E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Engineering and Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Eng. Santi Trovato (Website)

President of "Engineers Association of Messina, Italy" Via Nicola Fabrizi, n° 131 - 98123 - Messina, Italy
Interests: civil and hydraulic engineering; environmental protection
Guest Editor
Dr. Giuseppe Ioppolo (Website)

Engineers Association of Messina, Italy
University of Study of Messina, Department of Economics, Business, Environment and Quantitative Methods (SEAM), Piazza Pugliatti 1, Messina, Italy
Interests: Environmental Management; Industrial Ecology; Environmental Governance; Local Development
Guest Editor
Dr. Pauline Deutz (Website)

Department of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK
Fax: + 44 (0) 1482 466340
Interests: Sustainable development; industrial ecology; industrial symbiosis; environmental policy; waste management; the green economy and environmental justice
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Luigi Ciraolo (Website)

Full Professor of Technology and Quality; President of “Italian Commodity Science Academy ‒ AISME”
Interests: technology innovations; environmental and quality management system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue comprises selected papers collated from an international and interdisciplinary annual venture of the “Italian Commodity Science Academy (AISME)” and “Engineers Association of Messina, Italy”, directed by Eng. Santi Trovato, with the advocacy of the International Society of Commodity Science and Technology (IGWT). This year, the Special Issue investigates the topics related to “Environment and Energy from an industrial ecology perspective”. The Industrial Ecology principles highlighted in the articles from Tibbs (1993) and Ayres and Ayres (2002), could be considered as the main support to make environmental considerations as a part of strategy, design, production and product end-of-life activities, through the re-engineering of process and activities in an industrial eco-system.

Commodity Science embraces several research points in the Industrial Ecology framework, including innovative tools, methods and experiences for environmental and energy improvement, technology and quality assessment for sustainability applications.

This Special Issue provides a forum for the exchange of ideas and information from the diverse range of disciplines and interest groups which must be combined in order to integrate energy and environmental academy researches with experiences.

Papers selected for this Special Issue were subjected to a rigorous yet efficient peer review procedure in order to achieve a rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments and applications.

Dr Giuseppe Ioppolo
Dr Pauline Deutz
Prof. Luigi Ciraolo
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • industrial ecology: tool and applications
  • industrial symbiosis
  • energy and environmental sustainability
  • social values for a sustainable economy
  • life cycle sustainability analysis (lcsa)
  • sustainable lean production

