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Sustainability, Volume 6, Issue 9 (September 2014), Pages 5512-6487

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Open AccessReview Density, the Sustainability Multiplier: Some Myths and Truths with Application to Perth, Australia
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6467-6487; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096467
Received: 9 May 2014 / Revised: 11 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper suggests that the divisive urban issue of density has critical importance for sustainability. It is particularly important to resolve for the low density car dependent cities of the world as they are highly resource consumptive. Ten myths about density and 10
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The paper suggests that the divisive urban issue of density has critical importance for sustainability. It is particularly important to resolve for the low density car dependent cities of the world as they are highly resource consumptive. Ten myths about density and 10 truths about density are proposed to help resolve the planning issues so commonly found to divide urban communities. They are applied with data to Perth to illustrate the issues and how they can be resolved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Density and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW) Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6446-6466; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096446
Received: 29 June 2014 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (824 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW) source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed.
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Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW) source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed. Based on the survey, the authors used an ordered probit regression to study residents’ HSW source separation activities for both Suzhou and for the five community groups. Results showed that 43% of the respondents in Suzhou thought they knew how to source separate HSW, and 29% of them have source separated HSW accurately. The results also found that the current HSW source separation pilot program in Suzhou is valid, as HSW source separation facilities and residents’ separation behavior both became better and better along with the program implementation. The main determinants of residents’ HSW source separation behavior are residents’ age, HSW source separation facilities and government preferential policies. The accessibility to waste management service is particularly important. Attitudes and willingness do not have significant impacts on residents’ HSW source separation behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Cities)
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Open AccessArticle Rethinking the Social and Solidarity Society in Light of Community Practice
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6432-6445; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096432
Received: 7 July 2014 / Revised: 10 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Building social alternatives is necessary to resist the destructive impacts of the capitalist organization on well-being, social organization, and the planet. This paper offers an analysis of the ways in which peoples are mobilizing to build organizations and to define social movements to
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Building social alternatives is necessary to resist the destructive impacts of the capitalist organization on well-being, social organization, and the planet. This paper offers an analysis of the ways in which peoples are mobilizing to build organizations and to define social movements to move beyond current crises. The lines for constructing an ecologically sound and social-solidarity society require mechanisms for mutual cooperation based on alternative systems of decision making, as well as for doing work and assuring well-being to every member of the community. These depend on forging a process of solidarity among the members of a society as well as building alliances among communities; to assure the satisfaction of basic needs while also attending the most pressing requirements for physical, social and environmental infrastructure and to assure the conservation and rehabilitation of their ecosystems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimation of Real-Time Flood Risk on Roads Based on Rainfall Calculated by the Revised Method of Missing Rainfall
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6418-6431; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096418
Received: 11 July 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 18 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1820 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, flood damage by frequent localized downpours in cities is on the increase on account of abnormal climate phenomena and the growth of impermeable areas due to urbanization. This study suggests a method to estimate real-time flood risk on roads for drivers based
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Recently, flood damage by frequent localized downpours in cities is on the increase on account of abnormal climate phenomena and the growth of impermeable areas due to urbanization. This study suggests a method to estimate real-time flood risk on roads for drivers based on the accumulated rainfall. The amount of rainfall of a road link, which is an intensive type, is calculated by using the revised method of missing rainfall in meteorology, because the rainfall is not measured on roads directly. To process in real time with a computer, we use the inverse distance weighting (IDW) method, which is a suitable method in the computing system and is commonly used in relation to precipitation due to its simplicity. With real-time accumulated rainfall, the flooding history, rainfall range causing flooding from previous rainfall information and frequency probability of precipitation are used to determine the flood risk on roads. The result of simulation using the suggested algorithms shows the high concordance rate between actual flooded areas in the past and flooded areas derived from the simulation for the research region in Busan, Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Green IT System for Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Variation of Regional Sustainable Development and its Relationship to the Allocation of Science and Technology Resources
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6400-6417; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096400
