Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Sustainability, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2015)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-66
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Mitigation Measures on Flood Damage Prevention in Korea
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16866-16884; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215851
Received: 2 October 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study analyzed the characteristics of flood damages and the effects of structural and non-structural flood damage mitigation measures in Korea. First, a theoretical discussion of the structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages was used to select the variables and devise
[...] Read more.
This study analyzed the characteristics of flood damages and the effects of structural and non-structural flood damage mitigation measures in Korea. First, a theoretical discussion of the structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages was used to select the variables and devise the hypotheses. An analysis was conducted using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA) time series methodology, Korean socioeconomic data, and damage characteristics of major flood events. The effects of flood damage mitigation measures on the extent of flood damages were assessed using an intervention time series model. The major findings were that the intervention effects of structural and non-structural measures were statistically significant from 1958 to 2013 (a period of 55 years) and that while the former were ineffective at mitigating flood damages, the latter were successful in doing so. Based on the above findings, policy suggestions for future flood damage mitigation measures in Korea were offered. For structural measures, the government should manage its existing facilities, recover ecosystems of damaged rivers, and devise mitigation measures for urban areas. For non-structural measures, the government should enhance its flood forecasting capacity, revise laws related to flood control and prevention, and update and rationalize land-use plans. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Urban Residential Land Use Reconstruction under Dual-Track Mechanism of Market Socialism in China: A Case Study of Chengdu
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16849-16865; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215850
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We study urban residential land use changes by analyzing the massive migration and relocation of two typical social classes: employees in government departments (EGD) and urban demolition displaced households (UDDH). After the reform and opening-up of China that has taken place during the
[...] Read more.
We study urban residential land use changes by analyzing the massive migration and relocation of two typical social classes: employees in government departments (EGD) and urban demolition displaced households (UDDH). After the reform and opening-up of China that has taken place during the last 30 years, the residential land use of both the EGD and UDDH groups has been notable in terms of the changing urban landscape in China’s cities. A considerable number of studies highlight the large scale relocations of weaker groups usually through sample surveys at a microscopic scale, which sheds light on the relationships between market forces and government intervention and power. However, employees hired by state government departments and related branches (Shiye Danwei) have been neglected. Bridging the empirical research gap and using Chengdu as a case study, we compare residential relocations of EGD and UDDH groups in Chengdu. Our analysis based on field surveys conducted from 2009–2013 indicates that the relocations of EGD and UDDH are spatially agglomerated due to China’s unique dual-track mechanism driven by market forces and government power since the late 1970s. The study shows that most of the UDDH are migrated from urban centers to fringes, while a large number of EGD still agglomerate close to urban centers. Government interventions differentiate residential relocations of EGD and UDDH, and market mechanisms reinforce these relocations. Potential problems caused by the dual-track mechanism are finally discussed and summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Land and Sustainable Development) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Employees’ Work Values and Organizational Management on Corporate Performance for Chinese and Taiwanese Construction Enterprises
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16836-16848; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215852
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 29 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Through questionnaire surveys, this study explored the discrepancies in work values and organizational management between employees and cadre members of construction enterprises on the two sides of the Taiwan Strait. Statistical methods including data reliability, regression analysis, and tests of significance were utilized
[...] Read more.
Through questionnaire surveys, this study explored the discrepancies in work values and organizational management between employees and cadre members of construction enterprises on the two sides of the Taiwan Strait. Statistical methods including data reliability, regression analysis, and tests of significance were utilized for modelling a case study. The findings of this study included: (1) in terms of work values, employees from China focused on their lives “at present”, while those from Taiwan focused on their lives “in the future”, expecting to improve the quality of their lives later on through advanced studies and promotion; (2) according to the data obtained from the questionnaires, the answers regarding income and welfare in terms of work values and satisfaction were contradictory on the two sides of the Strait, which could be interpreted in terms of influence from society; and (3) there was a significant influence of organizational management on employees’ intentions to resign. If enterprises could improve current organizational management systems, their employees’ work attitudes would be improved and the tendency to resign would be reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Business Models)
Open AccessArticle Eco-Innovation for Sustainability: Evidence from 49 Countries in Asia and Europe
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16820-16835; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215849
Received: 11 October 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (732 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Following the trend on focusing on a nation’s economic-growth, side effects such as resource exhaustion, environmental pollution, and social injustice have begun to appear. As a solution, eco-innovation has received a great amount of attention from European countries and as a result, many
[...] Read more.
