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Sustainability, Volume 6, Issue 10 (October 2014), Pages 6488-7481

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Open AccessArticle A Site Selection Model for a Straw-Based Power Generation Plant with CO2 Emissions
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7466-7481; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107466
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 24 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The decision on the location of a straw-based power generation plant has a great influence on the plant’s operation and performance. This study explores traditional theories for site selection. Using integer programming, the study optimizes the economic and carbon emission outcomes of straw-based
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The decision on the location of a straw-based power generation plant has a great influence on the plant’s operation and performance. This study explores traditional theories for site selection. Using integer programming, the study optimizes the economic and carbon emission outcomes of straw-based power generation as two objectives, with the supply and demand of straw as constraints. It provides a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model to solve the site selection problem for a straw-based power generation plant. It then provides a case study to demonstrate the application of the model in the decision on the site selection for a straw-based power generation plant with a Chinese region. Finally, the paper discusses the result of the model in the context of the wider aspect of straw-based power generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special issue of Sustainable Asia Conference 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Limits—Urban Density and Mobility Networks in West Berlin during the Period of Containment
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7452-7465; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107452
Received: 28 May 2014 / Revised: 16 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
If space may be conceptualized as a natural resource, much like gas, oil, or minerals, then its production and use can also be thought of as something to be properly managed, taken care of, and not wasted. Limiting the expansion of the footprint
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If space may be conceptualized as a natural resource, much like gas, oil, or minerals, then its production and use can also be thought of as something to be properly managed, taken care of, and not wasted. Limiting the expansion of the footprint of built-up land in urban areas forces this particular resource (space) to be used more efficiently—in a sense, compelling it to be more creative and productive. These spatial constraints on urban areas generate different kinds of densification processes within the existing city, propagating densification, and with it new patterns and uses in urban development, as well as novel approaches to mitigating the hazards of dense urban environments. This paper examines the case of how spatial containment in West Berlin during the period of the Berlin Wall (1961–1989) produced such outcomes. West Berlin during this period can be considered a unique case of spatial containment, where a relatively large and vibrant modern city had to work around a clear and indelible limit to its physical expansion. This paper will discuss ways in which the containment influenced patterns of development in West Berlin toward densification and connectivity, focusing on the expansion of its infrastructural networks, and discuss the development of a new building culture around transformation and densification, including hybrid architectures and mitigation devices to deal with difficult sites produced by the densification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Density and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7433-7451; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107433
Received: 24 August 2014 / Revised: 3 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise) due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper
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Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise) due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP) or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1) the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2) administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3) the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4) planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Impact of Complementary Assets on the Environmental Performance in Manufacturing SMEs
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7412-7432; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107412
Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the impact of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) on the environment increases, there is a need for effective environmental policies to sustain their development. Under this condition, SMEs implement innovation to meet environmental regulations and to achieve environmental competitiveness in sustainability. We
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As the impact of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) on the environment increases, there is a need for effective environmental policies to sustain their development. Under this condition, SMEs implement innovation to meet environmental regulations and to achieve environmental competitiveness in sustainability. We examine the impact of environmental innovation on labor productivity in SME manufacturers. The literature shows that complementary assets help SMEs to increase their performance in environmental innovation. Therefore, we study the interactive effects of the SMEs’ business-group affiliation and the listing status on the relationship between environmental innovation and labor productivity. We add these interaction terms to multivariate regressions by using the 2010 Korea Innovation Survey. The results show that SMEs are able to use environmental innovation as a business strategy for green growth with improved labor productivity. Also, the results highlight that the business-group affiliation and the listing status as the complementary assets positively moderate the performance of the environmental innovation of the SMEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Civil Society in Hybrid Governance: Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) Legitimacy in Mediating Wal-Mart’s Local Produce Supply Chains in Honduras
