Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Sustainability, Volume 6, Issue 9 (September 2014), Pages 5512-6487

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-53
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview Density, the Sustainability Multiplier: Some Myths and Truths with Application to Perth, Australia
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6467-6487; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096467
Received: 9 May 2014 / Revised: 11 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper suggests that the divisive urban issue of density has critical importance for sustainability. It is particularly important to resolve for the low density car dependent cities of the world as they are highly resource consumptive. Ten myths about density and 10
[...] Read more.
The paper suggests that the divisive urban issue of density has critical importance for sustainability. It is particularly important to resolve for the low density car dependent cities of the world as they are highly resource consumptive. Ten myths about density and 10 truths about density are proposed to help resolve the planning issues so commonly found to divide urban communities. They are applied with data to Perth to illustrate the issues and how they can be resolved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Density and Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW) Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6446-6466; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096446
Received: 29 June 2014 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (824 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW) source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed.
[...] Read more.
Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW) source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed. Based on the survey, the authors used an ordered probit regression to study residents’ HSW source separation activities for both Suzhou and for the five community groups. Results showed that 43% of the respondents in Suzhou thought they knew how to source separate HSW, and 29% of them have source separated HSW accurately. The results also found that the current HSW source separation pilot program in Suzhou is valid, as HSW source separation facilities and residents’ separation behavior both became better and better along with the program implementation. The main determinants of residents’ HSW source separation behavior are residents’ age, HSW source separation facilities and government preferential policies. The accessibility to waste management service is particularly important. Attitudes and willingness do not have significant impacts on residents’ HSW source separation behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Cities)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Rethinking the Social and Solidarity Society in Light of Community Practice
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6432-6445; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096432
Received: 7 July 2014 / Revised: 10 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Building social alternatives is necessary to resist the destructive impacts of the capitalist organization on well-being, social organization, and the planet. This paper offers an analysis of the ways in which peoples are mobilizing to build organizations and to define social movements to
[...] Read more.
Building social alternatives is necessary to resist the destructive impacts of the capitalist organization on well-being, social organization, and the planet. This paper offers an analysis of the ways in which peoples are mobilizing to build organizations and to define social movements to move beyond current crises. The lines for constructing an ecologically sound and social-solidarity society require mechanisms for mutual cooperation based on alternative systems of decision making, as well as for doing work and assuring well-being to every member of the community. These depend on forging a process of solidarity among the members of a society as well as building alliances among communities; to assure the satisfaction of basic needs while also attending the most pressing requirements for physical, social and environmental infrastructure and to assure the conservation and rehabilitation of their ecosystems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimation of Real-Time Flood Risk on Roads Based on Rainfall Calculated by the Revised Method of Missing Rainfall
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6418-6431; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096418
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 18 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1820 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, flood damage by frequent localized downpours in cities is on the increase on account of abnormal climate phenomena and the growth of impermeable areas due to urbanization. This study suggests a method to estimate real-time flood risk on roads for drivers based
[...] Read more.
Recently, flood damage by frequent localized downpours in cities is on the increase on account of abnormal climate phenomena and the growth of impermeable areas due to urbanization. This study suggests a method to estimate real-time flood risk on roads for drivers based on the accumulated rainfall. The amount of rainfall of a road link, which is an intensive type, is calculated by using the revised method of missing rainfall in meteorology, because the rainfall is not measured on roads directly. To process in real time with a computer, we use the inverse distance weighting (IDW) method, which is a suitable method in the computing system and is commonly used in relation to precipitation due to its simplicity. With real-time accumulated rainfall, the flooding history, rainfall range causing flooding from previous rainfall information and frequency probability of precipitation are used to determine the flood risk on roads. The result of simulation using the suggested algorithms shows the high concordance rate between actual flooded areas in the past and flooded areas derived from the simulation for the research region in Busan, Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Green IT System for Sustainable Computing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Spatial Variation of Regional Sustainable Development and its Relationship to the Allocation of Science and Technology Resources
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6400-6417; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096400
Received: 27 May 2014 / Revised: 14 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 August 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increasing of labor salaries, the RMB exchange rate, resource product prices and requirements of environmental protection, inexpensive labor and land are no longer the decisive factor of regional competitiveness. From this perspective, China needs to shift from the extensive development mode
[...] Read more.