Following the trend on focusing on a nation’s economic-growth, side effects such as resource exhaustion, environmental pollution, and social injustice have begun to appear. As a solution, eco-innovation has received a great amount of attention from European countries and as a result, many efforts to analyze the development of eco-innovation quantitatively have been made. This study aims to evaluate the validity of an eco-innovation index developed to support the sustainable development goal. For this purpose, four factors of eco-innovation—capacity, supportive environment, activity, and performance—were applied to three categories of the Triple-Bottom-Line (TBL) concept in sustainability to compare the eco-innovation development level of 49 Asia-Europe Meeting countries. Factors for eco-innovation and TBL at the country level were organized in quartile and compared to see strength and weaknesses for each nation. In order to test if eco-innovation factors of a nation adequately reflect its sustainability, we used various comparisons of ANOVA. The results of this study are as follows: First, the one-way ANOVA tests present the scores for capacity, supportive environment, and performance as grouped into four quartiles in the same pattern as their economic, social, and environmental scores. The three-way ANOVA tests showed significance for the economic category. Scores for capacity, supportive environment, activity and performance were significant at a nation’s economic level. Lastly, the MANOVA test revealed that TBL significantly explains four eco-innovation factors. In addition, the eco-innovation performance level of European nations and Asian nations were compared. The possibility that many nations still have room to be competitive in their eco-innovation efforts was identified. Nations with unbalanced eco-innovation growth are urged to implement new strategies to balance their growth. Therefore, this research contributes to extending research on eco-innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Biogas Power Plants in Poland—Structure, Capacity, and Spatial Distribution
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16801-16819; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215846
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the analysis and evaluation of biogas power plant capacity in Poland based on the generic structure and energy production. These issues are also presented from the point of view of the obtained energy and biogas energy production in Poland against
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the analysis and evaluation of biogas power plant capacity in Poland based on the generic structure and energy production. These issues are also presented from the point of view of the obtained energy and biogas energy production in Poland against selected European Union countries. The paper also indicates a significant diversity in the spatial distribution of biogas plants in Poland. It also discusses the importance of biogas plants as one of the elements of bottom-up development of the second tier administrative units. There are 231 biogas power plants in Poland (as of 2013), which are based on biogas from landfill sites, biogas from wastewater treatment plants, and agricultural biogas. The generic structure of biogas power plants in Poland is dominated by power plants based on biogas from landfill. Despite the fact that Poland has large resources of agricultural substrate, there are very few biogas power plants based on agricultural biogas. There are no biogas power plants in almost 60% of poviats in Poland, despite the fact that every poviat in Poland has enough of this substrate at its disposal. This article contributes innovative elements to existing knowledge on biogas power plants in Poland, thanks to its comprehensive treatment of the problem of biogas power plants in Poland and because it urges local authorities and local communities to behave more ecologically, as well as promoting endogenous factors of the economic development of a given region. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Natural Disasters, Economic Growth and Sustainable Development in China―An Empirical Study Using Provincial Panel Data
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16783-16800; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215847
Received: 6 October 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 19 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using a newly developed integrated indicator system with entropy weighting, we analyzed the panel data of 577 recorded disasters in 30 provinces of China from 1985–2011 to identify their links with the subsequent economic growth. Meteorological disasters promote economic growth through human capital
[...] Read more.
