compared with occupants of mixed-mode and air-conditioned offices. This study fulfils the need to encourage the use of natural ventilation in office environments by designers and building owners. Further study on other aspects of the indoor environment quality that is related to naturally ventilated systems such as lighting and noise is required in a bid to ascertain its viability in office environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Decomposition and Decoupling Analysis of Life-Cycle Carbon Emission in China’s Building Sector
Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 793; doi:10.3390/su9050793
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
With accelerating urbanization, building sector has been becoming more important source of China’s total carbon emission. In this paper, we try to calculate the life-cycle carbon emission, analyze influencing factors of carbon emission, and assess the delinking index of carbon emission in China’s
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With accelerating urbanization, building sector has been becoming more important source of China’s total carbon emission. In this paper, we try to calculate the life-cycle carbon emission, analyze influencing factors of carbon emission, and assess the delinking index of carbon emission in China’s building sector. The results show: (i) Total carbon emission in China’s building industry increase from 984.69 million tons of CO2 in 2005 to 3753.98 million tons of CO2 in 2013. The average annual growth rate is 18.21% per year. Indirect carbon emission from building material consumption accounted to 96–99% of total carbon emission. (ii) The indirect emission intensity effect was leading contributor to change of carbon emission. The following was economic output effects, which always contributed to increase in carbon emission. Energy intensity effect and energy structure effect took negligible role to offset carbon emission. (iii) Delinking index show the status between carbon emission and economic output in China’s building industry during 2005–2006 and 2007–2008 was weak decoupling; during 2006–2007 and during 2008–2010 was expansive decoupling; and during 2010–2013 was expansive negative decoupling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Public Rental Housing Community Based on a Hybrid Method of AHP-Entropy Weight and Cloud Model
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 603; doi:10.3390/su9040603
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As an essential part of a city, community is significant to the sustainable development of the city. At present, research on community sustainability assessment systems is relatively scarce. The existing community sustainability assessment systems often lack integrated consideration of community sustainability. For example,
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As an essential part of a city, community is significant to the sustainable development of the city. At present, research on community sustainability assessment systems is relatively scarce. The existing community sustainability assessment systems often lack integrated consideration of community sustainability. For example, these systems especially place emphasis on the ecological and environmental aspects, but the economic and social aspects of sustainability are partially ignored. In order to comprehensively evaluate the sustainability of a community, this paper draws on the “participatory philosophy” and constructs an integrated assessment indicator system that includes five dimensions: environment; economy; society; institution; and culture. On this basis, a new hybrid evaluation method based on analytical hierarchy process (AHP)-entropy weight and the cloud model is proposed to evaluate community sustainability. This method combines AHP and the entropy weight method to determine index weight, thus making full use of their respective advantages. At the same time, it makes use of the superiority of the cloud model to transform qualitative remarks into quantitative representations and to reflect fuzziness and randomness. To verify the feasibility of this method, a case study is carried out on the “Minxinjiayuan” public rental housing community in Chongqing, China. The results show that the overall sustainability of the community lies between the “middle” and “good” level, and closer to the “middle” level. The level of the economic and social sustainability is higher than that of the environmental, institutional and cultural sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Alternative Scenarios for CO2 Reduction Potential in the Residential Building Sector
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 394; doi:10.3390/su9030394
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
The South Korean government announced its goals of reducing the country’s CO2 emissions by up to 30% below the business as usual (BAU) projections by 2020 in 2009 and 37% below BAU projections by 2030 in 2015. This paper explores the potential
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The South Korean government announced its goals of reducing the country’s CO2 emissions by up to 30% below the business as usual (BAU) projections by 2020 in 2009 and 37% below BAU projections by 2030 in 2015. This paper explores the potential energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions offered by residential building energy efficiency policies and plans in South Korea. The current and future energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the residential building were estimated using an energy–environment model from 2010 to 2030. The business as usual scenario is based on the energy consumption characteristic of residential buildings using the trends related to socio-economic prospects and the number of dwellings. The alternative scenarios took into account energy efficiency for new residential buildings (scenario I), refurbishment of existing residential buildings (scenario II), use of highly efficient boilers (scenario III), and use of a solar thermal energy system (scenario IV). The results show that energy consumption in the residential building sector will increase by 33% between 2007 and 2030 in the BAU scenario. Maximum reduction in CO2 emissions in the residential building sector of South Korea was observed by 2030 in scenario I. In each alternative scenario analysis, CO2 emissions were 12.9% lower than in the business as usual scenario by the year 2030. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Research on Energy-Saving Optimization for the Performance Parameters of Rural-Building Shape and Envelope by TRNSYS-GenOpt in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone of China
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 294; doi:10.3390/su9020294
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to optimize the building shape parameters and envelope parameters influencing the rural building energy consumption in cold winter and hot summer climate. Several typical models are established and optimized by integrated TRNSYS and GenOpt. Single-objective optimization has
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The aim of this paper is to optimize the building shape parameters and envelope parameters influencing the rural building energy consumption in cold winter and hot summer climate. Several typical models are established and optimized by integrated TRNSYS and GenOpt. Single-objective optimization has provided guidance to the multi-dimensional optimization. Building shape and envelope parameters are considered simultaneously by multi-dimensional optimization. Results of the optimization showed significant reduction in terms of EC (energy consumption). When O (building orientation) was SW (south by west) 10°, LWR (length-width ratio) was 1.1, WWRS (window-wall ratio in south) with the range of 0.6–0.8, ITE (insulation thickness of exterior wall) and ITR (insulation thickness of roof) was 0.05 m and 0.08 m respectively, the building had minimal energy consumption. The results also indicated that the optimal EWT (exterior window type) was plastic single-frame Low-E insulating glazing filled with inert gas, and the optimal shape of building is Re (rectangle). An effective method was provided to optimize the design of the rural building for the purpose of reducing building energy consumption in cold winter and hot summer climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Developing a Rating System for Building Energy Efficiency Based on In Situ Measurement in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 208; doi:10.3390/su9020208
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 3 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Building energy consumption in China recently surpassed the US building consumption, and it is expected to increase significantly in the next decade pushed by the continuous population and urbanization increase. In response to that situation, the Chinese government introduced a series of building
[...] Read more.
