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Special Issue "Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Rongxing Lu

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Wireless network security; cloud and fog computing security; big data security and privacy; secure and privacy in IoT; secure opportunistic computing; secure social network; applied cryptography

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Internet of Things (IoT), a buzzword today to describe the use of smart sensors and other ICT technologies to track and control physical objects, has opened up entirely new ways to revolutionize our daily lives in a more automatic, efficient, and convenient way. As a core component, sensor networks are pivotal to the success of IoT. However, while sensor networks brings us many advantages, i.e., network setup without fixed infrastructure; ideal for the non-reachable places; flexible in network updates; and inexpensive in implementation, it also poses many security and privacy challenges due to the open nature of wireless communication in sensor networks and the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of processing power, storage, bandwidth, and energy. If security and privacy issues are not well addressed, sensed data may not be accurate, and even could be polluted during the transmission, and, as a result, sensor networks cannot contribute well to IoT. Therefore, addressing security and privacy challenges in sensor networks is of crucial importance to the health of IoT.

This Special Issue intends to collect current developments and the future directions in security and privacy issues of sensor networks. We invite authors to submit their original papers. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Lightweight authentication in sensor networks
  • Key management in sensor networks
  • Privacy-preserving data aggregation
  • Trust and reputation in sensor networks
  • Secure routing in sensor networks
  • Intrusion detection in sensor networks
  • Body sensor network security and privacy
  • Smart meter security and privacy
  • Smart home, smart community, smart city security

Dr. Rongxing Lu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • Security and privacy
  • Data aggregation
  • Key management
  • Trust and reputation
  • Secure routing
  • Intrusion detection
  • Body sensor network
  • Smart meter
  • Smart home, community, and city

Published Papers (32 papers)

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Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Secure Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks against Timing Attacks Using Continuous-Time Markov Chain and Queueing Model
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1606; doi:10.3390/s16101606
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 3 September 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
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Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have recently gained popularity for a wide spectrum of applications. Monitoring tasks can be performed in various environments. This may be beneficial in many scenarios, but it certainly exhibits new challenges in terms of security due to increased data
[...] Read more.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have recently gained popularity for a wide spectrum of applications. Monitoring tasks can be performed in various environments. This may be beneficial in many scenarios, but it certainly exhibits new challenges in terms of security due to increased data transmission over the wireless channel with potentially unknown threats. Among possible security issues are timing attacks, which are not prevented by traditional cryptographic security. Moreover, the limited energy and memory resources prohibit the use of complex security mechanisms in such systems. Therefore, balancing between security and the associated energy consumption becomes a crucial challenge. This paper proposes a secure scheme for WSNs while maintaining the requirement of the security-performance tradeoff. In order to proceed to a quantitative treatment of this problem, a hybrid continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) and queueing model are put forward, and the tradeoff analysis of the security and performance attributes is carried out. By extending and transforming this model, the mean time to security attributes failure is evaluated. Through tradeoff analysis, we show that our scheme can enhance the security of WSNs, and the optimal rekeying rate of the performance and security tradeoff can be obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle ReliefF-Based EEG Sensor Selection Methods for Emotion Recognition
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1558; doi:10.3390/s16101558
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded from sensor electrodes on the scalp can directly detect the brain dynamics in response to different emotional states. Emotion recognition from EEG signals has attracted broad attention, partly due to the rapid development of wearable computing and the needs
[...] Read more.
Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded from sensor electrodes on the scalp can directly detect the brain dynamics in response to different emotional states. Emotion recognition from EEG signals has attracted broad attention, partly due to the rapid development of wearable computing and the needs of a more immersive human-computer interface (HCI) environment. To improve the recognition performance, multi-channel EEG signals are usually used. A large set of EEG sensor channels will add to the computational complexity and cause users inconvenience. ReliefF-based channel selection methods were systematically investigated for EEG-based emotion recognition on a database for emotion analysis using physiological signals (DEAP). Three strategies were employed to select the best channels in classifying four emotional states (joy, fear, sadness and relaxation). Furthermore, support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier to validate the performance of the channel selection results. The experimental results showed the effectiveness of our methods and the comparison with the similar strategies, based on the F-score, was given. Strategies to evaluate a channel as a unity gave better performance in channel reduction with an acceptable loss of accuracy. In the third strategy, after adjusting channels’ weights according to their contribution to the classification accuracy, the number of channels was reduced to eight with a slight loss of accuracy (58.51% ± 10.05% versus the best classification accuracy 59.13% ± 11.00% using 19 channels). In addition, the study of selecting subject-independent channels, related to emotion processing, was also implemented. The sensors, selected subject-independently from frontal, parietal lobes, have been identified to provide more discriminative information associated with emotion processing, and are distributed symmetrically over the scalp, which is consistent with the existing literature. The results will make a contribution to the realization of a practical EEG-based emotion recognition system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Privacy-Enhanced and Multifunctional Health Data Aggregation under Differential Privacy Guarantees
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1463; doi:10.3390/s16091463
Received: 25 April 2016 / Revised: 25 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the rapid growth of the health data scale, the limited storage and computation resources of wireless body area sensor networks (WBANs) is becoming a barrier to their development. Therefore, outsourcing the encrypted health data to the cloud has been an appealing strategy.
