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Sustainability, Volume 7, Issue 11 (November 2015), Pages 14427-15784

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Open AccessCase Report Carbon Footprint Analysis for Mechanization of Maize Production Based on Life Cycle Assessment: A Case Study in Jilin Province, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15772-15784; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115772
Received: 1 August 2015 / Revised: 18 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The theory on the carbon footprint of agriculture can systematically evaluate the carbon emissions caused by artificial factors from the agricultural production process, which is the theoretical basis for constructing low-carbon agriculture and has important guiding significance for realizing low-carbon agriculture. Based on
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The theory on the carbon footprint of agriculture can systematically evaluate the carbon emissions caused by artificial factors from the agricultural production process, which is the theoretical basis for constructing low-carbon agriculture and has important guiding significance for realizing low-carbon agriculture. Based on farm production survey data from Jilin Province in 2014, this paper aims to obtain a clear understanding of the carbon footprint of maize production through the following method: (1) one ton of maize production was evaluated systematically by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); (2) the carbon emissions of the whole system were estimated based on field measurement data, (3) using the emission factors we estimated Jilin’s carbon footprint for the period 2006–2013, and forecasted it for the period from 2014 to 2020 using the grey system model GM (1, 1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Issues on Soil Management and Conservation)
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Open AccessEssay Social Justice as a Link between Sustainability and Educational Sciences
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15754-15771; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115754
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 18 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This position paper defines and substantiates the relevance of educational sciences as design elements of socially sustainable development in economics and society. Therefore, a theoretical-normative link of the fields of social sustainability, social justice, and educational sciences is discussed to build a foundation
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This position paper defines and substantiates the relevance of educational sciences as design elements of socially sustainable development in economics and society. Therefore, a theoretical-normative link of the fields of social sustainability, social justice, and educational sciences is discussed to build a foundation for further concepts that may synergistically address social sustainability and education. Because social sustainability currently seems to be the least addressed dimension of sustainability research and practice, this paper might provide a new impulse in this field. The linkage of the three fields will be accomplished with a hermeneutic-analytical approach, identifying possible interdependencies in the relevant theories and concepts of the disciplines and suggesting necessary modifications. Based on this foundation, a theoretical-normative construct will be designed that describes the link and may be used to deduct practice-related concepts in order to construct related measures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Risky Business: Sustainability and Industrial Land Use across Seattle’s Gentrifying Riskscape
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15718-15753; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115718
Received: 21 July 2015 / Revised: 7 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (14080 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper examines the spatial and temporal trajectories of Seattle’s industrial land use restructuring and the shifting riskscape in Seattle, WA, a commonly recognized urban model of sustainability. Drawing on the perspective of sustainability as a conflicted process, this research explored the intersections
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This paper examines the spatial and temporal trajectories of Seattle’s industrial land use restructuring and the shifting riskscape in Seattle, WA, a commonly recognized urban model of sustainability. Drawing on the perspective of sustainability as a conflicted process, this research explored the intersections of urban industrial and nonindustrial land use planning, gentrification, and environmental injustice. In the first part of our research, we combine geographic cluster analysis and longitudinal air toxic emission comparisons to quantitatively investigate socioeconomic changes in Seattle Census block-groups between 1990, 2000, and 2009 coupled with measures of pollution volume and its relative potential risk. Second, we qualitatively examine Seattle’s historical land use policies and planning and the growing tension between industrial and nonindustrial land use. The gentrification, green cities, and growth management conflicts embedded within sustainability/livability lead to pollution exposure risk and socioeconomic vulnerability converging in the same areas and reveal one of Seattle’s significant environmental challenges. Our mixed-method approach can guide future urban sustainability studies to more effectively examine the connections between land use planning, industrial displacement, and environmental injustice. Our results also help sustainable development practitioners recognize that a more just sustainability in Seattle and beyond will require more planning and policy attention to mitigate obscured industrial land use conflicts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Land and Sustainable Development) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle The Effectiveness of Education for Sustainable Development