Published Papers (14 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-14
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Solar Photovoltaic Development in Australia—A Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment Study
Sustainability 2015, 7(2), 1213-1247; doi:10.3390/su7021213
Received: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Australia possesses the highest average solar radiation of any continent in the world, but solar energy in total contributes less than 1% to Australia’s primary energy consumption. This study intends to assess whether solar photovoltaic (PV) is really a sustainable option for [...] Read more.
Australia possesses the highest average solar radiation of any continent in the world, but solar energy in total contributes less than 1% to Australia’s primary energy consumption. This study intends to assess whether solar photovoltaic (PV) is really a sustainable option for Australia’s energy transition on the project level. A life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) was conducted on a 1.2 MW flat-roof mounted PV solar array called UQ Solar, and the results suggested UQ Solar performed well in environmental aspects, except for emissions of several criteria air pollutants. It was economically feasible only with the grant provided by the Queensland government and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) was more or less the same as the LCOE of offset electricity. However, its social performance was not as good as expected. Large-scale PV installations can be sustainable in Australia on several conditions. PV manufacturers should be more responsible for reducing the use of hazardous materials; end-of-life treatment should be taken good care of; government should truly support the deployment of large-scale PV installation by providing more incentives and infrastructures; substantial subsidies for fossil fuel power stations should phase out; more awareness and training activities should be organized to promote social acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Open AccessArticle Marine Ecological Footprint of Italian Mediterranean Fisheries
Sustainability 2014, 6(11), 7482-7495; doi:10.3390/su6117482
Received: 25 August 2014 / Revised: 9 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 24 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (937 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The capacity of marine and coastal ecosystems to sustain seafood production and consumption is seldom accounted for and is not included in the signals that guide economic development. In this article, we review estimates of marine and coastal areas aimed at sustaining [...] Read more.
The capacity of marine and coastal ecosystems to sustain seafood production and consumption is seldom accounted for and is not included in the signals that guide economic development. In this article, we review estimates of marine and coastal areas aimed at sustaining catches for seafood consumption. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the interactions between the environment, intended as a set of ecological subsystems in natural equilibrium, including the marine ecosystem, and the process of fisheries systems. In particular we analyze fisheries in Italy, which is the third biggest economy and the greatest consumer of seafood in the Eurozone, conducting an in-depth analysis of the Marine Ecological Footprint (MEF) that evaluates the marine ecosystem area exploited by human populations to supply seafood and other marine products and services. The positioning of Italian fisheries shows a level of sustainability next to the threshold value. The analysis in the present study highlights the importance of absolute indicators in providing rough estimates about human dependence on ecological systems and recognizes the importance of those indicators, such as the Marine Footprint (expressed in % of Primary Production Required/Primary Production), in ensuring a high level of precision and accuracy in quantifying human activity impact on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Open AccessArticle Efficient Assessment of Social Hotspots in the Supply Chains of 100 Product Categories Using the Social Hotspots Database
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 6973-6984; doi:10.3390/su6106973
Received: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 24 September 2014 / Published: 6 October 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Data collection, or the inventory step, is often the most labor-intensive phase of any Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study. The S-LCA Guidelines and numerous authors have recommended generic assessment in this first phase of an S-LCA. In an effort to identify the [...] Read more.
Data collection, or the inventory step, is often the most labor-intensive phase of any Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study. The S-LCA Guidelines and numerous authors have recommended generic assessment in this first phase of an S-LCA. In an effort to identify the social hotspots in the supply chains of 100 product categories during just a few months’ time, adopting a streamlined approach was essential. The Social Hotspots Database system was developed by New Earth over 5 years. It includes a Global Input Output (IO) model derived from the Global Trade Analysis Project, a Worker Hours Model constructed using annual wage payments and wage rates by country and sector, and Social Theme Tables covering 22 themes within five Social Impact Categories—Labor Rights and Decent Work, Health and Safety, Human Rights, Governance and Community Impacts. The data tables identify social risks for over 100 indicators. Both the ranking of worker hour intensity and the risk levels across multiple social themes for the Country Specific Sectors (CSS) within a product category supply chain are used to calculate Social Hotspots Indexes (SHI) using an additive weighting method. The CSS with the highest SHI are highlighted as social hotspots within the supply chain of the product in question. This system was tested in seven case studies in 2011. In order to further limit the number of hotspots, a set of prioritization rules was applied. This paper will review the method implemented to study the social hotspots of the 100 product categories and provide one detailed example. Limitations of the approach and recommended research avenues will be outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Open AccessArticle Industrial Ecology and Environmental Lean Management: Lights and Shadows