With the increasing of labor salaries, the RMB exchange rate, resource product prices and requirements of environmental protection, inexpensive labor and land are no longer the decisive factor of regional competitiveness. From this perspective, China needs to shift from the extensive development mode to the sustainable development mode. Science and technology resources rational allocation is one of the key issues in sustainable development. Based on the counties (districts) data of Zhejiang Province in China, this paper portrays the spatial variation of regional sustainable development level of this area. This paper finds that counties tend to cluster in groups with the same sustainable development level, and this agglomeration trend has been enforced during the past several years. It then testifies to the relationship between the allocation of science and technology resources and local sustainable development, identifies science and technology human resources, financial resources and environmental resource are positively related to local sustainable development, except government financial support. The economic level has a negative relationship with regional sustainable development. This is because the development of the Zhejiang economy grown at the expense of the environment and ecosystem. Some advice is given according to the empirical analysis result. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Commitment to Emissions Restrictions of Major Consumers of Electricity in Brazil
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6377-6399; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096377
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 26 August 2014 / Accepted: 28 August 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the context of global concerns about climate change that stem from the alarming and unprecedented growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, this study discusses the use of energy by large consumers of electricity in Brazil in the perspective of sustainable development, energy
[...] Read more.
In the context of global concerns about climate change that stem from the alarming and unprecedented growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, this study discusses the use of energy by large consumers of electricity in Brazil in the perspective of sustainable development, energy resources, and regulatory policies. It evaluates the commitment to emissions restrictions among the major customers of an electricity utility company that serves 4.1 million consumers (68% of the population and 66% of the gross internal product for the second-highest economically developed Brazilian state). The evaluation is based on proposed metrics and indicators. By considering the Brazilian commitment to a policy of sustainable development, this study reviews the primary international agreements and recommendations that have been developed to mitigate and adapt to climate change and sustainability. A survey was developed for participating organizations classified by economic sector to assess their awareness to 18 issues that reflect international guidelines on emission constraints. Based on total energy consumption, the survey discusses the worrying level of GHG emissions (tCO2eq) that is associated with the generation of electricity by customers of the largest utility company. In spite of 90% of the organizations having considered sustainability as a business opportunity and a competitive differential that enables niche markets, the results of this study demonstrated low commitment to the desired emissions restrictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Industrial Ecology and Environmental Lean Management: Lights and Shadows
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6362-6376; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096362
Received: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current industrial production is driven by increasing globalization, which has led to a steady increase in production volumes and complexity of products aimed at the pursuit of meeting the needs of customers. In this context, one of the main tools in the management
[...] Read more.
Current industrial production is driven by increasing globalization, which has led to a steady increase in production volumes and complexity of products aimed at the pursuit of meeting the needs of customers. In this context, one of the main tools in the management of customer value is Lean Manufacturing or Production, though it is considered primarily as a set of tools to reduce the total cost of the resources needed to achieve such needs. This philosophy has recently been enriched in the literature with case studies that link Lean Management (LM) with the improvement of environmental sustainability. The consequence is an expansion of the Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM); indeed, CIM, currently, combining and integrating the key business functions (e.g., business, engineering, manufacturing, and information management) with a view of the life cycle, does not highlight the strategic role of the environmental aspects. In order to deal with the increasingly rapid environmental degradation that is reflected in society, in terms of both economy and quality of life, Industrial Ecology (IE) introduced a new paradigm of principles and instruments of analysis and decision support (e.g., Life Cycle Assessment—LCA, Social Life Cycle Assessment -SLCA, Material Flow Account—MFA, etc.) that can be considered as the main basis for integrating the environmental aspects in each strategy, design, production, final product, and end of life management, through the re-engineering of processes and activities towards the development of an eco-industrial system. This paper presents the preliminary observations based on a analysis of both theories (LM-IE) and provides a possible assessment of the key factors relevant to their integration in a “lean environmental management”, highlighting both positives (lights) and possible barriers (shadows). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle A Light-Weight Metering File System for Sustainable Real-Time Meter Data Management
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6351-6361; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096351
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
PDF Full-text (930 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A real-time smart metering system has strict requirements, since every piece of data gathered from various meters every hour is of importance, and each component consisting of metering infrastructure should be sustainable. Therefore, it is necessary to efficiently manage the meter data set
[...] Read more.
A real-time smart metering system has strict requirements, since every piece of data gathered from various meters every hour is of importance, and each component consisting of metering infrastructure should be sustainable. Therefore, it is necessary to efficiently manage the meter data set in smart metering networks as well as in a server. Therefore, we propose a dedicated file system, a LIght-weight Metering File System (LIMFS), which is capable of not only efficiently storing and searching meter data but also performing distributed fault-tolerant meter data management for real-time smart meter devices. The proposed LIMFS exploits accumulated data sliding storage (ADSS) for lost data recovery and latest-first error-ignorant data management (LEDM) to reduce memory wastage, coping with dynamic report interval. Experimental results demonstrate that LIMFS has as a small enough overhead to be considered negligible, and provides flexible memory capacity according to dynamic report interval, in spite of lost data recovery functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Green IT System for Sustainable Computing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Chieftaincy Institution in Ghana: Causers and Arbitrators of Conflicts in Industrial Jatropha Investments
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6332-6350; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096332
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Large-scale land acquisition in Africa has been the concern and the focus of growing global literature on land grabbing. The upswing in biofuel investments in Ghana led to large-scale land acquisitions by the private sector presided over by chiefs. This research investigates how
[...] Read more.