[...] Read more.
With the rapid growth of the health data scale, the limited storage and computation resources of wireless body area sensor networks (WBANs) is becoming a barrier to their development. Therefore, outsourcing the encrypted health data to the cloud has been an appealing strategy. However, date aggregation will become difficult. Some recently-proposed schemes try to address this problem. However, there are still some functions and privacy issues that are not discussed. In this paper, we propose a privacy-enhanced and multifunctional health data aggregation scheme (PMHA-DP) under differential privacy. Specifically, we achieve a new aggregation function, weighted average (WAAS), and design a privacy-enhanced aggregation scheme (PAAS) to protect the aggregated data from cloud servers. Besides, a histogram aggregation scheme with high accuracy is proposed. PMHA-DP supports fault tolerance while preserving data privacy. The performance evaluation shows that the proposal leads to less communication overhead than the existing one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Source Authentication for Code Dissemination Supporting Dynamic Packet Size in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1063; doi:10.3390/s16071063
Received: 12 March 2016 / Revised: 26 June 2016 / Accepted: 5 July 2016 / Published: 9 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity
[...] Read more.
Code dissemination in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a procedure for distributing a new code image over the air in order to update programs. Due to the fact that WSNs are mostly deployed in unattended and hostile environments, secure code dissemination ensuring authenticity and integrity is essential. Recent works on dynamic packet size control in WSNs allow enhancing the energy efficiency of code dissemination by dynamically changing the packet size on the basis of link quality. However, the authentication tokens attached by the base station become useless in the next hop where the packet size can vary according to the link quality of the next hop. In this paper, we propose three source authentication schemes for code dissemination supporting dynamic packet size. Compared to traditional source authentication schemes such as μTESLA and digital signatures, our schemes provide secure source authentication under the environment, where the packet size changes in each hop, with smaller energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Security in Intelligent Transport Systems for Smart Cities: From Theory to Practice
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 879; doi:10.3390/s16060879
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 8 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Connecting vehicles securely and reliably is pivotal to the implementation of next generation ITS applications of smart cities. With continuously growing security threats, vehicles could be exposed to a number of service attacks that could put their safety at stake. To address this
[...] Read more.
Connecting vehicles securely and reliably is pivotal to the implementation of next generation ITS applications of smart cities. With continuously growing security threats, vehicles could be exposed to a number of service attacks that could put their safety at stake. To address this concern, both US and European ITS standards have selected Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) algorithms to secure vehicular communications. However, there is still a lack of benchmarking studies on existing security standards in real-world settings. In this paper, we first analyze the security architecture of the ETSI ITS standard. We then implement the ECC based digital signature and encryption procedures using an experimental test-bed and conduct an extensive benchmark study to assess their performance which depends on factors such as payload size, processor speed and security levels. Using network simulation models, we further evaluate the impact of standard compliant security procedures in dense and realistic smart cities scenarios. Obtained results suggest that existing security solutions directly impact the achieved quality of service (QoS) and safety awareness of vehicular applications, in terms of increased packet inter-arrival delays, packet and cryptographic losses, and reduced safety awareness in safety applications. Finally, we summarize the insights gained from the simulation results and discuss open research challenges for efficient working of security in ITS applications of smart cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study of Anomaly Detection Techniques for Smart City Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 868; doi:10.3390/s16060868
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 13 June 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In many countries around the world, smart cities are becoming a reality. These cities contribute to improving citizens’ quality of life by providing services that are normally based on data extracted from wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other elements of the Internet of
[...] Read more.
