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Sensors 2016, 16(2), 256; doi:10.3390/s16020256

Measurement and Modeling of Narrowband Channels for Ultrasonic Underwater Communications

1
Departamento de Ingeniería de Comunicaciones, ETS Ingeniería de Telecomunicación, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga 29071, Spain
2
Sociedad Anónima de Electrónica Submarina (SAES), Cartagena 30205, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jaime Lloret Mauri
Received: 10 December 2015 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 19 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Nodes and Underwater Sensor Networks 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [927 KB, uploaded 19 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Underwater acoustic sensor networks are a promising technology that allow real-time data collection in seas and oceans for a wide variety of applications. Smaller size and weight sensors can be achieved with working frequencies shifted from audio to the ultrasonic band. At these frequencies, the fading phenomena has a significant presence in the channel behavior, and the design of a reliable communication link between the network sensors will require a precise characterization of it. Fading in underwater channels has been previously measured and modeled in the audio band. However, there have been few attempts to study it at ultrasonic frequencies. In this paper, a campaign of measurements of ultrasonic underwater acoustic channels in Mediterranean shallow waters conducted by the authors is presented. These measurements are used to determine the parameters of the so-called κ-μ shadowed distribution, a fading model with a direct connection to the underlying physical mechanisms. The model is then used to evaluate the capacity of the measured channels with a closed-form expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: sensor networks; underwater acoustic communications (UAC); fading channels; statistical channel modeling; narrowband channel measurements; Doppler spread; parameter estimation; channel ergodic capacity; κ-μ shadowed; Rice shadowed sensor networks; underwater acoustic communications (UAC); fading channels; statistical channel modeling; narrowband channel measurements; Doppler spread; parameter estimation; channel ergodic capacity; κ-μ shadowed; Rice shadowed
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cañete, F.J.; López-Fernández, J.; García-Corrales, C.; Sánchez, A.; Robles, E.; Rodrigo, F.J.; Paris, J.F. Measurement and Modeling of Narrowband Channels for Ultrasonic Underwater Communications. Sensors 2016, 16, 256.

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