Large-scale land acquisition in Africa has been the concern and the focus of growing global literature on land grabbing. The upswing in biofuel investments in Ghana led to large-scale land acquisitions by the private sector presided over by chiefs. This research investigates how chiefs, in playing their traditional roles in the acquisition of land and as arbitrators, were, in most instances, the cause and the solution to the ensuing conflicts in the various communities. Data was collected through interviews, use of questionnaires and focus group discussions. Some of the conflict issues include loss of farmlands or other communal lands, disagreements on the land acquisition processes, the quantum and mode of execution of compensation payments and the existence or contents of social responsibility agreements. Furthermore, the use of negotiation, mediation and courts by people in these communities relative to arbitration by chiefs is increasing. The Government of Ghana needs to strengthen the public sector land institutions and put in place stronger and binding mechanisms for resolving disputes arising from large-scale acquisitions of land to cushion the effect of the weakening confidence in the chieftaincy institution. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Eco-Industrial Parks from Strategic Niches to Development Mainstream: The Cases of China
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6325-6331; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096325
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
China has implemented eco-industrial park (EIP) initiatives as a mainstream strategy of a circular economy since the turn of the new century. This paper presents the sustainable transition processes and outcomes of three EIP cases, Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA), Fuzhou
[...] Read more.
China has implemented eco-industrial park (EIP) initiatives as a mainstream strategy of a circular economy since the turn of the new century. This paper presents the sustainable transition processes and outcomes of three EIP cases, Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA), Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Area (FEDA) and the Xi’an High-Tech Zone (XHTZ). The cases uncovered four factors key to the transition of EIPs: technological trajectory dependency, spaces for experimentation, government as an enabler and regional embeddedness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evolutionary Game Analysis of Remanufacturing Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Asymmetric Information
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6312-6324; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096312
Received: 13 May 2014 / Revised: 26 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remanufacturing is an effective means to realize energy saving and emission reduction. This paper develops an evolutionary game model with a two-echelon closed-loop supply chain to study evolutionary stable strategies (ESS) of manufacturers and retailers. Through analyzing evolutionary path of the game, we
[...] Read more.
Remanufacturing is an effective means to realize energy saving and emission reduction. This paper develops an evolutionary game model with a two-echelon closed-loop supply chain to study evolutionary stable strategies (ESS) of manufacturers and retailers. Through analyzing evolutionary path of the game, we find that there are two possible evolutionary results affected by the profits of manufacturers. Price of remanufacturing products may be a critical factor that determines the ESS. Government subsidy is critical to promote the development of remanufacturing industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Fashion Business Operations)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Examination of the Relationship between Rural Tourists’ Satisfaction, Revisitation and Information Preferences: A Korean Case Study
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6293-6311; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096293
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 August 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (992 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To encourage the sustainability of rural tourism and to achieve success in the tourist industry, an understanding of the factors by which tourists are motivated to visit rural areas is required. This study aims to measure factors affecting rural tourists’ satisfaction in relation
[...] Read more.
To encourage the sustainability of rural tourism and to achieve success in the tourist industry, an understanding of the factors by which tourists are motivated to visit rural areas is required. This study aims to measure factors affecting rural tourists’ satisfaction in relation to different aspects of a destination and to increase the likelihood of revisitation and recommendation. This study also attempts to examine differences in relation to satisfaction depending on the information source preference. Overall satisfaction was influenced by physical infrastructure, service quality and satisfaction level with tour programs. However, the quality of services was more related to tourists’ intentions to revisit and recommend, suggesting that its qualitative improvement can contribute to vitalizing stagnant domestic tourism. The findings revealed that tourists’ satisfaction was high when people mainly gained tourist information through formal government sources, word-of-mouth and Internet advertising, suggesting that the positive correlation between tourists’ satisfaction and information sources reflects the reliability and credibility of those sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Climatic Design and Changing Social Needs in the Tropics: A Case Study in Kuching, Sarawak
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6278-6292; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096278
Received: 22 May 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 August 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On the periphery of most urban centres in the tropics, many new houses are being constructed in previously rural areas. However, the design of these houses shows little respect for local climate or local lifestyle, as they are now developer-constructed brick-and-concrete houses on
[...] Read more.
