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Sensors, Volume 16, Issue 2 (February 2016)

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Open AccessArticle BlueDetect: An iBeacon-Enabled Scheme for Accurate and Energy-Efficient Indoor-Outdoor Detection and Seamless Location-Based Service
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020268
Received: 21 December 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the
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The location and contextual status (indoor or outdoor) is fundamental and critical information for upper-layer applications, such as activity recognition and location-based services (LBS) for individuals. In addition, optimizations of building management systems (BMS), such as the pre-cooling or heating process of the air-conditioning system according to the human traffic entering or exiting a building, can utilize the information, as well. The emerging mobile devices, which are equipped with various sensors, become a feasible and flexible platform to perform indoor-outdoor (IO) detection. However, power-hungry sensors, such as GPS and WiFi, should be used with caution due to the constrained battery storage on mobile device. We propose BlueDetect: an accurate, fast response and energy-efficient scheme for IO detection and seamless LBS running on the mobile device based on the emerging low-power iBeacon technology. By leveraging the on-broad Bluetooth module and our proposed algorithms, BlueDetect provides a precise IO detection service that can turn on/off on-board power-hungry sensors smartly and automatically, optimize their performances and reduce the power consumption of mobile devices simultaneously. Moreover, seamless positioning and navigation services can be realized by it, especially in a semi-outdoor environment, which cannot be achieved by GPS or an indoor positioning system (IPS) easily. We prototype BlueDetect on Android mobile devices and evaluate its performance comprehensively. The experimental results have validated the superiority of BlueDetect in terms of IO detection accuracy, localization accuracy and energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Parametric Cognitive Modeling of Information and Computer Technology Usage by People with Aging- and Disability-Derived Functional Impairments
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020266
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7884 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the speedy evolution of Information and Computer Technology (ICT), and the growing recognition of the importance of the concept of universal design in all domains of daily living, mainstream ICT-based product designers and developers still work without any truly structured tools, guidance
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Despite the speedy evolution of Information and Computer Technology (ICT), and the growing recognition of the importance of the concept of universal design in all domains of daily living, mainstream ICT-based product designers and developers still work without any truly structured tools, guidance or support to effectively adapt their products and services to users’ real needs. This paper presents the approach used to define and evaluate parametric cognitive models that describe interaction and usage of ICT by people with aging- and disability-derived functional impairments. A multisensorial training platform was used to train, based on real user measurements in real conditions, the virtual parameterized user models that act as subjects of the test-bed during all stages of simulated disabilities-friendly ICT-based products design. An analytical study was carried out to identify the relevant cognitive functions involved, together with their corresponding parameters as related to aging- and disability-derived functional impairments. Evaluation of the final cognitive virtual user models in a real application has confirmed that the use of these models produce concrete valuable benefits to the design and testing process of accessible ICT-based applications and services. Parameterization of cognitive virtual user models allows incorporating cognitive and perceptual aspects during the design process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data in the IoT: from Sensing to Meaning)
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Open AccessArticle Thin Film Differential Photosensor for Reduction of Temperature Effects in Lab-on-Chip Applications
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020267
Received: 21 January 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a thin film structure suitable for low-level radiation measurements in lab-on-chip systems that are subject to thermal treatments of the analyte and/or to large temperature variations. The device is the series connection of two amorphous silicon/amorphous silicon carbide heterojunctions designed
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This paper presents a thin film structure suitable for low-level radiation measurements in lab-on-chip systems that are subject to thermal treatments of the analyte and/or to large temperature variations. The device is the series connection of two amorphous silicon/amorphous silicon carbide heterojunctions designed to perform differential current measurements. The two diodes experience the same temperature, while only one is exposed to the incident radiation. Under these conditions, temperature and light are the common and differential mode signals, respectively. A proper electrical connection reads the differential current of the two diodes (ideally the photocurrent) as the output signal. The experimental characterization shows the benefits of the differential structure in minimizing the temperature effects with respect to a single diode operation. In particular, when the temperature varies from 23 to 50 °C, the proposed device shows a common mode rejection ratio up to 24 dB and reduces of a factor of three the error in detecting very low-intensity light signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Fast, Highly-Sensitive, and Wide-Dynamic-Range Interdigitated Capacitor Glucose Biosensor Using Solvatochromic Dye-Containing Sensing Membrane
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020265
Received: 7 January 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (5543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we proposed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based glucose biosensor to measure different concentrations of glucose from 1 μM to 1 M. We studied four different types of solvatochromic dyes: Auramine O, Nile red, Rhodamine B, and Reichardt’s dye (R-dye). These dyes