In many countries around the world, smart cities are becoming a reality. These cities contribute to improving citizens’ quality of life by providing services that are normally based on data extracted from wireless sensor networks (WSN) and other elements of the Internet of Things. Additionally, public administration uses these smart city data to increase its efficiency, to reduce costs and to provide additional services. However, the information received at smart city data centers is not always accurate, because WSNs are sometimes prone to error and are exposed to physical and computer attacks. In this article, we use real data from the smart city of Barcelona to simulate WSNs and implement typical attacks. Then, we compare frequently used anomaly detection techniques to disclose these attacks. We evaluate the algorithms under different requirements on the available network status information. As a result of this study, we conclude that one-class Support Vector Machines is the most appropriate technique. We achieve a true positive rate at least 56% higher than the rates achieved with the other compared techniques in a scenario with a maximum false positive rate of 5% and a 26% higher in a scenario with a false positive rate of 15%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Reliability Evaluation for Clustered WSNs under Malware Propagation
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 855; doi:10.3390/s16060855
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 4 June 2016 / Accepted: 6 June 2016 / Published: 10 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We consider a clustered wireless sensor network (WSN) under epidemic-malware propagation conditions and solve the problem of how to evaluate its reliability so as to ensure efficient, continuous, and dependable transmission of sensed data from sensor nodes to the sink. Facing the contradiction
[...] Read more.
We consider a clustered wireless sensor network (WSN) under epidemic-malware propagation conditions and solve the problem of how to evaluate its reliability so as to ensure efficient, continuous, and dependable transmission of sensed data from sensor nodes to the sink. Facing the contradiction between malware intention and continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) randomness, we introduce a strategic game that can predict malware infection in order to model a successful infection as a CTMC state transition. Next, we devise a novel measure to compute the Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) of a sensor node, which represents the reliability of a sensor node continuously performing tasks such as sensing, transmitting, and fusing data. Since clustered WSNs can be regarded as parallel-serial-parallel systems, the reliability of a clustered WSN can be evaluated via classical reliability theory. Numerical results show the influence of parameters such as the true positive rate and the false positive rate on a sensor node’s MTTF. Furthermore, we validate the method of reliability evaluation for a clustered WSN according to the number of sensor nodes in a cluster, the number of clusters in a route, and the number of routes in the WSN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle An Energy Efficient Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Preserving Anonymity for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 837; doi:10.3390/s16060837
Received: 29 March 2016 / Revised: 29 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
WSNs (Wireless sensor networks) are nowadays viewed as a vital portion of the IoTs (Internet of Things). Security is a significant issue in WSNs, especially in resource-constrained environments. AKA (Authentication and key agreement) enhances the security of WSNs against adversaries attempting to get
[...] Read more.
WSNs (Wireless sensor networks) are nowadays viewed as a vital portion of the IoTs (Internet of Things). Security is a significant issue in WSNs, especially in resource-constrained environments. AKA (Authentication and key agreement) enhances the security of WSNs against adversaries attempting to get sensitive sensor data. Various AKA schemes have been developed for verifying the legitimate users of a WSN. Firstly, we scrutinize Amin-Biswas’s currently scheme and demonstrate the major security loopholes in their works. Next, we propose a lightweight AKA scheme, using symmetric key cryptography based on smart card, which is resilient against all well known security attacks. Furthermore, we prove the scheme accomplishes mutual handshake and session key agreement property securely between the participates involved under BAN (Burrows, Abadi and Needham) logic. Moreover, formal security analysis and simulations are also conducted using AVISPA(Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) to show that our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks. Additionally, performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme is secure and efficient to apply for resource-constrained WSNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle TripSense: A Trust-Based Vehicular Platoon Crowdsensing Scheme with Privacy Preservation in VANETs
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 803; doi:10.3390/s16060803
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a trust-based vehicular platoon crowdsensing scheme, named TripSense, in VANET. The proposed TripSense scheme introduces a trust-based system to evaluate vehicles’ sensing abilities and then selects the more capable vehicles in order to improve sensing results accuracy. In
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a trust-based vehicular platoon crowdsensing scheme, named TripSense, in VANET. The proposed TripSense scheme introduces a trust-based system to evaluate vehicles’ sensing abilities and then selects the more capable vehicles in order to improve sensing results accuracy. In addition, the sensing tasks are accomplished by platoon member vehicles and preprocessed by platoon head vehicles before the data are uploaded to server. Hence, it is less time-consuming and more efficient compared with the way where the data are submitted by individual platoon member vehicles. Hence it is more suitable in ephemeral networks like VANET. Moreover, our proposed TripSense scheme integrates unlinkable pseudo-ID techniques to achieve PM vehicle identity privacy, and employs a privacy-preserving sensing vehicle selection scheme without involving the PM vehicle’s trust score to keep its location privacy. Detailed security analysis shows that our proposed TripSense scheme not only achieves desirable privacy requirements but also resists against attacks launched by adversaries. In addition, extensive simulations are conducted to show the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Reputation and Reward: Two Sides of the Same Bitcoin
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 776; doi:10.3390/s16060776
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
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Abstract
In Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS), the power of the crowd, jointly with the sensing capabilities of the smartphones they wear, provides a new paradigm for data sensing. Scenarios involving user behavior or those that rely on user mobility are examples where standard sensor
[...] Read more.
In Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS), the power of the crowd, jointly with the sensing capabilities of the smartphones they wear, provides a new paradigm for data sensing. Scenarios involving user behavior or those that rely on user mobility are examples where standard sensor networks may not be suitable, and MCS provides an interesting solution. However, including human participation in sensing tasks presents numerous and unique research challenges. In this paper, we analyze three of the most important: user participation, data sensing quality and user anonymity. We tackle the three as a whole, since all of them are strongly correlated. As a result, we present PaySense, a general framework that incentivizes user participation and provides a mechanism to validate the quality of collected data based on the users’ reputation. All such features are performed in a privacy-preserving way by using the Bitcoin cryptocurrency. Rather than a theoretical one, our framework has been implemented, and it is ready to be deployed and complement any existing MCS system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 728; doi:10.3390/s16050728
Received: 22 March 2016 / Revised: 7 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports
[...] Read more.
Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle On Modeling Eavesdropping Attacks in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 721; doi:10.3390/s16050721
Received: 17 March 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The security and privacy of underwater acoustic sensor networks has received extensive attention recently due to the proliferation of underwater activities. This paper proposes an analytical model to investigate the eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks. Our analytical framework considers the impacts
[...] Read more.
The security and privacy of underwater acoustic sensor networks has received extensive attention recently due to the proliferation of underwater activities. This paper proposes an analytical model to investigate the eavesdropping attacks in underwater acoustic sensor networks. Our analytical framework considers the impacts of various underwater acoustic channel conditions (such as the acoustic signal frequency, spreading factor and wind speed) and different hydrophones (isotropic hydrophones and array hydrophones) in terms of network nodes and eavesdroppers. We also conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the effectiveness and the accuracy of our proposed model. Empirical results show that our proposed model is quite accurate. In addition, our results also imply that the eavesdropping probability heavily depends on both the underwater acoustic channel conditions and the features of hydrophones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 670; doi:10.3390/s16050670
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 25 April 2016 / Accepted: 2 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3009 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN) applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it
[...] Read more.
This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN) applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level) and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS)). We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD) variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD)) and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor) is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Bootstrapping Security Policies for Wearable Apps Using Attributed Structural Graphs
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 674; doi:10.3390/s16050674
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 3 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
PDF Full-text (1357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We address the problem of bootstrapping security and privacy policies for newly-deployed apps in wireless body area networks (WBAN) composed of smartphones, sensors and other wearable devices. We introduce a framework to model such a WBAN as an undirected graph whose vertices correspond
[...] Read more.
We address the problem of bootstrapping security and privacy policies for newly-deployed apps in wireless body area networks (WBAN) composed of smartphones, sensors and other wearable devices. We introduce a framework to model such a WBAN as an undirected graph whose vertices correspond to devices, apps and app resources, while edges model structural relationships among them. This graph is then augmented with attributes capturing the features of each entity together with user-defined tags. We then adapt available graph-based similarity metrics to find the closest app to a new one to be deployed, with the aim of reusing, and possibly adapting, its security policy. We illustrate our approach through a detailed smartphone ecosystem case study. Our results suggest that the scheme can provide users with a reasonably good policy that is consistent with the user’s security preferences implicitly captured by policies already in place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Exponential Arithmetic Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme with Backward Secrecy under the Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 609; doi:10.3390/s16050609
Received: 2 March 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
PDF Full-text (1601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can
[...] Read more.
