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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2785-2812; doi:10.3390/md13052785

Natural Marine and Synthetic Xenobiotics Get on Nematode’s Nerves: Neuro-Stimulating and Neurotoxic Findings in Caenorhabditis elegans

1
Department of Biology, Freshwater and Stress Ecology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Späthstr. 80/81, 12437 Berlin, Germany
2
Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
Present address: Wenzhou Medical School, Whenzhou 325035, China.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith B. Glaser
Received: 9 February 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
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Abstract

Marine algae release a plethora of organic halogenated compounds, many of them with unknown ecological impact if environmentally realistic concentrations are applied. One major compound is dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) which was tested for neurotoxicity in the invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This natural compound was compared with the widespread synthetic xenobiotic tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) found in marine sediments and mussels. We found a neuro-stimulating effect for DBAA; this is contradictory to existing toxicological reports of mammals that applied comparatively high dosages. For TBBP-A, we found a hormetic concentration-effect relationship. As chemicals rarely occur isolated in the environment, a combination of both organobromines was also examined. Surprisingly, the presence of DBAA increased the toxicity of TBBP-A. Our results demonstrated that organohalogens have the potential to affect single organisms especially by altering the neurological processes, even with promoting effects on exposed organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrabromobisphenol-A; dibromoacetic acid; acute environmental toxicology; neurobehavior; gene expression; GFP; ontogeny; C. elegans tetrabromobisphenol-A; dibromoacetic acid; acute environmental toxicology; neurobehavior; gene expression; GFP; ontogeny; C. elegans
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lieke, T.; Steinberg, C.E.W.; Ju, J.; Saul, N. Natural Marine and Synthetic Xenobiotics Get on Nematode’s Nerves: Neuro-Stimulating and Neurotoxic Findings in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 2785-2812.

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