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In this paper, we proposed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based glucose biosensor to measure different concentrations of glucose from 1 μM to 1 M. We studied four different types of solvatochromic dyes: Auramine O, Nile red, Rhodamine B, and Reichardt’s dye (R-dye). These dyes were individually incorporated into a polymer [polyvinyl chloride (PVC)] and N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC) solution to make the respective dielectric/sensing materials. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time an IDC glucose biosensing system utilizing a solvatochromic-dye-containing sensing membrane. These four dielectric or sensing materials were individually placed into the interdigitated electrode (IDE) by spin coating to make four IDC glucose biosensing elements. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor has a high sensing ability over a wide dynamic range and its sensitivity was about 23.32 mV/decade. It also has fast response and recovery times of approximately 7 s and 5 s, respectively, excellent reproducibility with a standard deviation of approximately 0.023, highly stable sensing performance, and real-time monitoring capabilities. The proposed IDC glucose biosensor was compared with an IDC, potentiometric, FET, and fiber-optic glucose sensor with respect to response time, dynamic range width, sensitivity, and linearity. We observed that the designed IDC glucose biosensor offered excellent performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Dual-Linear Kalman Filter for Real-Time Orientation Determination System Using Low-Cost MEMS Sensors
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020264
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (6592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To provide a long-time reliable orientation, sensor fusion technologies are widely used to integrate available inertial sensors for the low-cost orientation estimation. In this paper, a novel dual-linear Kalman filter was designed for a multi-sensor system integrating MEMS gyros, an accelerometer, and a
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To provide a long-time reliable orientation, sensor fusion technologies are widely used to integrate available inertial sensors for the low-cost orientation estimation. In this paper, a novel dual-linear Kalman filter was designed for a multi-sensor system integrating MEMS gyros, an accelerometer, and a magnetometer. The proposed filter precludes the impacts of magnetic disturbances on the pitch and roll which the heading is subjected to. The filter can achieve robust orientation estimation for different statistical models of the sensors. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the estimated attitude angles are reduced by 30.6% under magnetic disturbances. Owing to the reduction of system complexity achieved by smaller matrix operations, the mean total time consumption is reduced by 23.8%. Meanwhile, the separated filter offers greater flexibility for the system configuration, as it is possible to switch on or off the second stage filter to include or exclude the magnetometer compensation for the heading. Online experiments were performed on the homemade miniature orientation determination system (MODS) with the turntable. The average RMSE of estimated orientation are less than 0.4° and 1° during the static and low-dynamic tests, respectively. More realistic tests on two-wheel self-balancing vehicle driving and indoor pedestrian walking were carried out to evaluate the performance of the designed MODS when high accelerations and angular rates were introduced. Test results demonstrate that the MODS is applicable for the orientation estimation under various dynamic conditions. This paper provides a feasible alternative for low-cost orientation determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inertial Sensors and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Layered Approach for Robust Spatial Virtual Human Pose Reconstruction Using a Still Image
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020263
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
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Abstract
Pedestrian detection and human pose estimation are instructive for reconstructing a three-dimensional scenario and for robot navigation, particularly when large amounts of vision data are captured using various data-recording techniques. Using an unrestricted capture scheme, which produces occlusions or breezing, the information describing
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Pedestrian detection and human pose estimation are instructive for reconstructing a three-dimensional scenario and for robot navigation, particularly when large amounts of vision data are captured using various data-recording techniques. Using an unrestricted capture scheme, which produces occlusions or breezing, the information describing each part of a human body and the relationship between each part or even different pedestrians must be present in a still image. Using this framework, a multi-layered, spatial, virtual, human pose reconstruction framework is presented in this study to recover any deficient information in planar images. In this framework, a hierarchical parts-based deep model is used to detect body parts by using the available restricted information in a still image and is then combined with spatial Markov random fields to re-estimate the accurate joint positions in the deep network. Then, the planar estimation results are mapped onto a virtual three-dimensional space using multiple constraints to recover any deficient spatial information. The proposed approach can be viewed as a general pre-processing method to guide the generation of continuous, three-dimensional motion data. The experiment results of this study are used to describe the effectiveness and usability of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Robots)
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Open AccessArticle Sensitivity Enhancement in Magnetic Sensors Based on Ferroelectric-Bimorphs and Multiferroic Composites
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020262
Received: 11 January 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1095 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiferroic composites with ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases have been studied in recent years for use as sensors of AC and DC magnetic fields. Their operation is based on magneto-electric (ME) coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems and is mediated by mechanical strain.