Received: 27 May 2014 / Revised: 14 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 August 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the increasing of labor salaries, the RMB exchange rate, resource product prices and requirements of environmental protection, inexpensive labor and land are no longer the decisive factor of regional competitiveness. From this perspective, China needs to shift from the extensive development mode
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With the increasing of labor salaries, the RMB exchange rate, resource product prices and requirements of environmental protection, inexpensive labor and land are no longer the decisive factor of regional competitiveness. From this perspective, China needs to shift from the extensive development mode to the sustainable development mode. Science and technology resources rational allocation is one of the key issues in sustainable development. Based on the counties (districts) data of Zhejiang Province in China, this paper portrays the spatial variation of regional sustainable development level of this area. This paper finds that counties tend to cluster in groups with the same sustainable development level, and this agglomeration trend has been enforced during the past several years. It then testifies to the relationship between the allocation of science and technology resources and local sustainable development, identifies science and technology human resources, financial resources and environmental resource are positively related to local sustainable development, except government financial support. The economic level has a negative relationship with regional sustainable development. This is because the development of the Zhejiang economy grown at the expense of the environment and ecosystem. Some advice is given according to the empirical analysis result. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Commitment to Emissions Restrictions of Major Consumers of Electricity in Brazil
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6377-6399; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096377
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 26 August 2014 / Accepted: 28 August 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the context of global concerns about climate change that stem from the alarming and unprecedented growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, this study discusses the use of energy by large consumers of electricity in Brazil in the perspective of sustainable development, energy
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In the context of global concerns about climate change that stem from the alarming and unprecedented growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, this study discusses the use of energy by large consumers of electricity in Brazil in the perspective of sustainable development, energy resources, and regulatory policies. It evaluates the commitment to emissions restrictions among the major customers of an electricity utility company that serves 4.1 million consumers (68% of the population and 66% of the gross internal product for the second-highest economically developed Brazilian state). The evaluation is based on proposed metrics and indicators. By considering the Brazilian commitment to a policy of sustainable development, this study reviews the primary international agreements and recommendations that have been developed to mitigate and adapt to climate change and sustainability. A survey was developed for participating organizations classified by economic sector to assess their awareness to 18 issues that reflect international guidelines on emission constraints. Based on total energy consumption, the survey discusses the worrying level of GHG emissions (tCO2eq) that is associated with the generation of electricity by customers of the largest utility company. In spite of 90% of the organizations having considered sustainability as a business opportunity and a competitive differential that enables niche markets, the results of this study demonstrated low commitment to the desired emissions restrictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Industrial Ecology and Environmental Lean Management: Lights and Shadows
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6362-6376; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096362
Received: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current industrial production is driven by increasing globalization, which has led to a steady increase in production volumes and complexity of products aimed at the pursuit of meeting the needs of customers. In this context, one of the main tools in the management
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Current industrial production is driven by increasing globalization, which has led to a steady increase in production volumes and complexity of products aimed at the pursuit of meeting the needs of customers. In this context, one of the main tools in the management of customer value is Lean Manufacturing or Production, though it is considered primarily as a set of tools to reduce the total cost of the resources needed to achieve such needs. This philosophy has recently been enriched in the literature with case studies that link Lean Management (LM) with the improvement of environmental sustainability. The consequence is an expansion of the Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM); indeed, CIM, currently, combining and integrating the key business functions (e.g., business, engineering, manufacturing, and information management) with a view of the life cycle, does not highlight the strategic role of the environmental aspects. In order to deal with the increasingly rapid environmental degradation that is reflected in society, in terms of both economy and quality of life, Industrial Ecology (IE) introduced a new paradigm of principles and instruments of analysis and decision support (e.g., Life Cycle Assessment—LCA, Social Life Cycle Assessment -SLCA, Material Flow Account—MFA, etc.) that can be considered as the main basis for integrating the environmental aspects in each strategy, design, production, final product, and end of life management, through the re-engineering of processes and activities towards the development of an eco-industrial system. This paper presents the preliminary observations based on a analysis of both theories (LM-IE) and provides a possible assessment of the key factors relevant to their integration in a “lean environmental management”, highlighting both positives (lights) and possible barriers (shadows). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
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Open AccessArticle A Light-Weight Metering File System for Sustainable Real-Time Meter Data Management
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6351-6361; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096351
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