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15693-15717; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115693
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (904 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Perhaps the most important issue in our time is how to sustain our planet’s resources, while developing wealth and well-being for a growing population. This monumental task has been defined in the concept of sustainable development (SD). During the last few decades the
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Perhaps the most important issue in our time is how to sustain our planet’s resources, while developing wealth and well-being for a growing population. This monumental task has been defined in the concept of sustainable development (SD). During the last few decades the world communities have agreed upon addressing SD through international treaties. As a response Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been launched as an answer to cope with sustainability. However, empirical studies are a missing link in the discourse around ESD, where decisions and implementation strategies are heavily based on policy recommendations and gut feelings by practitioners. We used data from 2413 students in grades 6, 9, and 12 from 51 schools across Sweden to study the effectiveness of ESD. In line with the current debate on the definition of ESD, we quantified the extent to which teaching can be labeled as holistic and/or pluralistic. Through a series of descriptive analyses and the estimation of structural equation models, our results indicate that ESD can indeed impact on student outcomes in terms of their sustainability consciousness. The results of this study reveal the key role ESD plays in addressing SD, paving the way for a more sustainable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Education and Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancing Green Absorptive Capacity, Green Dynamic Capacities and Green Service Innovation to Improve Firm Performance: An Analysis of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15674-15692; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115674
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study discusses the influences of green absorptive capacity, green dynamic capacities, and green service innovation on firm performance. In order to fill the research gap, this study proposes the concept of green service innovation. The results are as follows: First, this study
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This study discusses the influences of green absorptive capacity, green dynamic capacities, and green service innovation on firm performance. In order to fill the research gap, this study proposes the concept of green service innovation. The results are as follows: First, this study finds that green absorptive capacity has positive effects on green dynamic capacities, green service innovation, and firm performance. Second, this study points out that green dynamic capacities have positive effects on green service innovation and firm performance. Third, this study observes that green dynamic capacities and green service innovation intercede the positive connection between green absorptive capacity and firm performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Landscape Pattern Changes in Response to Transhumance Abandonment on Mountain Vermio (North Greece)
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15652-15673; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115652
Received: 28 September 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transhumance, the seasonal movement of herds between highlands and lowlands following precise, repeated routes, is a common practice in many Mediterranean regions. This livestock movement exploits natural vegetation in both winter and summer pastures. In Greece transhumant herders, drawn by relatively abundant vegetation,
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Transhumance, the seasonal movement of herds between highlands and lowlands following precise, repeated routes, is a common practice in many Mediterranean regions. This livestock movement exploits natural vegetation in both winter and summer pastures. In Greece transhumant herders, drawn by relatively abundant vegetation, usually relocate to mountainous areas between April and October. Mount Vermio was an ideal summer pasture for the nomadic, ethnic group Sarakatsanoi of Thessaly, who used to own big herds. Socio-economic conditions of the 20th century led to the gradual decline of transhumance, resulting in reduction in grazing pressure and changes in vegetation dynamics. The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in landscape patterns in response to transhumance abandonment. Landscape metrics were employed to estimate land use/cover in two altitudinal zones. Results reveal that due to the abandonment of transhumance in the highlands landscape fragmentation increased. Meanwhile, in the lowlands, due to the uninterrupted presence of animals, landscape structure is more stable and diversified. Grasslands and agroforestry systems became smaller and more isolated. In conclusion, the abandonment of transhumance led to the overall deterioration of the rural landscape in the highlands. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Land Use Allocation Based on a Multi-Objective Artificial Immune Optimization Model: An Application in Anlu County, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15632-15651; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115632
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 23 November 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1623 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the main feature of land use planning, land use allocation (LUA) optimization is an important means of creating a balance between the land-use supply and demand in a region and promoting the sustainable utilization of land resources. In essence, LUA optimization is