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Multiferroic composites with ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases have been studied in recent years for use as sensors of AC and DC magnetic fields. Their operation is based on magneto-electric (ME) coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems and is mediated by mechanical strain. Such sensors for AC magnetic fields require a bias magnetic field to achieve pT-sensitivity. Novel magnetic sensors with a permanent magnet proof mass, either on a ferroelectric bimorph or a ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composite, are discussed. In both types, the interaction between the applied AC magnetic field and remnant magnetization of the magnet results in a mechanical strain and a voltage response in the ferroelectric. Our studies have been performed on sensors with a Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet proof mass on (i) a bimorph of oppositely-poled lead zirconate titanate (PZT) platelets and (ii) a layered multiferroic composite of PZT-Metglas-Ni. The sensors have been characterized in terms of sensitivity and equivalent magnetic noise N. Noise N in both type of sensors is on the order of 200 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, a factor of 10 improvement compared to multiferroic sensors without a proof mass. When the AC magnetic field is applied at the bending resonance for the bimorph, the measured N ≈ 700 pT/√Hz. We discuss models based on magneto-electro-mechanical coupling at low frequency and bending resonance in the sensors and theoretical estimates of ME voltage coefficients are in very good agreement with the data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensor Device-Part 1)
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Open AccessArticle CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020259
Received: 13 November 2015 / Revised: 8 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage
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In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)—a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol—is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle An Effective Collaborative Mobile Weighted Clustering Schemes for Energy Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020261
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 12 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Collaborative strategies for mobile sensor nodes ensure the efficiency and the robustness of data processing, while limiting the required communication bandwidth. In order to solve the problem of pipeline inspection and oil leakage monitoring, a collaborative weighted mobile sensing scheme is proposed. By
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Collaborative strategies for mobile sensor nodes ensure the efficiency and the robustness of data processing, while limiting the required communication bandwidth. In order to solve the problem of pipeline inspection and oil leakage monitoring, a collaborative weighted mobile sensing scheme is proposed. By adopting a weighted mobile sensing scheme, the adaptive collaborative clustering protocol can realize an even distribution of energy load among the mobile sensor nodes in each round, and make the best use of battery energy. A detailed theoretical analysis and experimental results revealed that the proposed protocol is an energy efficient collaborative strategy such that the sensor nodes can communicate with a fusion center and produce high power gain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Sensor Computing: Theory and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Degradation Progressive in Composite Laminates Subjected to Thermal Fatigue and Moisture Diffusion by Lamb Waves
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020260
Received: 29 November 2015 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laminate composites which are widely used in the aeronautical industry, are usually subjected to frequency variation of environmental temperature and excessive humidity in the in-service environment. The thermal fatigue and moisture absorption in composites may induce material degradation. There is a demand to
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Laminate composites which are widely used in the aeronautical industry, are usually subjected to frequency variation of environmental temperature and excessive humidity in the in-service environment. The thermal fatigue and moisture absorption in composites may induce material degradation. There is a demand to investigate the coupling damages mechanism and characterize the degradation evolution of composite laminates for the particular application. In this paper, the degradation evolution in unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite laminates subjected to thermal fatigue and moisture absorption is characterized by Lamb waves. The decrease rate of Lamb wave velocity is used to track the degradation evolution in the specimens. The results show that there are two stages for the progressive degradation of composites under the coupling effect of thermal cyclic loading and moisture diffusion. The present work provides an alternative to monitoring the degradation evolution of in-service aircraft composite Laminates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Structural Health Monitoring in Polymeric Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Gold Nanoparticles Aggregation Growth Induced by Nucleic Acid through Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020258
Received: 16 October 2015 / Revised: 17 January 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
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Abstract
The gold nanoparticle (GNP) aggregation growth induced by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is studied by laser scanning confocal and environmental scanning electron microscopies. As in the investigated case the direct light scattering analysis is not suitable, we observe the behavior of the fluorescence produced
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The gold nanoparticle (GNP) aggregation growth induced by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is studied by laser scanning confocal and environmental scanning electron microscopies. As in the investigated case the direct light scattering analysis is not suitable, we observe the behavior of the fluorescence produced by a dye and we detect the aggregation by the shift and the broadening of the fluorescence peak. Results of laser scanning confocal microscopy images and the fluorescence emission spectra from lambda scan mode suggest, in fact, that the intruding of the hydrophobic moiety of the probe within the cationic surfactants bilayer film coating GNPs results in a Förster resonance energy transfer. The environmental scanning electron microscopy images show that DNA molecules act as template to assemble GNPs into three-dimensional structures which are reminiscent of the DNA helix. This study is useful to design better nanobiotechnological devices using GNPs and DNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue FRET Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Technique for Determining Bridge Displacement Response Using MEMS Accelerometers