PDF Full-text (930 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A real-time smart metering system has strict requirements, since every piece of data gathered from various meters every hour is of importance, and each component consisting of metering infrastructure should be sustainable. Therefore, it is necessary to efficiently manage the meter data set
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A real-time smart metering system has strict requirements, since every piece of data gathered from various meters every hour is of importance, and each component consisting of metering infrastructure should be sustainable. Therefore, it is necessary to efficiently manage the meter data set in smart metering networks as well as in a server. Therefore, we propose a dedicated file system, a LIght-weight Metering File System (LIMFS), which is capable of not only efficiently storing and searching meter data but also performing distributed fault-tolerant meter data management for real-time smart meter devices. The proposed LIMFS exploits accumulated data sliding storage (ADSS) for lost data recovery and latest-first error-ignorant data management (LEDM) to reduce memory wastage, coping with dynamic report interval. Experimental results demonstrate that LIMFS has as a small enough overhead to be considered negligible, and provides flexible memory capacity according to dynamic report interval, in spite of lost data recovery functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ubiquitous Green IT System for Sustainable Computing)
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Open AccessArticle The Chieftaincy Institution in Ghana: Causers and Arbitrators of Conflicts in Industrial Jatropha Investments
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6332-6350; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096332
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Large-scale land acquisition in Africa has been the concern and the focus of growing global literature on land grabbing. The upswing in biofuel investments in Ghana led to large-scale land acquisitions by the private sector presided over by chiefs. This research investigates how
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Large-scale land acquisition in Africa has been the concern and the focus of growing global literature on land grabbing. The upswing in biofuel investments in Ghana led to large-scale land acquisitions by the private sector presided over by chiefs. This research investigates how chiefs, in playing their traditional roles in the acquisition of land and as arbitrators, were, in most instances, the cause and the solution to the ensuing conflicts in the various communities. Data was collected through interviews, use of questionnaires and focus group discussions. Some of the conflict issues include loss of farmlands or other communal lands, disagreements on the land acquisition processes, the quantum and mode of execution of compensation payments and the existence or contents of social responsibility agreements. Furthermore, the use of negotiation, mediation and courts by people in these communities relative to arbitration by chiefs is increasing. The Government of Ghana needs to strengthen the public sector land institutions and put in place stronger and binding mechanisms for resolving disputes arising from large-scale acquisitions of land to cushion the effect of the weakening confidence in the chieftaincy institution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Eco-Industrial Parks from Strategic Niches to Development Mainstream: The Cases of China
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6325-6331; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096325
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
China has implemented eco-industrial park (EIP) initiatives as a mainstream strategy of a circular economy since the turn of the new century. This paper presents the sustainable transition processes and outcomes of three EIP cases, Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA), Fuzhou
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China has implemented eco-industrial park (EIP) initiatives as a mainstream strategy of a circular economy since the turn of the new century. This paper presents the sustainable transition processes and outcomes of three EIP cases, Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA), Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Area (FEDA) and the Xi’an High-Tech Zone (XHTZ). The cases uncovered four factors key to the transition of EIPs: technological trajectory dependency, spaces for experimentation, government as an enabler and regional embeddedness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Evolutionary Game Analysis of Remanufacturing Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Asymmetric Information
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6312-6324; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096312
Received: 13 May 2014 / Revised: 26 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remanufacturing is an effective means to realize energy saving and emission reduction. This paper develops an evolutionary game model with a two-echelon closed-loop supply chain to study evolutionary stable strategies (ESS) of manufacturers and retailers. Through analyzing evolutionary path of the game, we
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Remanufacturing is an effective means to realize energy saving and emission reduction. This paper develops an evolutionary game model with a two-echelon closed-loop supply chain to study evolutionary stable strategies (ESS) of manufacturers and retailers. Through analyzing evolutionary path of the game, we find that there are two possible evolutionary results affected by the profits of manufacturers. Price of remanufacturing products may be a critical factor that determines the ESS. Government subsidy is critical to promote the development of remanufacturing industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Fashion Business Operations)
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Open AccessArticle An Examination of the Relationship between Rural Tourists’ Satisfaction, Revisitation and Information Preferences: A Korean Case Study
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6293-6311; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096293
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 August 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (992 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To encourage the sustainability of rural tourism and to achieve success in the tourist industry, an understanding of the factors by which tourists are motivated to visit rural areas is required. This study aims to measure factors affecting rural tourists’ satisfaction in relation