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6362-6376; doi:10.3390/su6096362
Received: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current industrial production is driven by increasing globalization, which has led to a steady increase in production volumes and complexity of products aimed at the pursuit of meeting the needs of customers. In this context, one of the main tools in the [...] Read more.
Current industrial production is driven by increasing globalization, which has led to a steady increase in production volumes and complexity of products aimed at the pursuit of meeting the needs of customers. In this context, one of the main tools in the management of customer value is Lean Manufacturing or Production, though it is considered primarily as a set of tools to reduce the total cost of the resources needed to achieve such needs. This philosophy has recently been enriched in the literature with case studies that link Lean Management (LM) with the improvement of environmental sustainability. The consequence is an expansion of the Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM); indeed, CIM, currently, combining and integrating the key business functions (e.g., business, engineering, manufacturing, and information management) with a view of the life cycle, does not highlight the strategic role of the environmental aspects. In order to deal with the increasingly rapid environmental degradation that is reflected in society, in terms of both economy and quality of life, Industrial Ecology (IE) introduced a new paradigm of principles and instruments of analysis and decision support (e.g., Life Cycle Assessment—LCA, Social Life Cycle Assessment -SLCA, Material Flow Account—MFA, etc.) that can be considered as the main basis for integrating the environmental aspects in each strategy, design, production, final product, and end of life management, through the re-engineering of processes and activities towards the development of an eco-industrial system. This paper presents the preliminary observations based on a analysis of both theories (LM-IE) and provides a possible assessment of the key factors relevant to their integration in a “lean environmental management”, highlighting both positives (lights) and possible barriers (shadows). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Eco-Industrial Parks from Strategic Niches to Development Mainstream: The Cases of China
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6325-6331; doi:10.3390/su6096325
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
China has implemented eco-industrial park (EIP) initiatives as a mainstream strategy of a circular economy since the turn of the new century. This paper presents the sustainable transition processes and outcomes of three EIP cases, Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA), [...] Read more.
China has implemented eco-industrial park (EIP) initiatives as a mainstream strategy of a circular economy since the turn of the new century. This paper presents the sustainable transition processes and outcomes of three EIP cases, Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA), Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Area (FEDA) and the Xi’an High-Tech Zone (XHTZ). The cases uncovered four factors key to the transition of EIPs: technological trajectory dependency, spaces for experimentation, government as an enabler and regional embeddedness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Open AccessArticle Model Estimation of Water Use Efficiency for Soil Conservation in the Lower Heihe River Basin, Northwest China during 2000–2008
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6250-6266; doi:10.3390/su6096250
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 3 August 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been very limited research on water use efficiency for soil conservation (WUE-SC) in typical water scarce regions such as the lower Heihe River Basin, where there is serious wind erosion and the soil conservation service plays a key role in [...] Read more.
There has been very limited research on water use efficiency for soil conservation (WUE-SC) in typical water scarce regions such as the lower Heihe River Basin, where there is serious wind erosion and the soil conservation service plays a key role in guaranteeing the ecological safety of Northern China. The soil conservation service, which was represented by the soil conservation amount (SC), was first estimated with an experiment-based model in this study. Then, the WUE-SC (i.e., SC/ET) was calculated on the basis of evapotranspiration (ET) data, and management implications were finally discussed. The results indicated the WUE-SC ranged between 0–98.69 t mm−1, and it first decreased and then increased on the whole during 2000–2008. Besides, the inter-annual variation of WUE-SC was mainly due to change in the potential soil loss. In addition, the WUE-SC showed significant spatial heterogeneity, and the average WUE-SC of the whole study area was very low due to spatiotemporal inconsistency between the potential soil loss and the vegetation coverage rate. Although there are some uncertainties, these results still can provide local managers with valuable information for water resource utilization and ecosystem management to improve water use efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Open AccessArticle Environment in Industrial Ecology, Grasping a Complex Notion for Enhancing Industrial Synergies at Territorial Scales
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6267-6277; doi:10.3390/su6096267
Received: 6 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (845 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Identifying the most relevant environment related indicators and how to make them available to decision-makers are current issues. Some seek to enhance their efficiency by means of methods such as aggregations or weighting. More fundamentally, in this chapter we question how industrial [...] Read more.