On the periphery of most urban centres in the tropics, many new houses are being constructed in previously rural areas. However, the design of these houses shows little respect for local climate or local lifestyle, as they are now developer-constructed brick-and-concrete houses on smaller lots rather than community-built housing on large lots. This paper proposes a set of design strategies that acknowledges the particular needs related to climate and changing lifestyle in these tropical zones. Using case study methodology, the design strategies are tested on a prototype for an actual site in Tapah Village on the periphery of Kuching, Sarawak. In order to gauge the thermal performance of the prototype it was thermally simulated. The thermal simulation of the prototype showed that temperatures generally remained within an acceptable range without air-conditioning. An informal workshop was held in Tapah to gauge social acceptance of the design strategies. The prototype demonstrated that specific design strategies, some based on traditional designs, are essential in the tropics in order to minimise the need for air conditioning. These design strategies were acknowledged as important by the local community, although there was concern about the potential increase in the capital cost of such housing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Environment in Industrial Ecology, Grasping a Complex Notion for Enhancing Industrial Synergies at Territorial Scales
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6267-6277; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096267
Received: 6 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (845 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Identifying the most relevant environment related indicators and how to make them available to decision-makers are current issues. Some seek to enhance their efficiency by means of methods such as aggregations or weighting. More fundamentally, in this chapter we question how industrial ecologists
[...] Read more.
Identifying the most relevant environment related indicators and how to make them available to decision-makers are current issues. Some seek to enhance their efficiency by means of methods such as aggregations or weighting. More fundamentally, in this chapter we question how industrial ecologists appropriate the notion of environment. On the basis of multidisciplinary research, we argue that, in contexts of geographically bounded networks of social actors forging industrial synergies, environmental questions should be posed from the viewpoint of the actors. Our work might aid to operationalize the complex notion of environment in such contexts, and constitutes a call to develop anthropocentric approaches to defining environmental indications followed by appropriated indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Model Estimation of Water Use Efficiency for Soil Conservation in the Lower Heihe River Basin, Northwest China during 2000–2008
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6250-6266; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096250
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 3 August 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been very limited research on water use efficiency for soil conservation (WUE-SC) in typical water scarce regions such as the lower Heihe River Basin, where there is serious wind erosion and the soil conservation service plays a key role in guaranteeing
[...] Read more.
There has been very limited research on water use efficiency for soil conservation (WUE-SC) in typical water scarce regions such as the lower Heihe River Basin, where there is serious wind erosion and the soil conservation service plays a key role in guaranteeing the ecological safety of Northern China. The soil conservation service, which was represented by the soil conservation amount (SC), was first estimated with an experiment-based model in this study. Then, the WUE-SC (i.e., SC/ET) was calculated on the basis of evapotranspiration (ET) data, and management implications were finally discussed. The results indicated the WUE-SC ranged between 0–98.69 t mm−1, and it first decreased and then increased on the whole during 2000–2008. Besides, the inter-annual variation of WUE-SC was mainly due to change in the potential soil loss. In addition, the WUE-SC showed significant spatial heterogeneity, and the average WUE-SC of the whole study area was very low due to spatiotemporal inconsistency between the potential soil loss and the vegetation coverage rate. Although there are some uncertainties, these results still can provide local managers with valuable information for water resource utilization and ecosystem management to improve water use efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Sustainable Fashion Supply Chain: Lessons from H&M
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6236-6249; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096236
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability is significantly important for fashion business due to consumers’ increasing awareness of environment. When a fashion company aims to promote sustainability, the main linkage is to develop a sustainable supply chain. This paper contributes to current knowledge of sustainable supply chain in
[...] Read more.
Sustainability is significantly important for fashion business due to consumers’ increasing awareness of environment. When a fashion company aims to promote sustainability, the main linkage is to develop a sustainable supply chain. This paper contributes to current knowledge of sustainable supply chain in the textile and clothing industry. We first depict the structure of sustainable fashion supply chain including eco-material preparation, sustainable manufacturing, green distribution, green retailing, and ethical consumers based on the extant literature. We study the case of the Swedish fast fashion company, H&M, which has constructed its sustainable supply chain in developing eco-materials, providing safety training, monitoring sustainable manufacturing, reducing carbon emission in distribution, and promoting eco-fashion. Moreover, based on the secondary data and analysis, we learn the lessons of H&M’s sustainable fashion supply chain from the country perspective: (1) the H&M’s sourcing managers may be more likely to select suppliers in the countries with lower degrees of human wellbeing; (2) the H&M’s supply chain manager may set a higher level of inventory in a country with a higher human wellbeing; and (3) the H&M CEO may consider the degrees of human wellbeing and economic wellbeing, instead of environmental wellbeing when launching the online shopping channel in a specific country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Fashion Business Operations)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Economic and Social Sustainability Performance of Jatropha Projects: Results from Field Surveys in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6203-6235; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096203
Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 August 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (831 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper presents results from comprehensive field surveys of jatropha projects in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali in 2012. The article singles out the salient economic and social impact results and derives lessons. The results clearly demonstrate the weak business case for jatropha biofuel
[...] Read more.