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To encourage the sustainability of rural tourism and to achieve success in the tourist industry, an understanding of the factors by which tourists are motivated to visit rural areas is required. This study aims to measure factors affecting rural tourists’ satisfaction in relation to different aspects of a destination and to increase the likelihood of revisitation and recommendation. This study also attempts to examine differences in relation to satisfaction depending on the information source preference. Overall satisfaction was influenced by physical infrastructure, service quality and satisfaction level with tour programs. However, the quality of services was more related to tourists’ intentions to revisit and recommend, suggesting that its qualitative improvement can contribute to vitalizing stagnant domestic tourism. The findings revealed that tourists’ satisfaction was high when people mainly gained tourist information through formal government sources, word-of-mouth and Internet advertising, suggesting that the positive correlation between tourists’ satisfaction and information sources reflects the reliability and credibility of those sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle Climatic Design and Changing Social Needs in the Tropics: A Case Study in Kuching, Sarawak
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6278-6292; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096278
Received: 22 May 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 August 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On the periphery of most urban centres in the tropics, many new houses are being constructed in previously rural areas. However, the design of these houses shows little respect for local climate or local lifestyle, as they are now developer-constructed brick-and-concrete houses on
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On the periphery of most urban centres in the tropics, many new houses are being constructed in previously rural areas. However, the design of these houses shows little respect for local climate or local lifestyle, as they are now developer-constructed brick-and-concrete houses on smaller lots rather than community-built housing on large lots. This paper proposes a set of design strategies that acknowledges the particular needs related to climate and changing lifestyle in these tropical zones. Using case study methodology, the design strategies are tested on a prototype for an actual site in Tapah Village on the periphery of Kuching, Sarawak. In order to gauge the thermal performance of the prototype it was thermally simulated. The thermal simulation of the prototype showed that temperatures generally remained within an acceptable range without air-conditioning. An informal workshop was held in Tapah to gauge social acceptance of the design strategies. The prototype demonstrated that specific design strategies, some based on traditional designs, are essential in the tropics in order to minimise the need for air conditioning. These design strategies were acknowledged as important by the local community, although there was concern about the potential increase in the capital cost of such housing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle Environment in Industrial Ecology, Grasping a Complex Notion for Enhancing Industrial Synergies at Territorial Scales
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6267-6277; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096267
Received: 6 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (845 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Identifying the most relevant environment related indicators and how to make them available to decision-makers are current issues. Some seek to enhance their efficiency by means of methods such as aggregations or weighting. More fundamentally, in this chapter we question how industrial ecologists
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Identifying the most relevant environment related indicators and how to make them available to decision-makers are current issues. Some seek to enhance their efficiency by means of methods such as aggregations or weighting. More fundamentally, in this chapter we question how industrial ecologists appropriate the notion of environment. On the basis of multidisciplinary research, we argue that, in contexts of geographically bounded networks of social actors forging industrial synergies, environmental questions should be posed from the viewpoint of the actors. Our work might aid to operationalize the complex notion of environment in such contexts, and constitutes a call to develop anthropocentric approaches to defining environmental indications followed by appropriated indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Model Estimation of Water Use Efficiency for Soil Conservation in the Lower Heihe River Basin, Northwest China during 2000–2008
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6250-6266; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096250
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 3 August 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been very limited research on water use efficiency for soil conservation (WUE-SC) in typical water scarce regions such as the lower Heihe River Basin, where there is serious wind erosion and the soil conservation service plays a key role in guaranteeing
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There has been very limited research on water use efficiency for soil conservation (WUE-SC) in typical water scarce regions such as the lower Heihe River Basin, where there is serious wind erosion and the soil conservation service plays a key role in guaranteeing the ecological safety of Northern China. The soil conservation service, which was represented by the soil conservation amount (SC), was first estimated with an experiment-based model in this study. Then, the WUE-SC (i.e., SC/ET) was calculated on the basis of evapotranspiration (ET) data, and management implications were finally discussed. The results indicated the WUE-SC ranged between 0–98.69 t mm−1, and it first decreased and then increased on the whole during 2000–2008. Besides, the inter-annual variation of WUE-SC was mainly due to change in the potential soil loss. In addition, the WUE-SC showed significant spatial heterogeneity, and the average WUE-SC of the whole study area was very low due to spatiotemporal inconsistency between the potential soil loss and the vegetation coverage rate. Although there are some uncertainties, these results still can provide local managers with valuable information for water resource utilization and ecosystem management to improve water use efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
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