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7388-7411; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107388
Received: 28 August 2014 / Revised: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper challenges the notion that the incorporation of actors from civil society into hybrid governance arrangements improves outcomes and legitimacy. Multi-stakeholder collaborations are a popular hybrid governance approach to development, including NGOs’ work to integrate smallholder farmers into supermarket supply chains. As
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This paper challenges the notion that the incorporation of actors from civil society into hybrid governance arrangements improves outcomes and legitimacy. Multi-stakeholder collaborations are a popular hybrid governance approach to development, including NGOs’ work to integrate smallholder farmers into supermarket supply chains. As a result, NGOs’ service provision role has expanded to include market facilitation, often necessitating NGOs act as market intermediaries. This paper explores how this new role may jeopardize NGOs’ organizational legitimacy in the eyes of their constituents, other development organizations, and supermarket partners, and therefore ultimately affect their ability to represent civil society in hybrid governance arrangements. Drawing on qualitative data collected in the Central American country of Honduras, this paper focuses on NGOs’ role organizing producer associations to facilitate access to Wal-Mart supermarkets. Findings suggest that a lack of supply chain transparency, NGOs’ negotiation between commercial and aid-oriented goals, and the potential to exclude producers from development projects threaten NGOs’ legitimacy. These findings illustrate the difficulties of embedding philanthropic activities in market-based systems, and demonstrate how multi-stakeholder collaborations may be influenced more by commercial priorities than the elements of a partnership. Ultimately, development NGOs are products of neoliberal, hybrid governance, even as their activities are expected to ease the transition of small-scale producers into this system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agricultural Governance)
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Open AccessArticle Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7358-7387; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107358
Received: 3 August 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the
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Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the current inadequate charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, major entities must adopt business models for solar powered charging stations (SPCS). These SPCS should be located in parking lots to produce electricity for the grid and provide an integrated infrastructure for charging electric vehicles. Due to the lack of information related to SPCS business models, this manuscript designs several models for major entities including industry, the federal and state government, utilities, universities, and public parking. A literature review of the available relevant business models and case studies of constructed charging stations was completed to support the proposals. In addition, a survey of a university’s students, staff, and faculty was conducted to provide consumer research on people’s opinion of SPCS construction and preference of business model aspects. Results showed that 69% of respondents would be more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if there was sufficient charging station infrastructure at the university. Among many recommendations, the business models suggest installing level 1 charging for the majority of entities, and to match entities’ current pricing structures for station use. The manuscript discusses the impacts of fossil fuel use, and the benefits of electric car and SPCS use, accommodates for the present gap in available literature on SPCS business models, and provides current consumer data for SPCS and the models proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transportation and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Assessing Heat Health Risk for Sustainability in Beijing’s Urban Heat Island
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7334-7357; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107334
Received: 15 June 2014 / Revised: 11 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (19863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research is motivated by the increasing threat of urban heat waves that are likely worsened by pervasive global warming and urbanization. Different regions of the city including urban, borderland and rural area will experience different levels of heat health risk. In this
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This research is motivated by the increasing threat of urban heat waves that are likely worsened by pervasive global warming and urbanization. Different regions of the city including urban, borderland and rural area will experience different levels of heat health risk. In this paper, we propose an improved approach to quantitatively assess Beijing’s heat health risk based on three factors from hazard, vulnerability and especially environment which is considered as an independent factor because different land use/cover types have different influence on ambient air temperatures under the Urban Heat Island effect. The results show that the heat health risk of Beijing demonstrates a spatial-temporal pattern with higher risk in the urban area, lower risk in the borderland between urban and rural area, and lowest risk in the rural area, and the total risk fluctuated dramatically during 2008–2011. To be more specific, the heat health risk was clearly higher in 2009 and 2010 than in 2008 and 2011. Further analysis with the urban area at sub-district level signifies that the impervious surface (urban area such as buildings, roads, et al.) ratio is of high correlation with the heat health risk. The validation results show that the proposed method improved the accuracy of heat health risk assessment. We recommend that policy makers should develop efficient urban planning to accomplish Beijing’s sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Borderland Studies and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal and Daylighting Performance of Energy-Efficient Windows in Highly Glazed Residential Buildings: Case Study in Korea
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7311-7333; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107311
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4079 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS)