This paper presents results from comprehensive field surveys of jatropha projects in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali in 2012. The article singles out the salient economic and social impact results and derives lessons. The results clearly demonstrate the weak business case for jatropha biofuel production at this time. Plantations were found to be unviable because of insurmountable up-front capital requirements in combination with slow and unreliable crop maturation, inefficient oil pressing owing to a lack of scale and experience, inadequate utilization of by-products, and competitively-priced fossil diesel and palm oil. For smallholders, jatropha only has limited value as a hedge crop in environmentally and economically disadvantaged areas. Better prospects have to wait for the advent of improved jatropha varieties. Social impacts from the perspective of project managers were rather mixed: overall, food security perceptions were positive and no massive forced human displacements were noted so far, though some disputes over land access and compensation were reported. Labor legislation was apparently respected on plantations, and positive gender effects, regional income/employment effects and better public facilities were also reported. The projects generated considerable employment, albeit mostly of a temporary nature, as lack of economic viability had caused many projects to close down again. When introducing next-generation biofuel projects, better monitoring by various actor groups is recommended, as well as long-term investment plans that include integral exit strategies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Biofuels for a Greener Economy? Insights from Jatropha Production in Northeastern Ethiopia
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6188-6202; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096188
Received: 16 July 2014 / Revised: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many observers view Jatropha as a miracle plant that grows in harsh environments, halts land degradation and provides seeds for fuel production. This makes it particularly attractive for use in Ethiopia, where poverty levels are high and the degradation of agricultural land is
[...] Read more.
Many observers view Jatropha as a miracle plant that grows in harsh environments, halts land degradation and provides seeds for fuel production. This makes it particularly attractive for use in Ethiopia, where poverty levels are high and the degradation of agricultural land is widespread. In this article, we investigate the potentials and limitations of a government-initiated Jatropha project for smallholders in northeastern Ethiopia from a green economy perspective. Data are based on a 2009 household survey and interviews with key informants, as well as on a 2012 follow-up round of interviews with key informants. We conclude that the project has not contributed to a greener economy so far, but has the potential to do so in the future. To maximize Jatropha’s potential, interventions must focus mainly on smallholders and pay more attention to the entire biofuel value chain. Full article
Open AccessArticle Taiwan’s Ecological Footprint (1994–2011)
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6170-6187; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096170
Received: 10 July 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 1 September 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to the 2011 edition of the National Footprint Accounts (NFA) published by the Global Footprint Network (GFN), humankind consumed the resources and services of 1.5 planets in 2008; the corresponding number in 1961 was 0.7 planets. North Americans have an ecological footprint
[...] Read more.
According to the 2011 edition of the National Footprint Accounts (NFA) published by the Global Footprint Network (GFN), humankind consumed the resources and services of 1.5 planets in 2008; the corresponding number in 1961 was 0.7 planets. North Americans have an ecological footprint of 8.7 global hectares per person whereas Africans have a footprint of only 1.4 global hectares per person. The global mean biological capacity is only 1.8 global hectares per person so human beings are overshooting ecological resources. The ecological footprint measures the resources that are consumed by humans from the biosphere, and serves as an index of the sustainability of development. The NFA includes the ecological footprints of over 200 countries and regions, but not Taiwan. Hence, Taiwan must establish and update its own ecological footprint databases. Ecological footprint is one indicator of the sustainability of development, and can be compared across nations. This study extends previous studies by analyzing Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. With reference to the ecological footprint accounts of the Global Footprint Network and the Taiwan’s ecological footprint analysis for 1997–2007, this study presents Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011. Most of the data that are used herein are taken from the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Energy Agency, Taiwan’s Council of Agriculture and Taiwan’s National Development Council. The results thus obtained reveal that Taiwan’s ecological footprint from 2008–2011 exceeded that from 1997–2007. To respond to this trend toward un-sustainable development and to help Taiwan move toward sustainability, carbon reduction and energy saving policies should be implemented to effectively manage Taiwan’s ecological resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Land Use and Ecosystem Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Recycling: Mathematical and Graphical Frameworks
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6158-6169; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096158
Received: 4 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1095 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A mathematical framework of the life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis in life cycle assessment (LCA) of recycling is systematically reviewed with the aid of graphical interpretation. First, the zero burden approach, which has been applied to LCI analyses of waste management systems, is
[...] Read more.
