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Mar. Drugs, Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2015), Pages 2559-3258

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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Control of Bladder-Associated Tumors Using Shrimp Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor (SALF) Antimicrobial Peptide as a Cancer Vaccine Adjuvant in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3241-3258; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053241
Received: 9 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Shrimp anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (SALF) is an antimicrobial peptide with reported anticancer activities, such as suppression of tumor progression. In this study, we prepared a potential cancer vaccine comprised of SALF in conjunction with the cell lysate of inactivated murine bladder carcinoma cells (MBT-2),
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Shrimp anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (SALF) is an antimicrobial peptide with reported anticancer activities, such as suppression of tumor progression. In this study, we prepared a potential cancer vaccine comprised of SALF in conjunction with the cell lysate of inactivated murine bladder carcinoma cells (MBT-2), and evaluated its efficacy in a mouse tumor model. Our study shows that SALF added to cell culture media inhibits growth progression of MBT-2, and that SALF together with inactivated MBT-2 lysate elevates the level of inflammasome activity, and modulates the levels of IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α in mouse macrophages. Immunization of 7, 14, and 21 day-old mice with the vaccine prevented growth of MBT-2 cell-mediated tumors. The vaccine was found to enhance expression of T-cell, cytotoxic T cells, and NK cells in the immunized mice groups. Recruitment of macrophages, T-helper cells, and NK cells was enhanced, but levels of VEGF were decreased in immunized mice. This report provides empirical evidence that our SALF as vaccine adjuvant enhances antitumor immunity in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Peptides and Their Mimetics)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of the Chemical Structures of Tandyukisins B–D, Isolated from a Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3231-3240; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053231
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 8 May 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tandyukisins B–D (13), novel decalin derivatives, have been isolated from a strain of Trichoderma harzianum OUPS-111D-4 originally derived from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai, and their structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1D
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Tandyukisins B–D (13), novel decalin derivatives, have been isolated from a strain of Trichoderma harzianum OUPS-111D-4 originally derived from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai, and their structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. In addition, their chemical structures were established by chemical transformation. They exhibited weak cytotoxicity, but selective growth inhibition on panel screening using 39 human cancer cell lines. Full article
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Open AccessReview Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3182-3230; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053182
Received: 20 April 2015 / Revised: 1 May 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in
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Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. Full article
Open AccessReview Molecular Architecture and Biomedical Leads of Terpenes from Red Sea Marine Invertebrates
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3154-3181; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053154
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 5 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging
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Marine invertebrates including sponges, soft coral, tunicates, mollusks and bryozoan have proved to be a prolific source of bioactive natural products. Among marine-derived metabolites, terpenoids have provided a vast array of molecular architectures. These isoprenoid-derived metabolites also exhibit highly specialized biological activities ranging from nerve regeneration to blood-sugar regulation. As a result, intense research activity has been devoted to characterizing invertebrate terpenes from both a chemical and biological standpoint. This review focuses on the chemistry and biology of terpene metabolites isolated from the Red Sea ecosystem, a unique marine biome with one of the highest levels of biodiversity and specifically rich in invertebrate species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Tackling the Cytotoxic Effect of a Marine Polycyclic Quinone-Type Metabolite: Halenaquinone Induces Molt 4 Cells Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress Combined with the Inhibition of HDAC and Topoisomerase Activities
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3132-3153; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053132
Received: 5 March 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A marine polycyclic quinone-type metabolite, halenaquinone (HQ), was found to inhibit the proliferation of Molt 4, K562, MDA-MB-231 and DLD-1 cancer cell lines, with IC50 of 0.48, 0.18, 8.0 and 6.76 μg/mL, respectively. It exhibited the most potent activity against leukemia Molt