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Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS) with shading with various surface reflectivities in highly glazed residential buildings. Evaluation of thermal and daylighting performances is carried out using simulation tools. The reductions in cooling load and energy cost through the use of DWS are evaluated through a comparative simulation considering conventional windows: a single window and a double window. Three variables of window types, natural ventilation, and shading reflectivity are reflected in the study. According to our results, implementation of DWS reduced cooling load by 43%–61%. Electricity cost during the cooling period was reduced by a maximum of 24%. However, a shading device setting that prioritizes effective cooling load reduction can greatly decrease the daylighting factor and luminance level of indoor space. A DWS implementing shading device with highly reflective at all surfaces is appropriate option for the more comfortable thermal and visual environment, while a shading device with low reflectivity at rear of the surface can contribute an additional 4% cooling load reduction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cooperation or Competition? Channel Choice for a Remanufacturing Fashion Supply Chain with Government Subsidy
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7292-7310; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107292
Received: 27 August 2014 / Revised: 5 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (978 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we address the problem of choosing an appropriate channel for the marketing channel structure of remanufactured fashion products. To be specific, we consider a remanufacturer who has two options for selling the products: (1) provide the remanufactured products to a
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In this paper, we address the problem of choosing an appropriate channel for the marketing channel structure of remanufactured fashion products. To be specific, we consider a remanufacturer who has two options for selling the products: (1) provide the remanufactured products to a manufacturer, then the manufacturer sells both new products and the remanufactured products to customers, and (2) sell the remanufactured products directly to customers. Because of the relatively low acceptance of remanufactured products and environment consciousness of customers in developing countries like China, we model the two scenarios as decentralized remanufacturing supply chains, with the manufacturer being the Stackelberg leader and the government offering subsidy to the remanufacturer to incentivize remanufacturing activities. We find that the subsidy can incentivize remanufacturing activity regardless of the remanufacturer’s channel choice. A “too high” or “too low” subsidy makes the remanufacturer compete with the manufacturer, and an intermediate subsidy results in cooperation between the two members of the remanufacturing supply chain. Meanwhile, if the customers’ acceptance for remanufactured products is higher, the remanufacturer will be more likely to compete with the manufacturer. However, the remanufacturer’s optimal channel choice may be inefficient in the sense of social welfare and environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Fashion Business Operations)
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Open AccessArticle Initial Study on Triaxiality of Human Settlements—In the Case of 10 Districts (Counties) of Dalian
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7276-7291; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107276
Received: 15 August 2014 / Revised: 12 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For a long time, the traditional pattern of urban-rural human settlements has been shaped in reference to the existence of the urban-rural dual structure. In this paper, we put forward the notion of triaxiality of human settlements, and used the standards conversion entropy
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For a long time, the traditional pattern of urban-rural human settlements has been shaped in reference to the existence of the urban-rural dual structure. In this paper, we put forward the notion of triaxiality of human settlements, and used the standards conversion entropy weight method to measure and calculate degrees of livability of human settlements, so as to prove the existence of triaxiality of human settlements within the same unit at the micro-scale level, and conduct an empirical study on the spatial-temporal evolution, system attributes and formation mechanisms of the triaxiality of human settlements in 10 districts (counties) of Dalian (Years 2002–2011). Results showed that: (1) Spatial evolution of human settlements presents triaxiality. Administrative divisions do not play a full and predominant role in the unit division of human settlements. The number of distribution districts (counties) within different units of human settlements tends to be balanced, there is spatial variation of tertiary units in the human settlements of Dalian, and the transition area of human settlements occupies the leading position in the unit division of human settlements; (2) Human settlements also exhibit triaxiality at different development stages during the period of evolution. The fluctuation changes of degrees of livability of the human settlements of Dalian within the past 10 years have been relatively stable, with a trend of small scale decline and obvious manifestations of stage differences; (3) The system attributive characters of human settlements presents triaxiality. There also exists differentiations of system and area in human settlements within the same unit; (4) Industrialization and urbanization have led to the collapse of part of the urban-rural dual structure, while the differentiation of ternary structure of the economic and social structure, and living environment and life style leads to the triaxiality of human settlements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wireless Sensor Network Powered by a Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cell as a Sustainable Land Monitoring Energy System
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7263-7275; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107263
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 26 September 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work aims at investigating the possibility of a wireless sensor network powered by an energy harvesting technology, such as a microbial fuel cell (MFC). An MFC is a bioreactor that transforms energy stored in chemical bonds of organic compounds into electrical energy.