In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can be used to distribute and update the group key for the secure group communication over unreliable wireless networks. Among all known SGKD schemes, exponential arithmetic based SGKD (E-SGKD) schemes reduce the storage overhead to constant, thus is suitable for the the resource-constrained wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a new mechanism to achieve E-SGKD schemes with backward secrecy. We first propose a basic E-SGKD scheme based on a known polynomial-based SGKD, where it has optimal storage overhead while having no backward secrecy. To obtain the backward secrecy and reduce the communication overhead, we introduce a novel approach for message broadcasting and self-healing. Compared with other E-SGKD schemes, our new E-SGKD scheme has the optimal storage overhead, high communication efficiency and satisfactory security. The simulation results in Zigbee-based networks show that the proposed scheme is suitable for the resource-restrained wireless networks. Finally, we show the application of our proposed scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle An Embedded Sensor Node Microcontroller with Crypto-Processors
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 607; doi:10.3390/s16050607
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 20 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless sensor network applications range from industrial automation and control, agricultural and environmental protection, to surveillance and medicine. In most applications, data are highly sensitive and must be protected from any type of attack and abuse. Security challenges in wireless sensor networks are
[...] Read more.
Wireless sensor network applications range from industrial automation and control, agricultural and environmental protection, to surveillance and medicine. In most applications, data are highly sensitive and must be protected from any type of attack and abuse. Security challenges in wireless sensor networks are mainly defined by the power and computing resources of sensor devices, memory size, quality of radio channels and susceptibility to physical capture. In this article, an embedded sensor node microcontroller designed to support sensor network applications with severe security demands is presented. It features a low power 16-bitprocessor core supported by a number of hardware accelerators designed to perform complex operations required by advanced crypto algorithms. The microcontroller integrates an embedded Flash and an 8-channel 12-bit analog-to-digital converter making it a good solution for low-power sensor nodes. The article discusses the most important security topics in wireless sensor networks and presents the architecture of the proposed hardware solution. Furthermore, it gives details on the chip implementation, verification and hardware evaluation. Finally, the chip power dissipation and performance figures are estimated and analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 570; doi:10.3390/s16040570
Received: 7 January 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process
[...] Read more.
Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle A Trust-Based Adaptive Probability Marking and Storage Traceback Scheme for WSNs
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 451; doi:10.3390/s16040451
Received: 16 January 2016 / Revised: 19 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (5540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Security is a pivotal issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which are emerging as a promising platform that enables a wide range of military, scientific, industrial and commercial applications. Traceback, a key cyber-forensics technology, can play an important role in tracing and locating
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Security is a pivotal issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which are emerging as a promising platform that enables a wide range of military, scientific, industrial and commercial applications. Traceback, a key cyber-forensics technology, can play an important role in tracing and locating a malicious source to guarantee cybersecurity. In this work a trust-based adaptive probability marking and storage (TAPMS) traceback scheme is proposed to enhance security for WSNs. In a TAPMS scheme, the marking probability is adaptively adjusted according to the security requirements of the network and can substantially reduce the number of marking tuples and improve network lifetime. More importantly, a high trust node is selected to store marking tuples, which can avoid the problem of marking information being lost. Experimental results show that the total number of marking tuples can be reduced in a TAPMS scheme, thus improving network lifetime. At the same time, since the marking tuples are stored in high trust nodes, storage reliability can be guaranteed, and the traceback time can be reduced by more than 80%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 259; doi:10.3390/s16020259
Received: 13 November 2015 / Revised: 8 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 20 February 2016
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Abstract
In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage
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In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)—a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol—is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Secure Scheme for Distributed Consensus Estimation against Data Falsification in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 252; doi:10.3390/s16020252
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 12 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
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Abstract
Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs) can achieve more tasks and prolong the network lifetime. However, they are vulnerable to attacks from the environment or malicious nodes. This paper is concerned with the issues of a consensus secure scheme in HWSNs consisting of two
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Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs) can achieve more tasks and prolong the network lifetime. However, they are vulnerable to attacks from the environment or malicious nodes. This paper is concerned with the issues of a consensus secure scheme in HWSNs consisting of two types of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes (SNs) have more computation power, while relay nodes (RNs) with low power can only transmit information for sensor nodes. To address the security issues of distributed estimation in HWSNs, we apply the heterogeneity of responsibilities between the two types of sensors and then propose a parameter adjusted-based consensus scheme (PACS) to mitigate the effect of the malicious node. Finally, the convergence property is proven to be guaranteed, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness and efficiency of PACS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Social Milieu Oriented Routing: A New Dimension to Enhance Network Security in WSNs