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As the main feature of land use planning, land use allocation (LUA) optimization is an important means of creating a balance between the land-use supply and demand in a region and promoting the sustainable utilization of land resources. In essence, LUA optimization is a multi-objective optimization problem under the land use supply and demand constraints in a region. In order to obtain a better sustainable multi-objective LUA optimization solution, the present study proposes a LUA model based on the multi-objective artificial immune optimization algorithm (MOAIM-LUA model). The main achievements of the present study are as follows: (a) the land-use supply and demand factors are analyzed and the constraint conditions of LUA optimization problems are constructed based on the analysis framework of the balance between the land use supply and demand; (b) the optimization objectives of LUA optimization problems are defined and modeled using ecosystem service value theory and land rent and price theory; and (c) a multi-objective optimization algorithm is designed for solving multi-objective LUA optimization problems based on the novel immune clonal algorithm (NICA). On the basis of the aforementioned achievements, MOAIM-LUA was applied to a real case study of land-use planning in Anlu County, China. Compared to the current land use situation in Anlu County, optimized LUA solutions offer improvements in the social and ecological objective areas. Compared to the existing models, such as the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, experimental results demonstrate that the model designed in the present study can obtain better non-dominated solution sets and is superior in terms of algorithm stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Network of Protected Areas in China Based on a Geographic Perspective: Current Status, Issues and Integration
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15617-15631; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115617
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs) in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By
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With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs) in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By applying a geographic perspective in an analysis of the development and evolution of protected areas in China, this paper presents the results of an analysis focused on the status and the types of current approaches to the management of natural protected areas to reveal the problems that exist in their management and to further explore an integration strategy for the protected area network. It proposes that the future management of protected areas should prioritize their legal status, the sustainable livelihood of individuals living in close proximity to them, and the establishment of a unified database to achieve grid and information management of the protected areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Out of the Dark: Establishing a Large-Scale Field Experiment to Assess the Effects of Artificial Light at Night on Species and Food Webs
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15593-15616; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115593
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of the most obvious hallmarks of human presence in an ecosystem. The rapidly increasing use of artificial light has fundamentally transformed nightscapes throughout most of the globe, although little is known about how ALAN impacts the
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Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of the most obvious hallmarks of human presence in an ecosystem. The rapidly increasing use of artificial light has fundamentally transformed nightscapes throughout most of the globe, although little is known about how ALAN impacts the biodiversity and food webs of illuminated ecosystems. We developed a large-scale experimental infrastructure to study the effects of ALAN on a light-naïve, natural riparian (i.e., terrestrial-aquatic) ecosystem. Twelve street lights (20 m apart) arranged in three rows parallel to an agricultural drainage ditch were installed on each of two sites located in a grassland ecosystem in northern Germany. A range of biotic, abiotic, and photometric data are collected regularly to study the short- and long-term effects of ALAN on behavior, species interactions, physiology, and species composition of communities. Here we describe the infrastructure setup and data collection methods, and characterize the study area including photometric measurements. None of the measured parameters differed significantly between sites in the period before illumination. Results of one short-term experiment, carried out with one site illuminated and the other acting as a control, demonstrate the attraction of ALAN by the immense and immediate increase of insect catches at the lit street lights. The experimental setup provides a unique platform for carrying out interdisciplinary research on sustainable lighting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15570-15592; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115570
Received: 13 October 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1067 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality
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Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI) values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Spatial Lag Model (SAR), and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variations of China’s urbanization process on air quality. The results show that a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in AQI values. Regression models revealed urbanization has played an important negative role in determining air quality in Chinese cities. The population, urbanization rate, automobile density, and the proportion of secondary industry were all found to have had a significant influence over air quality. Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the scale of urban land use, however, failed the significance test at 10% level. The GWR model performed better than global models and the results of GWR modeling show that the relationship between urbanization and air quality was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggest significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on air quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Tourism Water Capacity in Agricultural Heritage Sites
