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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2857-2874; doi:10.3390/md13052857

Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis Prevents Oxidative Stress on Human Endothelial Cells without Toxicity

1
INSERM U1148, Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science; University Paris 13, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité 99, Av. Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse, France
2
CORDUNAP IBT, Avenida Playa Brava 3256, 1100000 Iquique, Chile
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric Blomme
Received: 27 January 2015 / Revised: 7 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 7 May 2015
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Abstract

Astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant, is a good candidate for the prevention of intracellular oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of astaxanthin present in two natural extracts from Haematococcus pluvialis, a microalgae strain, with that of synthetic astaxanthin. Natural extracts were obtained either by solvent or supercritical extraction methods. UV, HPLC-DAD and (HPLC-(atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)+)/ion trap-MS) characterizations of both natural extracts showed similar compositions of carotenoids, but different percentages in free astaxanthin and its ester derivatives. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay showed that natural extracts containing esters displayed stronger antioxidant activities than free astaxanthin. Their antioxidant capacities to inhibit intracellular oxidative stress were then evaluated on HUVEC cells. The intracellular antioxidant activity in natural extracts was approximately 90-times higher than synthetic astaxanthin (5 µM). No modification, neither in the morphology nor in the viability, of vascular human cells was observed by in vitro biocompatibility study up to 10 µM astaxanthin concentrations. Therefore, these results revealed the therapeutic potential of the natural extracts in vascular human cell protection against oxidative stress without toxicity, which could be exploited in prevention and/or treatment of cardiovascular diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin; antioxidants; Haematococcus pluvialis; oxidative stress; HUVEC; TEAC astaxanthin; antioxidants; Haematococcus pluvialis; oxidative stress; HUVEC; TEAC
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Régnier, P.; Bastias, J.; Rodriguez-Ruiz, V.; Caballero-Casero, N.; Caballo, C.; Sicilia, D.; Fuentes, A.; Maire, M.; Crepin, M.; Letourneur, D.; Gueguen, V.; Rubio, S.; Pavon-Djavid, G. Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis Prevents Oxidative Stress on Human Endothelial Cells without Toxicity. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 2857-2874.

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