A mathematical framework of the life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis in life cycle assessment (LCA) of recycling is systematically reviewed with the aid of graphical interpretation. First, the zero burden approach, which has been applied to LCI analyses of waste management systems, is theoretically justified in terms of relative comparison of waste management options. As recycling is a multi-functional system including the dual functions of waste management and secondary material production, the allocation issue needs to be handled in LCIs of recycling, and two forms of system expansion, i.e., the avoided burden and product basket approaches, have dominated to avoid the allocation problem. Then, it is demonstrated that conclusions derived from both approaches should mathematically be identical as far as system boundaries are correctly defined. A criticism against system expansion is also reviewed from the viewpoint of ambiguity of what-if scenarios. As an approach to this issue, market-based consequential LCA is discussed in the context of LCI analyses of open-loop recycling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Water Resource Vulnerability Characteristics by District’s Population Size in a Changing Climate Using Subjective and Objective Weights
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6141-6157; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096141
Received: 9 May 2014 / Revised: 30 August 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of this study is to derive water resource vulnerability characteristics for South Korea according to individual district populations in a changing climate. The definition of water resource vulnerability in this study consists of potential flood damage and potential water scarcity. To
[...] Read more.
The goal of this study is to derive water resource vulnerability characteristics for South Korea according to individual district populations in a changing climate. The definition of water resource vulnerability in this study consists of potential flood damage and potential water scarcity. To quantify these vulnerabilities, key factors, or indicators affecting vulnerability, are integrated with a technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), which is a multi-criteria decision-making approach to determine the optimal alternative by considering both the best and worst solutions. The weight for each indicator is determined based on both the Delphi technique and Shannon’s entropy, which are employed to reduce the uncertainty in the process of determining the weights. The Delphi technique reflects expert opinions, and Shannon’s entropy reflects the uncertainty of the performance data. Under A1B climate change scenarios, medium-sized districts (200,000–300,000 inhabitants) are the most vulnerable regarding potential flood damage; the largest districts (exceeding 500,000 inhabitants) are found to be the most vulnerable with respect to potential water scarcity. This result indicates that the local governments of cities or districts with more than 200,000 inhabitants should implement better preventative measures for water resources. In addition, the Delphi and entropy methods show the same rankings for flood vulnerability; however, these approaches produce slightly different rankings regarding water scarcity vulnerability. Therefore, it is suggested that rankings from not only subjective but also objective weights should be considered in making a final decision to implement specific adaptive measures to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparative Multi-Criteria Assessment of Climate Policies and Sustainable Development Strategies in Cameroon: Towards a GIS Decision-Support Tool for the Design of an Optimal REDD+ Strategy
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6125-6140; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096125
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 August 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1103 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cameroon is committed to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). To achieve this goal, the government has introduced a series of policy reforms and formulated a number of key strategic
[...] Read more.
Cameroon is committed to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). To achieve this goal, the government has introduced a series of policy reforms and formulated a number of key strategic planning documents to advance the REDD+ readiness process in Cameroon. This paper assesses the extent to which major cross-sectoral policies support or impede the development and implementation of an optimal REDD+ strategy in Cameroon from a comparative multi-criteria perspective. Study results reveal that a majority of the policy instruments reviewed appeared to be less prescriptive in terms of any tangible REDD+ strategy, as they do not have provisions for tangible measures to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. Given the lack of adequate flexibility, prompt review and responsiveness of these cross-sectoral policies to adapt themselves to new realities and respond to a changing environment, this paper introduces a GIS-REDD+ decision support system (GIS-REDD+DSS) that is necessary to support the adaptive element of an adaptive REDD+ strategy in Cameroon. The GIS-REDD+DSS, an electronic REDD+agri intermediary hub, serves the following purpose: (1) host a database of locally-relevant climate information, improved input technologies, best practices as well as land use and forest cover geo-spatial maps; (2) host a virtual economic tool that performs economic valuations (costs and benefits) and financial analysis of REDD+agri projects to aid investment decision-making; and (3) host an electronic marketplace to mediate any-to-any transactions among REDD+agri project developers, service providers, input suppliers, private and institutional investors and buyers (wholesalers and retailers), thereby creating value in two ways: aggregation and matching. This decision support tool, we argue, is a fundamental prerequisite for “policy and REDD+ safeguard integration” innovation that allows new scientific findings to be integrated into REDD+ strategies in a short period of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Biodiversity Conservation in Rice Paddies in China: Toward Ecological Sustainability
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6107-6124; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096107
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 29 August 2014 / Accepted: 30 August 2014 / Published: 9 September 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rice paddies are artificial wetlands that supply people with food and provide wildlife with habitats, breeding areas, shelters, feeding grounds and other services, and rice paddies play an important part in agricultural ecological systems. However, modern agricultural practices with large-scale intensive farming have
[...] Read more.