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15548-15569; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115548
Received: 21 September 2015 / Revised: 8 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agricultural heritage sites have been gaining popularity as tourism destinations. The arrival of large numbers of tourists, however, has created serious challenges to these vulnerable ecosystems. In particular, water resources are facing tremendous pressure. Thus, an assessment of tourism water footprint is suggested
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Agricultural heritage sites have been gaining popularity as tourism destinations. The arrival of large numbers of tourists, however, has created serious challenges to these vulnerable ecosystems. In particular, water resources are facing tremendous pressure. Thus, an assessment of tourism water footprint is suggested before promoting sustainable tourism. This paper uses the bottom-up approach to construct a framework on the tourism water footprint of agricultural heritage sites. The tourism water footprint consists of four components, namely accommodation water footprint, diet water footprint, transportation water footprint and sewage dilution water footprint. Yuanyang County, a representative of the Honghe Hani rice terraces, was selected as the study area. Field surveys including questionnaires, interviews and participant observation approaches were undertaken to study the tourism water footprint and water capacity of the heritage site. Based on the results, measures to improve the tourism water capacity have been put forward, which should provide references for making policies that aim to maintain a sustainable water system and promote tourism development without hampering the sustainability of the heritage system. The sewage dilution water footprint and the diet water footprint were top contributors to the tourism water footprint of the subject area, taking up 38.33% and 36.15% of the tourism water footprint, respectively, followed by the transportation water footprint (21.47%). The accommodation water footprint had the smallest proportion (4.05%). The tourism water capacity of the heritage site was 14,500 tourists per day. The water pressure index was 97%, indicating that the water footprint was still within the water capacity, but there is a danger that the water footprint may soon exceed the water capacity. As a consequence, we suggest that macro and micro approaches, including appropriate technologies, awareness enhancement and diversified tourism product development throughout the whole year that can alleviate the water pressure at critical times, could be taken to optimize the water management of the heritage sites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identifying Critical Factors in the Eco-Efficiency of Remanufacturing Based on the Fuzzy DEMATEL Method
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15527-15547; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115527
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remanufacturing can bring considerable economic and environmental benefits such as cost saving, conservation of energy and resources, and reduction of emissions. With the increasing awareness of sustainable manufacturing, remanufacturing gradually becomes the research priority. Most studies concentrate on the analysis of influencing factors,
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Remanufacturing can bring considerable economic and environmental benefits such as cost saving, conservation of energy and resources, and reduction of emissions. With the increasing awareness of sustainable manufacturing, remanufacturing gradually becomes the research priority. Most studies concentrate on the analysis of influencing factors, or the evaluation of the economic and environmental performance in remanufacturing, while little effort has been devoted to investigating the critical factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing. Considering the current development of the remanufacturing industry in China, this paper proposes a set of factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing and then utilizes a fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method to establish relation matrixes reflecting the interdependent relationships among these factors. Finally, the contributions of each factor to eco-efficiency and mutual influence values among them are obtained, and critical factors in eco-efficiency of remanufacturing are identified. The results of the present work can provide theoretical supports for the government to make appropriate policies to improve the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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Open AccessArticle Human-Environment System Knowledge: A Correlate of Pro-Environmental Behavior
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15510-15526; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115510
Received: 18 August 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An effective program of environmental education requires the identification of the knowledge that must be imparted. This paper compares the effects of human-environment system knowledge (i.e., knowledge related to environmental problems caused by humans) and environmental action knowledge (i.e.,