Building energy consumption in China recently surpassed the US building consumption, and it is expected to increase significantly in the next decade pushed by the continuous population and urbanization increase. In response to that situation, the Chinese government introduced a series of building energy codes and rating systems to assess and enhance the building energy performance. The purpose of this study is to develop a rating system for the building energy efficiency, based on in situ measurement. The system is intended for office buildings in China’s cold zone. An evaluation framework, graphic dominant point, and principle of data collection and processing are illustrated in this paper. Three existing buildings were rated under the new rating system. The authors believe that the new system will contribute to a more accurate and comprehensive understanding for asset holders and occupants, that report on the extent to which energy efficiency buildings have been reached. Rating results are expected to be a reference for the retrofitting of existing buildings and the design of new buildings. In addition, the outlook for the rating system was also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Socio-Technical Features of Green Interior Design of Residential Buildings: Indicators, Interdependence and Embeddedness
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 33; doi:10.3390/su9010033
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
PDF Full-text (1029 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This research aims to develop indicators for assessing green interior design of new residential buildings in China, grounded in the socio-technical systems approach. The research was carried out through a critical literature review and two focus group studies. The results show that the
[...] Read more.
This research aims to develop indicators for assessing green interior design of new residential buildings in China, grounded in the socio-technical systems approach. The research was carried out through a critical literature review and two focus group studies. The results show that the boundaries of green interior design were identified with respect to three dimensions, namely performance, methodology and stakeholders. The socio-technical systems approach argues for the recognition of the interdependence between the systems elements and the feature of embeddedness. The interdependence of the systems elements exists within each of these three dimensions and across them. It is also found that the socio-technical systems of green interior design are embedded in the social, regulatory and geographic context. Taking interior design of residential buildings as the empirical setting, this study contributes to the literature of green building assessment by presenting a socio-technical systems approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Different Weather Files on London Detached Residential Building Performance—Deterministic, Uncertainty, and Sensitivity Analysis on CIBSE TM48 and CIBSE TM49 Future Weather Variables Using CIBSE TM52 as Overheating Criteria
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1194; doi:10.3390/su8111194
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
Though uncertainties of input variables may have significant implications on building simulations, they are quite often not identified, quantified, or included in building simulations results. This paper considers climatic deterministic, uncertainty, and sensitivity analysis through a series of simulations using the CIBSE UKCIP02
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Though uncertainties of input variables may have significant implications on building simulations, they are quite often not identified, quantified, or included in building simulations results. This paper considers climatic deterministic, uncertainty, and sensitivity analysis through a series of simulations using the CIBSE UKCIP02 future weather years, CIBSE TM48 for design summer years (DSYs), and the latest CIBSE TM49 DSY future weather data which incorporates the UKCP09 projections to evaluate the variance and the impact of differing London future weather files on indoor operative temperature of a detached dwelling in the United Kingdom using the CIBSE TM52 overheating criteria. The work analyses the variability of comparable weather data set to identify the most influential weather parameters that contribute to thermal comfort implications for these dwellings. The choice of these weather files is to ascertain their differences, as their development is underpinned by different climatic projections. The overall pattern of the variability of the UKCIP02 and UKCP09 Heathrow weather data sets under Monte Carlo sensitivity consideration do not seem to be very different from each other. The deterministic results show that the operative temperatures of the UKCIP02 are slightly higher than those of UKCP09, with the UKCP09 having a narrow range of operative temperatures. The Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis quantified and affirmed the dry bulb and radiant temperatures as the most influential weather parameters that affect thermal comfort on dwellings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China
Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 989; doi:10.3390/su8100989
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
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Abstract
With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation
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With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE) and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted to perform the evaluation. Models for the energy and total exergy efficiencies of various space and water heating equipment/systems are developed. The evaluation results indicate that common uses of electricity for space and water heating are the most unsustainable ways of space and water heating. In terms of PEE and sustainability index, air-source heat pumps for space and water heating are suitable for the HSCW zone. The PEE and sustainability index of solar water heaters with auxiliary electric heaters are greatly influenced by local solar resources. Air-source heat pump assisted solar hot water systems are the most sustainable among all water heating equipment/systems investigated in this study. Our works suggest the key potential for improving the energy efficiency and the sustainability of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessments of Buildings) Printed Edition available
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