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 247; doi:10.3390/s16020247
Received: 3 January 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
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Abstract
In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with
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In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Secure and Privacy-Preserving Body Sensor Data Collection and Query Scheme
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 179; doi:10.3390/s16020179
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2016 / Published: 1 February 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the development of body sensor networks and the pervasiveness of smart phones, different types of personal data can be collected in real time by body sensors, and the potential value of massive personal data has attracted considerable interest recently. However, the privacy
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With the development of body sensor networks and the pervasiveness of smart phones, different types of personal data can be collected in real time by body sensors, and the potential value of massive personal data has attracted considerable interest recently. However, the privacy issues of sensitive personal data are still challenging today. Aiming at these challenges, in this paper, we focus on the threats from telemetry interface and present a secure and privacy-preserving body sensor data collection and query scheme, named SPCQ, for outsourced computing. In the proposed SPCQ scheme, users’ personal information is collected by body sensors in different types and converted into multi-dimension data, and each dimension is converted into the form of a number and uploaded to the cloud server, which provides a secure, efficient and accurate data query service, while the privacy of sensitive personal information and users’ query data is guaranteed. Specifically, based on an improved homomorphic encryption technology over composite order group, we propose a special weighted Euclidean distance contrast algorithm (WEDC) for multi-dimension vectors over encrypted data. With the SPCQ scheme, the confidentiality of sensitive personal data, the privacy of data users’ queries and accurate query service can be achieved in the cloud server. Detailed analysis shows that SPCQ can resist various security threats from telemetry interface. In addition, we also implement SPCQ on an embedded device, smart phone and laptop with a real medical database, and extensive simulation results demonstrate that our proposed SPCQ scheme is highly efficient in terms of computation and communication costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Key Management Scheme Based on Route Planning of Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 170; doi:10.3390/s16020170
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 29 January 2016
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Abstract
In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS) should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with
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In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS) should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighbor areas (TSPN) in dynamic clustering for data exchange is proposed, and the selection probability is used in MS route planning. The proposed scheme extends static key management to dynamic key management by considering the dynamic clustering and mobility of MSs, which can effectively balance the total energy consumption during the activities. Considering the different resources available to the member nodes and sink node, the session key between cluster head and MS is established by modified an ECC encryption with Diffie-Hellman key exchange (ECDH) algorithm and the session key between member node and cluster head is built with a binary symmetric polynomial. By analyzing the security of data storage, data transfer and the mechanism of dynamic key management, the proposed scheme has more advantages to help improve the resilience of the key management system of the network on the premise of satisfying higher connectivity and storage efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Defence against Black Hole and Selective Forwarding Attacks for Medical WSNs in the IoT
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 118; doi:10.3390/s16010118
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 13 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are being used to facilitate monitoring of patients in hospital and home environments. These systems consist of a variety of different components/sensors and many processes like clustering, routing, security, and self-organization. Routing is necessary for medical-based WSNs because it
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are being used to facilitate monitoring of patients in hospital and home environments. These systems consist of a variety of different components/sensors and many processes like clustering, routing, security, and self-organization. Routing is necessary for medical-based WSNs because it allows remote data delivery and it facilitates network scalability in large hospitals. However, routing entails several problems, mainly due to the open nature of wireless networks, and these need to be addressed. This paper looks at two of the problems that arise due to wireless routing between the nodes and access points of a medical WSN (for IoT use): black hole and selective forwarding (SF) attacks. A solution to the former can readily be provided through the use of cryptographic hashes, while the latter makes use of a neighbourhood watch and threshold-based analysis to detect and correct SF attacks. The scheme proposed here is capable of detecting a selective forwarding attack with over 96% accuracy and successfully identifying the malicious node with 83% accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Authentication Based on Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proofs for the Internet of Things
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 75; doi:10.3390/s16010075