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An effective program of environmental education requires the identification of the knowledge that must be imparted. This paper compares the effects of human-environment system knowledge (i.e., knowledge related to environmental problems caused by humans) and environmental action knowledge (i.e., knowledge of possible courses of action to reduce human impact on the environment) on pro-environmental behavior. Environmental knowledge and pro-environmental behavior of 950 Chilean adults were assessed with a survey. Both types of knowledge were related to pro-environmental behavior (r = 0.25 and r = 0.22, respectively, p < 0.001). These results seem to contradict previous studies that found that system knowledge is not directly related to pro-environmental behavior. However, existing scales of environmental system knowledge are behavioral-distant due to their greater number of general geography knowledge items. In contrast, our human-environmental system knowledge scale focuses on understanding global environmental problems and, therefore, can be expected to relate more closely to pro-environmental behavior. To promote pro-environmental behavior, we suggest teaching more human-environment system knowledge and environmental action knowledge. Since different forms of environmental knowledge must work together in a convergent manner in order to foster pro-environmental behavior, the present study represents an important contribution by showing that greater human-environment system knowledge is correlated with pro-environmental behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Education and Approaches)
Open AccessConcept Paper Expanding Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Usage in the Corn–Soy–Wheat Rotation
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15487-15509; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115487
Received: 10 August 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A common agronomic recommendation is under-seeding red clover to wheat in the corn–soy–wheat rotation. As a leguminous cover crop, red clover boosts agro-ecological resilience and productivity through nitrogen fixation, as well as non-nitrogen-related contributions, such as soil temperature and moisture regulation; reduction of
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A common agronomic recommendation is under-seeding red clover to wheat in the corn–soy–wheat rotation. As a leguminous cover crop, red clover boosts agro-ecological resilience and productivity through nitrogen fixation, as well as non-nitrogen-related contributions, such as soil temperature and moisture regulation; reduction of erosion, runoff, and leaching; weed suppression; and interruption of pest and disease cycles. The objective of this paper is to propose a system that extends red clover usage into the corn phase of the corn–soy–wheat rotation as a living mulch. The system incorporates strip-tillage, strip-mowing, as well as banded herbicide and fertilizer application in order to maximize productivity and minimize competition. We analyzed the feasibility of this proposal by examining red clover’s adequacy for the proposed system in comparison with other broadleaf, leguminous cover crops, and assessed potential agro-ecological benefits. We considered logistical components of the proposition, including the use of strip-tillage, the application of precision technology, as well as the opportunity for further technological developments. We found that the proposed system has potential to increase agro-ecological sustainability, resilience, and the overall productivity of this three-year rotation. Thus, this easily-implemented practice should be formally studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis on Accuracy of Bias, Linearity and Stability of Measurement System in Ball screw Processes by Simulation
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 15464-15486; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71115464
Received: 21 August 2015 / Revised: 14 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2480 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To consistently produce high quality products, a quality management system, such as the ISO9001, 2000 or TS 16949 must be practically implemented. One core instrument of the TS16949 MSA (Measurement System Analysis) is to rank the capability of a measurement system and ensure
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To consistently produce high quality products, a quality management system, such as the ISO9001, 2000 or TS 16949 must be practically implemented. One core instrument of the TS16949 MSA (Measurement System Analysis) is to rank the capability of a measurement system and ensure the quality characteristics of the product would likely be transformed through the whole manufacturing process. It is important to reduce the risk of Type I errors (acceptable goods are misjudged as defective parts) and Type II errors (defective parts are misjudged as good parts). An ideal measuring system would have the statistical characteristic of zero error, but such a system could hardly exist. Hence, to maintain better control of the variance that might occur in the manufacturing process, MSA is necessary for better quality control. Ball screws, which are a key component in precision machines, have significant attributes with respect to positioning and transmitting. Failures of lead accuracy and axial-gap of a ball screw can cause negative and expensive effects in machine positioning accuracy. Consequently, a functional measurement system can incur great savings by detecting Type I and Type II errors. If the measurement system fails with respect to specification of the product, it will likely misjudge Type I and Type II errors. Inspectors normally follow the MSA regulations for accuracy measurement, but the choice of measuring system does not merely depend on some simple indices. In this paper, we examine the stability of a measuring system by using a Monte Carlo simulation to establish bias, linearity variance of the normal distribution, and the probability density function. Further, we forecast the possible area distribution in the real case. After the simulation, the measurement capability will be improved, which helps the user classify the measurement system and establish measurement regulations for better performance and monitoring of the precision of the ball screw. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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