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020257
Received: 16 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (19128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In bridge maintenance, particularly with regard to fatigue damage in steel bridges, it is important to determine the displacement response of the entire bridge under a live load as well as that of each member. Knowing the displacement response enables the identification of
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In bridge maintenance, particularly with regard to fatigue damage in steel bridges, it is important to determine the displacement response of the entire bridge under a live load as well as that of each member. Knowing the displacement response enables the identification of dynamic deformations that can cause stresses and ultimately lead to damage and thus also allows the undertaking of appropriate countermeasures. In theory, the displacement response can be calculated from the double integration of the measured acceleration. However, data measured by an accelerometer include measurement errors caused by the limitations of the analog-to-digital conversion process and sensor noise. These errors distort the double integration results. Furthermore, as bridges in service are constantly vibrating because of passing vehicles, estimating the boundary conditions for the numerical integration is difficult. To address these problems, this paper proposes a method for determining the displacement of a bridge in service from its acceleration based on its free vibration. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field measurements were conducted using nine different accelerometers. Based on the results of these measurements, the proposed method was found to be highly accurate in comparison with the reference displacement obtained using a contact displacement gauge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Measurement and Modeling of Narrowband Channels for Ultrasonic Underwater Communications
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020256
Received: 10 December 2015 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (927 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Underwater acoustic sensor networks are a promising technology that allow real-time data collection in seas and oceans for a wide variety of applications. Smaller size and weight sensors can be achieved with working frequencies shifted from audio to the ultrasonic band. At these
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Underwater acoustic sensor networks are a promising technology that allow real-time data collection in seas and oceans for a wide variety of applications. Smaller size and weight sensors can be achieved with working frequencies shifted from audio to the ultrasonic band. At these frequencies, the fading phenomena has a significant presence in the channel behavior, and the design of a reliable communication link between the network sensors will require a precise characterization of it. Fading in underwater channels has been previously measured and modeled in the audio band. However, there have been few attempts to study it at ultrasonic frequencies. In this paper, a campaign of measurements of ultrasonic underwater acoustic channels in Mediterranean shallow waters conducted by the authors is presented. These measurements are used to determine the parameters of the so-called κ-μ shadowed distribution, a fading model with a direct connection to the underlying physical mechanisms. The model is then used to evaluate the capacity of the measured channels with a closed-form expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks 2016)
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Open AccessArticle UAV-Based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes—A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020255
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 12 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (9670 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural
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The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper, we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C) export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa), the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) using near-infrared band b899. The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UAV Sensors for Environmental Monitoring) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Robust Camera-Based Interface for Mobile Entertainment
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020254
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 8 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Camera-based interfaces in mobile devices are starting to be used in games and apps, but few works have evaluated them in terms of usability or user perception. Due to the changing nature of mobile contexts, this evaluation requires extensive studies to consider the
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Camera-based interfaces in mobile devices are starting to be used in games and apps, but few works have evaluated them in terms of usability or user perception. Due to the changing nature of mobile contexts, this evaluation requires extensive studies to consider the full spectrum of potential users and contexts. However, previous works usually evaluate these interfaces in controlled environments such as laboratory conditions, therefore, the findings cannot be generalized to real users and real contexts. In this work, we present a robust camera-based interface for mobile entertainment. The interface detects and tracks the user’s head by processing the frames provided by the mobile device’s front camera, and its position is then used to interact with the mobile apps. First, we evaluate the interface as a pointing device to study its accuracy, and different factors to configure such as the gain or the device’s orientation, as well as the optimal target size for the interface. Second, we present an in the wild study to evaluate the usage and the user’s perception when playing a game controlled by head motion. Finally, the game is published in an application store to make it available to a large number of potential users and contexts and we register usage data. Results show the feasibility of using this robust camera-based interface for mobile entertainment in different contexts and by different people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Entertainment)
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