Identifying the most relevant environment related indicators and how to make them available to decision-makers are current issues. Some seek to enhance their efficiency by means of methods such as aggregations or weighting. More fundamentally, in this chapter we question how industrial ecologists appropriate the notion of environment. On the basis of multidisciplinary research, we argue that, in contexts of geographically bounded networks of social actors forging industrial synergies, environmental questions should be posed from the viewpoint of the actors. Our work might aid to operationalize the complex notion of environment in such contexts, and constitutes a call to develop anthropocentric approaches to defining environmental indications followed by appropriated indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Open AccessArticle Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Recycling: Mathematical and Graphical Frameworks
Sustainability 2014, 6(9), 6158-6169; doi:10.3390/su6096158
Received: 4 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1095 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A mathematical framework of the life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis in life cycle assessment (LCA) of recycling is systematically reviewed with the aid of graphical interpretation. First, the zero burden approach, which has been applied to LCI analyses of waste management systems, [...] Read more.
A mathematical framework of the life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis in life cycle assessment (LCA) of recycling is systematically reviewed with the aid of graphical interpretation. First, the zero burden approach, which has been applied to LCI analyses of waste management systems, is theoretically justified in terms of relative comparison of waste management options. As recycling is a multi-functional system including the dual functions of waste management and secondary material production, the allocation issue needs to be handled in LCIs of recycling, and two forms of system expansion, i.e., the avoided burden and product basket approaches, have dominated to avoid the allocation problem. Then, it is demonstrated that conclusions derived from both approaches should mathematically be identical as far as system boundaries are correctly defined. A criticism against system expansion is also reviewed from the viewpoint of ambiguity of what-if scenarios. As an approach to this issue, market-based consequential LCA is discussed in the context of LCI analyses of open-loop recycling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Open AccessArticle Goal and Scope in Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis: The Case of Hydrogen Production from Biomass
Sustainability 2014, 6(8), 5463-5475; doi:10.3390/su6085463
Received: 4 July 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The framework for life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA) developed within the project CALCAS (Co-ordination Action for innovation in Life-Cycle Analysis for Sustainability) is introducing a truly integrated approach for sustainability studies. However, it needs to be further conceptually refined and to be [...] Read more.
The framework for life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA) developed within the project CALCAS (Co-ordination Action for innovation in Life-Cycle Analysis for Sustainability) is introducing a truly integrated approach for sustainability studies. However, it needs to be further conceptually refined and to be made operational. In particular, one of the gaps still hindering the adoption of integrated analytic tools for sustainability studies is the lack of a clear link between the goal and scope definition and the modeling phase. This paper presents an approach to structure the goal and scope phase of LCSA so as to identify the relevant mechanisms to be further detailed and analyzed in the modeling phase. The approach is illustrated with an on-going study on a new technology for the production of high purity hydrogen from biomass, to be used in automotive fuel cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Open AccessArticle Potential for Producing Biogas from Agricultural Waste in Rural Plants in Poland
Sustainability 2014, 6(8), 5065-5074; doi:10.3390/su6085065
Received: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 30 July 2014 / Published: 8 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article is an overview of the current situation as well as future prospects for biogas production in rural plants in Poland. Our research has focused on the management of agricultural waste. While Poland’s agriculture and its local food industry have substantial [...] Read more.
This article is an overview of the current situation as well as future prospects for biogas production in rural plants in Poland. Our research has focused on the management of agricultural waste. While Poland’s agriculture and its local food industry have substantial potential, many barriers persist to the development not only of biogas plants but also in every other renewable source of energy. The main obstacles have to do with politically motivated economic factors. Our interest has been in larger plants having sufficient capacities to produce in excess of 500 kW of electricity. The paper also presents a case study of a biogas plant supply by organic, agrifood waste mixed with silage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Considerations When Applying Simplified LCA Approaches in the Wine Sector
Sustainability 2014, 6(8), 5018-5028; doi:10.3390/su6085018
Received: 11 July 2014 / Accepted: 25 July 2014 / Published: 6 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to improve the environmental performance of food systems and simplification of LCA appears to be a vital question, especially for Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Following a literature review on simplified LCA tools and [...] Read more.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to improve the environmental performance of food systems and simplification of LCA appears to be a vital question, especially for Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Following a literature review on simplified LCA tools and their subsequent ranking, some of the best-rated tools were implemented and the results were examined in parallel to those of a full LCA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Open AccessArticle Energy Requirement of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Production