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A marine polycyclic quinone-type metabolite, halenaquinone (HQ), was found to inhibit the proliferation of Molt 4, K562, MDA-MB-231 and DLD-1 cancer cell lines, with IC50 of 0.48, 0.18, 8.0 and 6.76 μg/mL, respectively. It exhibited the most potent activity against leukemia Molt 4 cells. Accumulating evidence showed that HQ may act as a potent protein kinase inhibitor in cancer therapy. To fully understand the mechanism of HQ, we further explored the precise molecular targets in leukemia Molt 4 cells. We found that the use of HQ increased apoptosis by 26.23%–70.27% and caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by 17.15%–53.25% in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by Annexin-V/PI and JC-1 staining assays, respectively. Moreover, our findings indicated that the pretreatment of Molt 4 cells with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, diminished MMP disruption and apoptosis induced by HQ, suggesting that ROS overproduction plays a crucial rule in the cytotoxic activity of HQ. The results of a cell-free system assay indicated that HQ could act as an HDAC and topoisomerase catalytic inhibitor through the inhibition of pan-HDAC and topoisomerase IIα expression, respectively. On the protein level, the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins p-Akt, NFκB, HDAC and Bcl-2, as well as hexokinase II was inhibited by the use of HQ. On the other hand, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, PARP cleavage, caspase activation and cytochrome c release were increased after HQ treatment. Taken together, our results suggested that the antileukemic effect of HQ is ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis combined with the inhibitory effect on HDAC and topoisomerase activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design of Chitosan-Grafted Carbon Nanotubes: Evaluation of How the –OH Functional Group Affects Cs+ Adsorption
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3116-3131; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053116
Received: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 20 May 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1011 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to explore the effect of –OH functional groups in Cs+ adsorption, we herein used the low temperature plasma-induced grafting method to graft chitosan onto carbon nanotubes (denoted as CTS-g-CNTs), as raw-CNTs have few functional groups and chitosan has a large
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In order to explore the effect of –OH functional groups in Cs+ adsorption, we herein used the low temperature plasma-induced grafting method to graft chitosan onto carbon nanotubes (denoted as CTS-g-CNTs), as raw-CNTs have few functional groups and chitosan has a large number of –OH functional groups. The synthesized CTS-g-CNT composites were characterized using different techniques. The effect of –OH functional groups in the Cs+ adsorption process was evaluated by comparison of the adsorption properties of raw-CNTs with and without grafting chitosan. The variation of environmental conditions such as pH and contact time was investigated. A comparison of contaminated seawater and simulated groundwater was also evaluated. The results indicated that: (1) the adsorption of Cs+ ions was strongly dependent on pH and the competitive cations; (2) for CNT-based material, the –OH functional groups have a positive effect on Cs+ removal; (3) simulated contaminated groundwater can be used to model contaminated seawater to evaluate the adsorption property of CNTs-based material. These results showed direct observational evidence on the effect of –OH functional groups for Cs+ adsorption. Our findings are important in providing future directions to design and to choose effective material to remedy the removal of radioactive cesium from contaminated groundwater and seawater, crucial for public health and the human social environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Capgermacrenes A and B, Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from a Bornean Soft Coral, Capnella sp.
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3103-3115; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053103
Received: 23 February 2015 / Revised: 2 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new bicyclogermacrenes, capgermacrenes A (1) and B (2), were isolated with two known compounds, palustrol (3) and litseagermacrane (4), from a population of Bornean soft coral Capnella sp. The structures of these metabolites were
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Two new bicyclogermacrenes, capgermacrenes A (1) and B (2), were isolated with two known compounds, palustrol (3) and litseagermacrane (4), from a population of Bornean soft coral Capnella sp. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. Compound 1 was found to inhibit the accumulation of the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory IL-1b and NO production by down-regulating the expression of iNOS protein in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Bioactive Metabolites from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5B
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3091-3102; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053091
Received: 23 March 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5B cultured on Czapek’s medium led to the isolation of four new metabolites, aspergifuranone (1), isocoumarin derivatives (±) 2 and (±) 3, and (R)-3-demethylpurpurester A (4), together with
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Chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5B cultured on Czapek’s medium led to the isolation of four new metabolites, aspergifuranone (1), isocoumarin derivatives (±) 2 and (±) 3, and (R)-3-demethylpurpurester A (4), together with the known purpurester B (5) and pestaphthalides A (6). Their structures were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of Compound 1 was determined by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, and that of Compound 4 was revealed by comparing its optical rotation data and CD with those of the literature. The structure of Compound 6 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment using CuKα radiation. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, and Compound 1 showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 9.05 ± 0.60 μM. Kinetic analysis showed that Compound 1 was a noncompetitive inhibitor of α-glucosidase. Compounds 2 and 6 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antidiabetic Activity of Differently Regioselective Chitosan Sulfates in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3072-3090; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053072
Received: 21 February 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (920 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated and compared the hypoglycemic activity of differently regioselective chitosan sulfates in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Compared with the normal control rats, significantly higher blood glucose levels were observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The differently regioselective chitosan sulfates exhibited hypoglycemic