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This work aims at investigating the possibility of a wireless sensor network powered by an energy harvesting technology, such as a microbial fuel cell (MFC). An MFC is a bioreactor that transforms energy stored in chemical bonds of organic compounds into electrical energy. This process takes place through catalytic reactions of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. An anode chamber together with a cathode chamber composes a conventional MFC reactor. The protons generated in the anode chamber are then transferred into the cathode chamber through a proton exchange membrane (PEM). A possible option is to use the soil itself as the membrane. In this case, we are referring to, more properly, a terrestrial microbial fuel cell (TMFC). This research examines the sustainability of a wireless sensor network powered by TMFC for land monitoring and precision agriculture. Acting on several factors, such as pH, temperature, humidity and type of soil used, we obtained minimum performance requirements in terms of the output power of the TMFC. In order to identify some of the different network node configurations and to compare the resulting performance, we investigated the energy consumption of the core components of a node, e.g., the transceiver and microcontroller, looking for the best performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Is There Any Evidence on the Existence of an Environmental Taxation Kuznets Curve? The Case of European Countries under Their Rule of Law Enforcement
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7242-7262; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107242
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 20 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper gives new insights into the environmental taxation policy, demonstrating the existence of an inverse U-shaped relationship between environmental taxation and income in European countries. Our findings reveal this relationship to be influenced by enforcement of the rule of law, which contributes
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The paper gives new insights into the environmental taxation policy, demonstrating the existence of an inverse U-shaped relationship between environmental taxation and income in European countries. Our findings reveal this relationship to be influenced by enforcement of the rule of law, which contributes to shifting the turning point on the curve to lower income levels. We show that former transition economies have not reached the turning point due to weak institutions. To achieve the goal of sustainable development, the European Environment Agency’s Environmental Taxation Reform, proposing to shift taxation from “goods” to “bads”, should be accompanied by effective enforcement or the rule of law. The heterogeneity found between market-based and former transition European countries demonstrates the existence of problems at the EU-level in the coordination of environmental policies and enforcing the rule of law. In addition, the analysis of the determinants of environmental taxation points to the importance of factors related to consumption and production, governance, environmental quality, oil price shocks and the shift of environmental policy in European countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor (Ricinus communis) Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7224-7241; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107224
Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods.
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Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each country’s broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chinese Public Willingness to Pay to Avoid Having Nuclear Power Plants in the Neighborhood
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7197-7223; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107197
Received: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In spite of the decreasing share of nuclear power all over the world, China resumed the approval of large-scale construction of nuclear power plants in 2012. However, influenced by the worldwide spreading anti-nuclear attitudes, people who live near nuclear power plants showed increasing
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In spite of the decreasing share of nuclear power all over the world, China resumed the approval of large-scale construction of nuclear power plants in 2012. However, influenced by the worldwide spreading anti-nuclear attitudes, people who live near nuclear power plants showed increasing concerns about nuclear risks. Consequently, the Not In My Backyard (NIMBY) syndrome of nuclear power plants should be evaluated prudently to support the healthy development of nuclear power in China. Based on the face-to-face survey data, this study estimates Chinese public willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid having nuclear power plants in the neighborhood. The respondents include both residents who currently live near and those who would live near nuclear power plants in the future. Considering the possible presence of the sample selection bias caused by protest responses, this paper constructs a two-step sample selection model with the protest responses and the double bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) questions. Using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), we measure the effects of influencing factors of public WTP and study the decay of WTP with longer distances from nuclear power plants. The results suggest that most people are willing to pay higher electricity prices to avoid having nuclear power plants in the neighborhood. Comparing the WTP to avoid having nuclear power plants nearby with the current electricity price, we find that there is an increase of 56.7% and 69.1% of respondents’ WTP for a nuclear power plant located 80 km and 30 km, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special issue of Sustainable Asia Conference 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of the Support Level of Local Organizations in a Model Forest Initiative: Do Local Stakeholders Have Willingness to Be Involved in the Model Forest Development?
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7181-7196; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6107181
Received: 13 July 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1038 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Voluntary cooperation and the support of stakeholders carry a major importance in the development of Model Forests. The identification of the support level of local organizations as stakeholders in the Bucak Model Forest initiative, located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, constitutes the
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Voluntary cooperation and the support of stakeholders carry a major importance in the development of Model Forests. The identification of the support level of local organizations as stakeholders in the Bucak Model Forest initiative, located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, constitutes the theme of this study. Within this scope, the views of the stakeholders comprising local government units (LGUs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), village councils (VCs), professional organizations (POs) and forest products enterprises (FPEs) located in the district of Bucak were collected by utilizing a survey technique. The data were analysed by using non-parametric statistical analyses due to the absence of a normal distribution. The results show that the information provided about the Model Forest concept to the stakeholders located in the district on the Bucak Model Forest initiative was identified as a factor impacting the support level. Moreover, it was also observed that the stakeholders were more willing to provide advisory support rather than financial support. NGOs and VCs were identified as stakeholders who could not provide financial support due to their restricted budgets. We discuss the benefits for a Model Forest initiative of establishing international cooperation to strengthen the local and regional sustainable development process. Full article
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