Rice paddies are artificial wetlands that supply people with food and provide wildlife with habitats, breeding areas, shelters, feeding grounds and other services, and rice paddies play an important part in agricultural ecological systems. However, modern agricultural practices with large-scale intensive farming have significantly accelerated the homogenization of the paddy field ecosystem. Modern agriculture mostly relies on chemically-driven modern varieties and irrigation to ensure high production, resulting in the deterioration and imbalance of the ecosystem. Consequently, outbreaks of diseases, insects and weeds have become more frequent in paddy fields. This paper describes the current situation of rice paddy biodiversity in China and analyzes the community characteristics of arthropods and weedy plants. Meanwhile, we discuss how biodiversity was affected by modern agriculture changes, which have brought about a mounting crisis threatening to animals and plants once common in rice paddies. Measures should be focused to firstly preventing further deterioration and, then, also, promoting restoration processes. Ecological sustainability can be achieved by restoring paddy field biodiversity through protecting the ecological environment surrounding the paddy fields, improving paddy cropping patterns, growing rice with less agricultural chemicals and chemical fertilizers, constructing paddy systems with animals and plants and promoting ecological education and public awareness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Examination of Green Building Drivers in the South African Construction Industry: Economics versus Ecology
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6088-6106; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096088
Received: 10 June 2014 / Revised: 26 August 2014 / Accepted: 27 August 2014 / Published: 9 September 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a large body of literature on green buildings, but few studies have focused on the motivation behind the construction of green buildings globally, and in South Africa in particular. This paper investigates the key drivers of green building in the Western
[...] Read more.
There is a large body of literature on green buildings, but few studies have focused on the motivation behind the construction of green buildings globally, and in South Africa in particular. This paper investigates the key drivers of green building in the Western Cape Construction Industry of South Africa and examines whether these drivers have changed over time. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to provide an overview of green building issues globally and in South Africa, followed by an empirical investigation into the drivers of green building in South Africa using a multi-case study approach. The findings reveal that the key drivers of green building include rising energy costs, the industry’s Green Star rating system, competitive advantages and legislation. The study also indicates that these key drivers have not changed significantly over time. Taken together, these results suggest that the increase in green building has little to do with ecological factors and more to do with economic factors—operational costs and stakeholder demands. The paper concludes that as long as the cost of energy continues to increase and there are recognised industry rating systems in place, the need for green buildings is likely to remain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Building)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6070-6087; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096070
Received: 24 April 2014 / Revised: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 August 2014 / Published: 9 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA) database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated
[...] Read more.
This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA) database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan. The study also applies the IPAT (impact-population-affluence-technology) master equation to measure trends of material use efficiency in Taiwan and to compare them with those of other Asia-Pacific countries. An extended evaluation of efficiency, in comparison with selected economies by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA), is conducted accordingly. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) is thereby adopted to quantify the patterns and the associated changes of efficiency. Observations and summaries can be described as follows. Based on the MFA of the Taiwanese economy, the average growth rates of domestic material input (DMI; 2.83%) and domestic material consumption (DMC; 2.13%) in the past two decades were both less than that of gross domestic product (GDP; 4.95%). The decoupling of environmental pressures from economic growth can be observed. In terms of the decomposition analysis of the IPAT equation and in comparison with 38 other economies, the material use efficiency of Taiwan did not perform as well as its economic growth. The DEA comparisons of resource productivity show that Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Japan performed the best in 2008. Since the MPI consists of technological change (frontier-shift or innovation) and efficiency change (catch-up), the change in efficiency (catch-up) of Taiwan has not been accomplished as expected in spite of the increase in its technological efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Sustainable E-Governance: The Relationship among Trust, Digital Divide, and E-Government
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6049-6069; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096049
Received: 4 June 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study empirically examines the correlation between the quality of e-government and trust in government. It used survey data collected in 2013 from the metropolitan areas of Seoul. An index was developed to measure the quality of e-government services, and the Gov 3.0
[...] Read more.