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The present study investigated and compared the hypoglycemic activity of differently regioselective chitosan sulfates in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Compared with the normal control rats, significantly higher blood glucose levels were observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The differently regioselective chitosan sulfates exhibited hypoglycemic activities at different doses and intervals, especially 3-O-sulfochitosan (3-S). The major results are as follows. First, 3,6-di-O-sulfochitosan and 3-O-sulfochitosan exhibited more significant hypoglycemic activities than 2-N-3, 6-di-O-sulfochitosan and 6-O-sulfochitosan. Moreover, 3-S-treated rats showed a more significant reduction of blood glucose levels than those treated by 3,6-di-O-sulfochitosan. These results indicated that –OSO3 at the C3-position of chitosan is a key active site. Second, 3-S significantly reduced the blood glucose levels and regulated the glucose tolerance effect in the experimental rats. Third, treatment with 3-S significantly increased the plasma insulin levels in the experimental diabetic rats. A noticeable hypoglycemic activity of 3-S in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats was shown. Clinical trials are required in the future to confirm the utility of 3-S. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication SAR of Sponge-Inspired Hemibastadin Congeners Inhibiting Blue Mussel PhenolOxidase
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3061-3071; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053061
Received: 27 January 2015 / Revised: 19 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hemibastadin derivatives, including the synthetically-derived 5,5′-dibromohemibastadin-1 (DBHB), are potent inhibitors of blue mussel phenoloxidase (PO), which is a key enzyme involved in the firm attachment of this invertebrate to substrates and, thus, a promising molecular target for anti-fouling research. For a systematic investigation
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Hemibastadin derivatives, including the synthetically-derived 5,5′-dibromohemibastadin-1 (DBHB), are potent inhibitors of blue mussel phenoloxidase (PO), which is a key enzyme involved in the firm attachment of this invertebrate to substrates and, thus, a promising molecular target for anti-fouling research. For a systematic investigation of the enzyme inhibitory activity of hemibastadin derivatives, we have synthesized nine new congeners, which feature structural variations of the DBHB core structure. These structural modifications include, e.g., different halogen substituents present at the aromatic rings, different amine moieties linked to the (E)-2-(hydroxyimino)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, the presence of free vs. substituted aromatic hydroxyl groups and a free vs. methylated oxime group. All compounds were tested for their inhibitory activity towards the target enzyme in vitro, and IC50 values were calculated. Derivatives, which structurally closely resemble sponge-derived hemibastadins, revealed superior enzyme inhibitory properties vs. congeners featuring structural moieties that are absent in the respective natural products. This study suggests that natural selection has yielded structurally-optimized antifouling compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Restenotic Roles of Dihydroaustrasulfone Alcohol Involved in Inhibiting PDGF-BB-Stimulated Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3046-3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053046
Received: 1 February 2015 / Revised: 3 May 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (6042 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol (DA), an active compound firstly isolated from marine corals, has been reported to reveal anti-cancer and anti-inflammation activities. These reported activities of DA raised a possible application in anti-restenosis. Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the
[...] Read more.
Dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol (DA), an active compound firstly isolated from marine corals, has been reported to reveal anti-cancer and anti-inflammation activities. These reported activities of DA raised a possible application in anti-restenosis. Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the stimulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB play major pathological processes involved in the development of restenosis. Experimental results showed that DA markedly reduced balloon injury-induced neointima formation in the rat carotid artery model and significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Our data further demonstrated that translational and active levels of several critical signaling cascades involved in VSMC proliferation, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase/ mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK/MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), were obviously inhibited. In addition, DA also decreased the activation and expression levels of gelatinases (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9) involved in cell migration. In conclusion, our findings indicate that DA can reduce balloon injury-neointimal hyperplasia, the effect of which may be modulated through suppression of VSMC proliferation and migration. These results suggest that DA has potential application as an anti-restenotic agent for the prevention of restenosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antitumor and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Cyclic Tetrapeptides and Tripeptides Derived from Marine Bacteria
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 3029-3045; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13053029
Received: 21 April 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 6 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Marine derived cyclo(Gly-l-Ser-l-Pro-l-Glu) was selected as a lead to evaluate antitumor-antibiotic activity. Histidine was chosen to replace the serine residue to form cyclo(Gly-l-His-l-Pro-l-Glu). Cyclic tetrapeptides (CtetPs) were then synthesized using a solution phase method, and subjected to antitumor and antibiotic assays.