Using a newly developed integrated indicator system with entropy weighting, we analyzed the panel data of 577 recorded disasters in 30 provinces of China from 1985–2011 to identify their links with the subsequent economic growth. Meteorological disasters promote economic growth through human capital instead of physical capital. Geological disasters did not trigger local economic growth from 1999–2011. Generally, natural disasters overall had no significant impact on economic growth from 1985–1998. Thus, human capital reinvestment should be the aim in managing recoveries, and it should be used to regenerate the local economy based on long-term sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Land and Sustainable Development) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Spatial Econometric Analysis of China’s Banking Competition and Its Influential Factors
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16771-16782; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215848
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 19 December 2015
PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper determines alternative indexes to measure banking competition from the perspective of industrial economics. Spatial correlation of competition in China’s banking environment is studied from the perspective of spatial economics. A spatial panel data model is built to make an empirical study
[...] Read more.
This paper determines alternative indexes to measure banking competition from the perspective of industrial economics. Spatial correlation of competition in China’s banking environment is studied from the perspective of spatial economics. A spatial panel data model is built to make an empirical study of factors influencing banking competition. The results show that the global autocorrelation test index Moran’s I indicates that China’s banking competition has obvious spatial correlation characteristics and significant spatial clustering. The space LISA map indicates that banking competition in most provinces has the characteristics of spatial dependence, and only a few provinces have the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Human capital, economic growth, financial scale of development, and foreign direct investment all have a significant positive effect on improving the degree of banking competition. Government intervention has a significant negative impact on the degree of banking competition, while fixed asset investment has no significant impact on it. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Biochar Application in Malaysian Sandy and Acid Sulfate Soils: Soil Amelioration Effects and Improved Crop Production over Two Cropping Seasons
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16756-16770; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215842
Received: 23 October 2015 / Revised: 11 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The use of biochar as an agricultural soil improvement was tested in acid sulfate and sandy soils from Malaysia, cropped with rice and corn. Malaysia has an abundance of waste rice husks that could be used to produce biochar. Rice husk biochar was
[...] Read more.
The use of biochar as an agricultural soil improvement was tested in acid sulfate and sandy soils from Malaysia, cropped with rice and corn. Malaysia has an abundance of waste rice husks that could be used to produce biochar. Rice husk biochar was produced in a gasifier at a local mill in Kelantan as well as in the laboratory using a controlled, specially designed, top lift up draft system (Belonio unit). Rice husk biochar was applied once to both soils at two doses (2% and 5%), in a pot set up that was carried out for two cropping seasons. Positive and significant crop yield effects were observed for both soils, biochars and crops. The yield effects varied with biochar type and dosage, with soil type and over the cropping seasons. The yield increases observed for the sandy soil were tentatively attributed to significant increases in plant-available water contents (from 4%–5% to 7%–8%). The yield effects in the acid sulfate soil were likely a consequence of a combination of (i) alleviation of plant root stress by aluminum (Ca/Al molar ratios significantly increased, from around 1 to 3–5) and (ii) increases in CEC. The agricultural benefits of rice husk biochar application to Malaysian soils holds promise for its future use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Biochar)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Organizational Green IT Adoption: Concept and Evidence
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16737-16755; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215843
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 27 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green IT has emerged as an important research topic in information systems and in other areas, such as business sustainability management. Some progress has been made in our understandings of green IT in a wide area of research topics, ranging from the green
[...] Read more.
Green IT has emerged as an important research topic in information systems and in other areas, such as business sustainability management. Some progress has been made in our understandings of green IT in a wide area of research topics, ranging from the green IT definition to the motivation for adopting green IT by organizations. This paper provides a holistic review and explanation of why organizations adopt green IT. Based on an extensive review of extant studies and a broad theoretical foundation, the paper presents a theoretical framework on organizational green IT adoption (OGITA). For researchers, the study provides a comprehensive review of previous green IT adoption studies and a roadmap for future research. For practitioners, the study provides managers and policy makers a systematic analytical framework in guiding their business decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Businesses: Assessment, Approaches and Technology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel Forecasting Methodology for Sustainable Management of Defense Technology
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16720-16736; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215844
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A dynamic methodology for sustainable management of defense technology is proposed to overcome the limitations of the static methodology, which involves comparative analysis based on the criterion of the highest technology level and has limitations for time series analysis, because the country with
[...] Read more.