This study empirically examines the correlation between the quality of e-government and trust in government. It used survey data collected in 2013 from the metropolitan areas of Seoul. An index was developed to measure the quality of e-government services, and the Gov 3.0 values were reflected in the analysis, including openness, sharing, communication, and collaboration. The results show a partial correlation between the quality of e-government service and trust in government. In addition, the level of trust varied according to the different type of the digital divide groups. It suggests that as ICT (Information Communication Technology) has become more sophisticated, a willingness to share information among organizations and stakeholders may become a major factor to thoseactively seeking information and resources to make value-added products. It also suggests that more integrated data management including network securityand an open attitude toward information sharing will be more important beyond the level of technical issues. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Can Environmental Laws Fulfill Their Promise? Stories from Canada
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6024-6048; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096024
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 12 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Canadian environmental law has changed dramatically over the last 50 years, responding to some of the flaws and weaknesses identified by commentators seeking to explain the continuing trend in environmental degradation. The aim of this article is to tell the story of three
[...] Read more.
Canadian environmental law has changed dramatically over the last 50 years, responding to some of the flaws and weaknesses identified by commentators seeking to explain the continuing trend in environmental degradation. The aim of this article is to tell the story of three pieces of Canadian environmental legislation, the Alberta Land Stewardship Act, the federal Species at Risk Act, and Alberta’s Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, with a view to exploring whether the environmental ambition underlying these pieces of legislation is being realized. Our overall conclusion is that there is a significant gap between the ambition of these three pieces of environmental legislation and their actual implementation but this gap arises from design choices made by the legislature and the executive, rather than something inherent in the law itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Law for Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Carbon Emissions in China: A Spatial Econometric Analysis at the Regional Level
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6005-6023; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096005
Received: 23 July 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An extended Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model, incorporating factors that drive carbon emissions, is built from the regional perspective. A spatial Durbin model is applied to investigate the factors, including population, urbanization level, economic development, energy intensity,
[...] Read more.
An extended Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model, incorporating factors that drive carbon emissions, is built from the regional perspective. A spatial Durbin model is applied to investigate the factors, including population, urbanization level, economic development, energy intensity, industrial structure, energy consumption structure, energy price, and openness, that impact both the scale and intensity of carbon emissions. After performing the model, we find that the revealed negative and significant impact of spatial-lagged variables suggests that the carbon emissions among regions are highly correlated. Therefore, the empirical results suggest that the provinces are doing an exemplary job of lowering carbon emissions. The driving factors, with the exception of energy prices, significantly impact carbon emissions both directly and indirectly. We, thus, argue that spatial correlation, endogeneity and externality should be taken into account in formulating polices that seek to reduce carbon emissions in China. Carbon emissions will not be met by controlling economic development, but by energy consumption and low-carbon path. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sources of China’s Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis Based on the BML Index with Green Growth Accounting
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 5983-6004; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6095983
Received: 7 July 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study develops a biennial Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index that is used to measure the sources of economic growth by utilizing data envelopment analysis and the directional distance function. Taking restrictions on resources and the environment into account based on the green growth accounting
[...] Read more.
This study develops a biennial Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index that is used to measure the sources of economic growth by utilizing data envelopment analysis and the directional distance function. Taking restrictions on resources and the environment into account based on the green growth accounting framework; we split economic growth into seven components: technical efficiency change, technological change, labor effect, capital effect, energy effect, output structure effect and environmental regulation effect. Further, we apply the Silverman test and Li-Fan-Ullah nonparametric test in combination with kernel distribution to test for the counterfactual contributions at the provincial level in China from 1998 to 2012. The empirical results show that: (1) technological progress and TFP make positive contributions to economic growth in China, while technical efficiency drags it down; (2) the effect of output structure and CO2 emissions with environmental regulation restrain economic growth in some provinces; and (3) overall, physical capital accumulation is the most important driving force for economic take-off, irrespective of whether the government adopts environmental regulations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Compact Urban Development on Air Pollution: Empirical Evidence from Korea
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 5968-5982; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6095968
Received: 6 June 2014 / Revised: 29 August 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigates the effects of compact urban development on air pollution, taking into account both the spatial distribution of pollutants resulting from an increase in inner urban densities and the dispersion of pollutants associated with an increase in outer green open spaces.
[...] Read more.
This study investigates the effects of compact urban development on air pollution, taking into account both the spatial distribution of pollutants resulting from an increase in inner urban densities and the dispersion of pollutants associated with an increase in outer green open spaces. The empirical analysis is based upon a panel data model covering 17 cities in Korea from 1996–2009; this approach is used because urban air pollution is influenced by spatial and temporal changes. Measuring the air pollution level by distance from city centers demonstrates that the spatial concentration of emission sources does not necessarily increase air pollution levels. The two-way fixed effects model, which is employed to control both individual (regional) and time effects, shows that SO2 decreases as the proportion of green area increases, while a rise in net density leads to an increase of NO2. Both effects are observed in the case of CO dispersion by green area as well as emission source concentration by high densities. Therefore, there is no clear impact of compact urban development on air quality, which is instead related to pollutant-specific characteristics and the emission source. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top