Received: 20 October 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 4 January 2016 / Published: 7 January 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the design and analysis of a new scheme for the authenticated exchange of confidential information in insecure environments within the Internet of Things, which allows a receiver of a message to authenticate the sender and compute a secret key shared
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This paper describes the design and analysis of a new scheme for the authenticated exchange of confidential information in insecure environments within the Internet of Things, which allows a receiver of a message to authenticate the sender and compute a secret key shared with it. The proposal is based on the concept of a non-interactive zero-knowledge proof, so that in a single communication, relevant data may be inferred to verify the legitimacy of the sender. Besides, the new scheme uses the idea under the Diffie–Hellman protocol for the establishment of a shared secret key. The proposal has been fully developed for platforms built on the Android Open Source Project, so it can be used in any device or sensor with this operating system. This work provides a performance study of the implementation and a comparison between its promising results and others obtained with similar schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Secure and Efficient Reactive Video Surveillance for Patient Monitoring
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 32; doi:10.3390/s16010032
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this
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Video surveillance is widely deployed for many kinds of monitoring applications in healthcare and assisted living systems. Security and privacy are two promising factors that align the quality and validity of video surveillance systems with the caliber of patient monitoring applications. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key-based security framework for the reactive video surveillance of patients based on the inputs coming from data measured by a wireless body area network attached to the human body. Only authenticated patients are able to activate the video cameras, whereas the patient and authorized people can consult the video data. User and location privacy are at each moment guaranteed for the patient. A tradeoff between security and quality of service is defined in order to ensure that the surveillance system gets activated even in emergency situations. In addition, the solution includes resistance against tampering with the device on the patient’s side. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Wireless Sensors Grouping Proofs for Medical Care and Ambient Assisted-Living Deployment
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 33; doi:10.3390/s16010033
Received: 10 November 2015 / Revised: 13 December 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) devices are rapidly penetrating e-health and assisted living domains, and an increasing proportion among them goes on the account of computationally-weak devices, where security and privacy provisioning alone are demanding tasks, not to mention grouping proofs. This paper, therefore,
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Internet of Things (IoT) devices are rapidly penetrating e-health and assisted living domains, and an increasing proportion among them goes on the account of computationally-weak devices, where security and privacy provisioning alone are demanding tasks, not to mention grouping proofs. This paper, therefore, gives an extensive analysis of such proofs and states lessons learnt to avoid possible pitfalls in future designs. It sticks with prudent engineering techniques in this field and deploys in a novel way the so called non-deterministic principle to provide not only grouping proofs, but (among other) also privacy. The developed solution is analyzed by means of a tangible metric and it is shown to be lightweight, and formally for security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Heterogeneity and Secrecy on theCapacity of Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2015, 15(12), 30964-30980; doi:10.3390/s151229844
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 25 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
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Abstract
This paper investigates the achievable secrecy throughput of an inhomogeneous wireless sensor network. We consider the impact of topology heterogeneity and the secrecy constraint on the throughput. For the topology heterogeneity, by virtue of percolation theory, a set of connected highways and information
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This paper investigates the achievable secrecy throughput of an inhomogeneous wireless sensor network. We consider the impact of topology heterogeneity and the secrecy constraint on the throughput. For the topology heterogeneity, by virtue of percolation theory, a set of connected highways and information pipelines is established; while for the secrecy constraint, the concept of secrecy zone is adopted to ensure secrecy transmission. The secrecy zone means there is no eavesdropper around the legitimate node. The results demonstrate that, if the eavesdropper’s intensity is λe= o log n - 3 δ - 4 δ - 2 , a per-node secrecy rate of Ω 1 n 1 - v ( 1 - v ) log n can be achieved on the highways, where δ is the exponent of heterogeneity, n and n v represent the number of nodes and clusters in the network, respectively. It is also shown that, with the density of the eavesdropper λ e = o log n Φ ̲ - 2 , the per-node secrecy rate of Ω Φ ̲ n can be obtained in the information pipelines, where Φ ̲ denotes the minimum node density in the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle A Network Topology Control and Identity Authentication Protocol with Support for Movable Sensor Nodes
Sensors 2015, 15(12), 29958-29969; doi:10.3390/s151229782
Received: 28 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is expected that in the near future wireless sensor network (WSNs) will be more widely used in the mobile environment, in applications such as Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for marine monitoring and mobile robots for environmental investigation. The sensor nodes’ mobility can