A dynamic methodology for sustainable management of defense technology is proposed to overcome the limitations of the static methodology, which involves comparative analysis based on the criterion of the highest technology level and has limitations for time series analysis, because the country with the highest level undergoes technical changes over time. To address these limitations, this study applies a technology growth model for a dynamic analysis of the Delphi result. An effective method using patents is also proposed to verify and adjust the analysis results. First, technology levels of the present and future are examined by the Delphi technique, and the growth curve is extracted based on the technology growth model. Second, the technology growth curve based on patents is extracted using the annual number of unexamined and registered patents related to the technology. Lastly, the statistical significance of the two growth curves is examined using regression analysis. Then the growth curves are adjusted by the rate of increase in patents. This methodology could provide dynamic technology level data to facilitate sustainable management of defense technology. The results could be useful to research institutions, as they establish strategies for securing technologies in defense or private domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Waste Energy Recovery from Natural Gas Distribution Network: CELSIUS Project Demonstrator in Genoa
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16703-16719; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215841
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing energy efficiency by the smart recovery of waste energy is the scope of the CELSIUS Project (Combined Efficient Large Scale Integrated Urban Systems). The CELSIUS consortium includes a world-leading partnership of outstanding research, innovation and implementation organizations, and gather competence and excellence
[...] Read more.
Increasing energy efficiency by the smart recovery of waste energy is the scope of the CELSIUS Project (Combined Efficient Large Scale Integrated Urban Systems). The CELSIUS consortium includes a world-leading partnership of outstanding research, innovation and implementation organizations, and gather competence and excellence from five European cities with complementary baseline positions regarding the sustainable use of energy: Cologne, Genoa, Gothenburg, London, and Rotterdam. Lasting four-years and coordinated by the City of Gothenburg, the project faces with an holistic approach technical, economic, administrative, social, legal and political issues concerning smart district heating and cooling, aiming to establish best practice solutions. This will be done through the implementation of twelve new high-reaching demonstration projects, which cover the most major aspects of innovative urban heating and cooling for a smart city. The Genoa demonstrator was designed in order to recover energy from the pressure drop between the main supply line and the city natural gas network. The potential mechanical energy is converted to electricity by a turboexpander/generator system, which has been integrated in a combined heat and power plant to supply a district heating network. The performed energy analysis assessed natural gas saving and greenhouse gas reduction achieved through the smart systems integration. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Simplified Methodology for Evaluating the Impact of Point Thermal Bridges on the High-Energy Performance of a Passive House
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16687-16702; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215840
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the design of high-energy performance buildings with ventilated facade systems, the evaluation of point thermal bridges is complicated and is often ignored in practice. This paper analyzes the relationship between the point thermal bridges resulting from aluminum fasteners, which are used for
[...] Read more.
In the design of high-energy performance buildings with ventilated facade systems, the evaluation of point thermal bridges is complicated and is often ignored in practice. This paper analyzes the relationship between the point thermal bridges resulting from aluminum fasteners, which are used for installation facades cladding, and the thermal properties of materials that are used in external walls layers and dimension of layers. Research has shown that the influence of the point thermal bridges on the U-value of the entire wall may achieve an average of up to 30% regarding thermal properties of materials of the external wall layers and the dimension of layers. With the increase in thermal conductivity of the bearing layer material and the thickness of the thermal insulation layer, the point thermal transmittance χ-value increased. For this reason, the U-value of the entire wall may increase by up to 35%. With the increase of the thickness of the bearing layer and thermal conductivity value of thermal insulation layer, the point thermal transmittance χ-value decreased by up to 28%. A simplified methodology is presented for the evaluation of point thermal bridges based on the thermal and geometrical properties of external wall layers. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Life Cycle Building Carbon Emissions Assessment and Driving Factors Decomposition Analysis Based on LMDI—A Case Study of Wuhan City in China
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16670-16686; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215838
Received: 13 October 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon emissions calculation at the sub-provincial level has issues in limited data and non-unified measurements. This paper calculated the life cycle energy consumption and carbon emissions of the building industry in Wuhan, China. The findings showed that the proportion of carbon emissions in
[...] Read more.