Sustainability 2014, 6(8), 4966-4974; doi:10.3390/su6084966
Received: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 30 July 2014 / Published: 5 August 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The scope of this chapter is to calculate the net energy of the production chain for virgin olive oil. Therefore, the determination was carried out for the direct and indirect energy inputs and the energy present as feedstock in the outputs (products [...] Read more.
The scope of this chapter is to calculate the net energy of the production chain for virgin olive oil. Therefore, the determination was carried out for the direct and indirect energy inputs and the energy present as feedstock in the outputs (products and by-products). To perform this analysis, all of the production processes for olives and for oil extraction were studied. For the agricultural phase, three systems of cultivation were taken into consideration: the centenary olive grove (COO), the “intensive” olive grove (HDO) and, the more recently introduced, “super-intensive” olive grove (HSDO). The last two models are distinguished by the high number of trees per hectare and by an intense mechanization of agricultural practices. Regarding the oil extraction phase, four different technologies were compared: the pressure system (PS), the two-phase system (2PS), the three-phase (3PS), and the system, called “de-pitted”, which provides for the separation of the pits before the oil is extracted (DPS). The analysis showed that the production of olives needs more than 90% of energy requirements, much of which is met by non-renewable sources of energy. The production of fertilizers, and also irrigation, are the production factors that require a considerable amount of energy. Among the three agricultural systems analyzed, the COO system of cultivation is the one that requires less energy as compared to the other systems. The scenario that enables the most energy return, however, is the SHDO system of cultivation, due to the greater amount of pruning residues that can be obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Open AccessArticle Tourism Management and Industrial Ecology: A Theoretical Review
Sustainability 2014, 6(8), 4900-4909; doi:10.3390/su6084900
Received: 11 July 2014 / Accepted: 23 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Industrial Ecology (IE) is based on the relation between the natural ecosystem and economic ecosystem. The concept refers to the metaphorical relation between the natural and industrial ecosystems as a model for transforming unsustainable industrial systems. Several tools and strategies are particularly [...] Read more.
Industrial Ecology (IE) is based on the relation between the natural ecosystem and economic ecosystem. The concept refers to the metaphorical relation between the natural and industrial ecosystems as a model for transforming unsustainable industrial systems. Several tools and strategies are particularly significant for the IE development. In other words, the primary purpose of industrial ecology is to assess and reduce the impact economic activities on the environment. Tourism, as an economic activity, resulting in a full range of environmental impacts, should be treated like any other industry. This paper propose uses a theoretical review focused on IE for to investigate what is the best way to implement industrial ecology in the tourism activities. It seemed interesting to search within the IE concept for a model for the tourism sector, one of the fields with the greatest environmental interaction and economic implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)
Open AccessArticle Impact Pathways to Address Social Well-Being and Social Justice in SLCA—Fair Wage and Level of Education
Sustainability 2014, 6(8), 4839-4857; doi:10.3390/su6084839
Received: 7 July 2014 / Revised: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 30 July 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Social well-being and social justice are meant to create a positive outcome meaningful for people and societies. According to the guidelines of social life cycle assessment, especially well-being should be considered as the main area of protection to assess social impacts of [...] Read more.
Social well-being and social justice are meant to create a positive outcome meaningful for people and societies. According to the guidelines of social life cycle assessment, especially well-being should be considered as the main area of protection to assess social impacts of products. In addition, equity and equality need to be addressed in terms of social justice to ensure a fair and ethic society. However, even if a lot of studies focused on the definition social indicators to assess resulting impacts, neither have scientific or common agreements been founded to define a valid set of indicators, nor have consistent pathways from inventory towards impact indicators been established. This work, therefore, proposes possible pathways from life cycle inventory to impact assessment of two social midpoint categories: fair wage and level of education. Respective cause-effect-chains are developed based on the environmental life cycle assessment principle. Correspondingly, social inventory indicators throughout direct impacts to midpoint and endpoint categories are defined. Three endpoint categories are included (economic welfare, damage to human health and environmental stability) to address social well-being and social justice. Qualitative characterization factors and a scaling method are proposed to evaluate the impacts according to threshold and reference values from valuable literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Energy: the Industrial Ecology perspective)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Sustainability Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
sustainability@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Sustainability
Back to Top