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It is expected that in the near future wireless sensor network (WSNs) will be more widely used in the mobile environment, in applications such as Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for marine monitoring and mobile robots for environmental investigation. The sensor nodes’ mobility can easily cause changes to the structure of a network topology, and lead to the decline in the amount of transmitted data, excessive energy consumption, and lack of security. To solve these problems, a kind of efficient Topology Control algorithm for node Mobility (TCM) is proposed. In the topology construction stage, an efficient clustering algorithm is adopted, which supports sensor node movement. It can ensure the balance of clustering, and reduce the energy consumption. In the topology maintenance stage, the digital signature authentication based on Error Correction Code (ECC) and the communication mechanism of soft handover are adopted. After verifying the legal identity of the mobile nodes, secure communications can be established, and this can increase the amount of data transmitted. Compared to some existing schemes, the proposed scheme has significant advantages regarding network topology stability, amounts of data transferred, lifetime and safety performance of the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Layer Approach for the Detection of Selective Forwarding Attacks
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29332-29345; doi:10.3390/s151129332
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Security breaches are a major threat in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). WSNs are increasingly used due to their broad range of important applications in both military and civilian domains. WSNs are prone to several types of security attacks. Sensor nodes have limited capacities
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Security breaches are a major threat in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). WSNs are increasingly used due to their broad range of important applications in both military and civilian domains. WSNs are prone to several types of security attacks. Sensor nodes have limited capacities and are often deployed in dangerous locations; therefore, they are vulnerable to different types of attacks, including wormhole, sinkhole, and selective forwarding attacks. Security attacks are classified as data traffic and routing attacks. These security attacks could affect the most significant applications of WSNs, namely, military surveillance, traffic monitoring, and healthcare. Therefore, there are different approaches to detecting security attacks on the network layer in WSNs. Reliability, energy efficiency, and scalability are strong constraints on sensor nodes that affect the security of WSNs. Because sensor nodes have limited capabilities in most of these areas, selective forwarding attacks cannot be easily detected in networks. In this paper, we propose an approach to selective forwarding detection (SFD). The approach has three layers: MAC pool IDs, rule-based processing, and anomaly detection. It maintains the safety of data transmission between a source node and base station while detecting selective forwarding attacks. Furthermore, the approach is reliable, energy efficient, and scalable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Hiding the Source Based on Limited Flooding for Sensor Networks
Sensors 2015, 15(11), 29129-29148; doi:10.3390/s151129129
Received: 25 August 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless sensor networks are widely used to monitor valuable objects such as rare animals or armies. Once an object is detected, the source, i.e., the sensor nearest to the object, generates and periodically sends a packet about the object to the base
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Wireless sensor networks are widely used to monitor valuable objects such as rare animals or armies. Once an object is detected, the source, i.e., the sensor nearest to the object, generates and periodically sends a packet about the object to the base station. Since attackers can capture the object by localizing the source, many protocols have been proposed to protect source location. Instead of transmitting the packet to the base station directly, typical source location protection protocols first transmit packets randomly for a few hops to a phantom location, and then forward the packets to the base station. The problem with these protocols is that the generated phantom locations are usually not only near the true source but also close to each other. As a result, attackers can easily trace a route back to the source from the phantom locations. To address the above problem, we propose a new protocol for source location protection based on limited flooding, named SLP. Compared with existing protocols, SLP can generate phantom locations that are not only far away from the source, but also widely distributed. It improves source location security significantly with low communication cost. We further propose a protocol, namely SLP-E, to protect source location against more powerful attackers with wider fields of vision. The performance of our SLP and SLP-E are validated by both theoretical analysis and simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)
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Review

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Open AccessReview A Survey on Security and Privacy in Emerging Sensor Networks: From Viewpoint of Close-Loop
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 443; doi:10.3390/s16040443
Received: 20 February 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 26 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, as the next generation sensor networks, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) refer to the complex networked systems that have both physical subsystems and cyber components, and the information flow between different subsystems and components is across a communication network, which forms a closed-loop. New
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Nowadays, as the next generation sensor networks, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) refer to the complex networked systems that have both physical subsystems and cyber components, and the information flow between different subsystems and components is across a communication network, which forms a closed-loop. New generation sensor networks are found in a growing number of applications and have received increasing attention from many inter-disciplines. Opportunities and challenges in the design, analysis, verification and validation of sensor networks co-exists, among which security and privacy are two important ingredients. This paper presents a survey on some recent results in the security and privacy aspects of emerging sensor networks from the viewpoint of the closed-loop. This paper also discusses several future research directions under these two umbrellas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Sensor Networks)

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