Carbon emissions calculation at the sub-provincial level has issues in limited data and non-unified measurements. This paper calculated the life cycle energy consumption and carbon emissions of the building industry in Wuhan, China. The findings showed that the proportion of carbon emissions in the construction operation phase was the largest, followed by the carbon emissions of the indirect energy consumption and the construction material preparation phase. With the purpose of analyzing the contributors of the construction carbon emissions, this paper conducted decomposition analysis using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI). The results indicated that the increasing buidling area was the major driver of energy consumption and carbon emissions increase, followed by the behavior factor. Population growth and urbanization, to some extent, increased the carbon emissions as well. On the contrary, energy efficiency was the main inhibitory factor for reducing the carbon emissions. Policy implications in terms of low-carbon construction development were highlighted. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Based on Selected Optimal Combination of Landslide Predisposing Factors in a Large Catchment
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16653-16669; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215839
Received: 14 September 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Landslides are usually initiated under complex geological conditions. It is of great significance to find out the optimal combination of predisposing factors and create an accurate landslide susceptibility map based on them. In this paper, the Information Value Model was modified to make
[...] Read more.
Landslides are usually initiated under complex geological conditions. It is of great significance to find out the optimal combination of predisposing factors and create an accurate landslide susceptibility map based on them. In this paper, the Information Value Model was modified to make the Modified Information Value (MIV) Model, and together with GIS (Geographical Information System) and AUC (Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve) test, 32 factor combinations were evaluated separately, and factor combination group with members Slope, Lithology, Drainage network, Annual precipitation, Faults, Road and Vegetation was selected as the optimal combination group with an accuracy of 95.0%. Based on this group, a landslide susceptibility zonation map was drawn, where the study area was reclassified into five classes, presenting an accurate description of different levels of landslide susceptibility, with 79.41% and 13.67% of the validating field survey landslides falling in the Very High and High zones, respectively, mainly distributed in the south and southeast of the catchment. It showed that MIV model can tackle the problem of “no data in subclass” well, generate the true information value and show real running trend, which performs well in showing the relationship between predisposing factors and landslide occurrence and can be used for preliminary landslide susceptibility assessment in the study area. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Landscape Ecological Risk Responses to Land Use Change in the Luanhe River Basin, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(12), 16631-16652; https://doi.org/10.3390/su71215835
Received: 20 September 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land use change has large effects on natural ecosystems, which is considered to be the main factor in eco-environment change. We analyzed the future characters of land use change by the CLUE-S model and explored landscape ecological risk responses to land use change
[...] Read more.
Land use change has large effects on natural ecosystems, which is considered to be the main factor in eco-environment change. We analyzed the future characters of land use change by the CLUE-S model and explored landscape ecological risk responses to land use change by the landscape ecological risk index method. Using the Luanhe River Basin as a case study, we simulated future land use change from 2010 to 2030 under 3 scenarios (i.e., trend, high economic growth, and ecological security), and identified the hotspots of land use change. Afterward, we quantitatively investigated the degree of land use development and landscape ecological risk patterns that have occured since 2000 and that are expected to occur until 2030. Results revealed that, under the three scenarios, construction land and forest are expanding mainly at the expense of agriculture land and grassland. The hotspots of land use change are located in the vicinity of Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District of Chengde City in the midstream of the Luanhe River Basin, where urbanization has been strong since 2000 and is projected to continue that way until 2030. During this time period, hotspots of land use development have been gradually transferring from the downstream to the midstream since 2000 and, again, is expected to continue that way until 2030, which will impact the spatial distribution of landscape ecological risk. We found that the landscape ecological risk of the entire basin has shown a negative trend. However, a few areas still have serious ecological risk, which are mainly located in the east of upstream (Duolun County and Weichang County), the middle region (Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District, Chengde County, and Xinglong County), and the downstream (Qinglong County). These can provide key information for land use management, and for helping to prepare future eco-environmental policies in the Luanhe River Basin. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top