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Marine derived cyclo(Gly-l-Ser-l-Pro-l-Glu) was selected as a lead to evaluate antitumor-antibiotic activity. Histidine was chosen to replace the serine residue to form cyclo(Gly-l-His-l-Pro-l-Glu). Cyclic tetrapeptides (CtetPs) were then synthesized using a solution phase method, and subjected to antitumor and antibiotic assays. The benzyl group protected CtetPs derivatives, showed better activity against antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the range of 60–120 μM. Benzyl group protected CtetPs 3 and 4, exhibited antitumor activity against several cell lines at a concentration of 80–108 μM. However, shortening the size of the ring to the cyclic tripeptide (CtriP) scaffold, cyclo(Gly-l-Ser-l-Pro), cyclo(Ser-l-Pro-l-Glu) and their analogues showed no antibiotic or antitumor activity. This phenomenon can be explained from their backbone structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Peptides and Their Mimetics)
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Open AccessReview Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2967-3028; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13052967
Received: 10 March 2015 / Revised: 26 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
Cited by 76 | PDF Full-text (1425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one
[...] Read more.
There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A New Member of the TBC1D15 Family from Chiloscyllium plagiosum: Rab GTPase-Activating Protein Based on Rab7 as a Substrate
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2955-2966; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13052955
Received: 11 January 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
APSL (active peptide from shark liver) is a hepatic stimulator cytokine from the liver of Chiloscyllium. It can effectively protect islet cells and improve complications in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. Here, we demonstrate that the APSL sequence is present in the N
[...] Read more.
APSL (active peptide from shark liver) is a hepatic stimulator cytokine from the liver of Chiloscyllium. It can effectively protect islet cells and improve complications in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. Here, we demonstrate that the APSL sequence is present in the N-terminus of novel TBC (Tre-2, Bub2 and Cdc16) domain family, member 15 (TBC1D15) from Chiloscyllium plagiosum. This shark TBC1D15 gene, which contains an ORF of 2088 bp, was identified from a cDNA library of regenerating shark liver. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the gene is highly homologous to TBC1D15 genes from other species. Moreover, the N-terminus of shark TBC1D15 contains a motif of unknown function (DUF3548), which encompasses the APSL fragment. Rab-GAP activity analysis showed that shark TBC1D15 is a new member of the TBC1D15 family. These results demonstrated that shark TBC1D15 possesses Rab-GAP activity using Rab7 as a substrate, which is a common property of the TBC1D15 family. The involvement of APSL at the N-terminus of TBC1D15 also demonstrates that this protein might be involved in insulin signaling and may be associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The current findings pave the way for further functional and clinical studies of these proteins from marine sources. Full article
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Open AccessReview Emerging Concepts Promising New Horizons for Marine Biodiscovery and Synthetic Biology
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2924-2954; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13052924
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 28 April 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the
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The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the diversity of marine microorganisms is enormous with many thousands of bacterial species detected that were previously unknown. Associated with this diversity is the production of diverse repertoires of bioactive compounds ranging from peptides and enzymes to more complex secondary metabolites that have significant bioactivity and thus the potential to be exploited for innovative biotechnology. Here we review the discovery and functional potential of marine bioactive peptides such as lantibiotics, nanoantibiotics and peptidomimetics, which have received particular attention in recent years in light of their broad spectrum of bioactivity. The significance of marine peptides in cell-to-cell communication and how this may be exploited in the discovery of novel bioactivity is also explored. Finally, with the recent advances in bioinformatics and synthetic biology, it is becoming clear that the integration of these disciplines with genetic and biochemical characterization of the novel marine peptides, offers the most potential in the development of the next generation of societal solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Peptides and Their Mimetics)
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