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Molecules, Volume 22, Issue 7 (July 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Time-dependent Inhibition of CYP2C8 and CYP2C19 by Hedera helix Extracts, A Traditional Respiratory Herbal Medicine
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071241
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
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Abstract
The extract of Hedera helix L. (Araliaceae), a well-known folk medicine, has been popularly used to treat respiratory problems, worldwide. It is very likely that this herbal extract is taken in combination with conventional drugs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects
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The extract of Hedera helix L. (Araliaceae), a well-known folk medicine, has been popularly used to treat respiratory problems, worldwide. It is very likely that this herbal extract is taken in combination with conventional drugs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of H. helix extract on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme-mediated metabolism to predict the potential for herb–drug interactions. A cocktail probe assay was used to measure the inhibitory effect of CYP. H. helix extracts were incubated with pooled human liver microsomes or CYP isozymes with CYP-specific substrates, and the formation of specific metabolites was investigated to measure the inhibitory effects. H. helix showed significant inhibitory effects on CYP2C8, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in a concentration-dependent manner. In recombinant CYP2C8, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 isozymes, the IC50 values of the extract were 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.58 ± 0.03 and 6.72 ± 0.22 mg/mL, respectively. Further investigation showed that H. helix extract has a positive time-dependent inhibition property on both CYP2C8 and CYP2C19 with IC50 shift value of 2.77 ± 0.12 and 6.31 ± 0.25, respectively. Based on this in vitro investigation, consumption of herbal medicines or dietary supplements containing H. helix extracts requires careful attention to avoid any CYP-based interactions. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Role of G Protein-Coupled Receptors in the Regulation of Structural Plasticity and Cognitive Function
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071239
Received: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cognition and other higher brain functions are known to be intricately associated with the capacity of neural circuits to undergo structural reorganization. Structural remodelling of neural circuits, or structural plasticity, in the hippocampus plays a major role in learning and memory. Dynamic modifications
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Cognition and other higher brain functions are known to be intricately associated with the capacity of neural circuits to undergo structural reorganization. Structural remodelling of neural circuits, or structural plasticity, in the hippocampus plays a major role in learning and memory. Dynamic modifications of neuronal connectivity in the form of dendritic spine morphology alteration, as well as synapse formation and elimination, often result in the strengthening or weakening of specific neural circuits that determine synaptic plasticity. Changes in dendritic complexity and synapse number are mediated by cellular processes that are regulated by extracellular signals such as neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors. As many neurotransmitters act on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), it has become increasingly apparent that GPCRs can regulate structural plasticity through a myriad of G protein-dependent pathways and non-canonical signals. A thorough understanding of how GPCRs exert their regulatory influence on dendritic spine morphogenesis may provide new insights for treating cognitive impairment and decline in various age-related diseases. In this article, we review the evidence of GPCR-mediated regulation of structural plasticity, with a special emphasis on the involvement of common as well as distinct signalling pathways that are regulated by major neurotransmitters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue G-protein Coupled Receptor Structure and Function)
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Open AccessArticle Quality Assessment of Gentiana rigescens from Different Geographical Origins Using FT-IR Spectroscopy Combined with HPLC
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071238
Received: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gentiana rigescens is a precious herbal medicine in China because of its liver-protective and choleretic effects. A method for the qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of G. rigescens from Yunnan Province, China, has been developed employing Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and high
[...] Read more.
Gentiana rigescens is a precious herbal medicine in China because of its liver-protective and choleretic effects. A method for the qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of G. rigescens from Yunnan Province, China, has been developed employing Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the aid of chemometrics such as partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machines (SVM) regression. Our results indicated that PLS-DA model could efficiently discriminate G. rigescens from different geographical origins. It was found that the samples which could not be determined accurately were in the margin or outside of the 95% confidence ellipses. Moreover, the result implied that geographical origins variation of root samples were more obvious than that of stems and leaves. The quantitative analysis was based on gentiopicroside content which was the main active constituent in G. rigescens. For the prediction of gentiopicroside, the performances of model based on the parameters selected through grid search algorithm (GS) with seven-fold cross validation were better than those based on genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). For the SVM-GS model, the result was satisfactory. FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with PLS-DA and SVM-GS can be an alternative strategy for qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of G. rigescens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Ginsenoside Compound K Derivatives as a Novel Class of LXRα Activator
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071232
Received: 25 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
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Abstract
Compound K is one of the active metabolites of Panaxnotoginseng saponins, which could attenuate the formation of atherosclerosis in mice modelsvia activating LXRα. We synthesized and evaluated a series of ginsenoside compound K derivatives modified with short chain fatty acids. All of the
[...] Read more.
Compound K is one of the active metabolites of Panaxnotoginseng saponins, which could attenuate the formation of atherosclerosis in mice modelsvia activating LXRα. We synthesized and evaluated a series of ginsenoside compound K derivatives modified with short chain fatty acids. All of the structures of this class of ginsenoside compound K derivative exhibited comparable or better biological activity than ginsenoside compound K. Especially structure 1 exhibited the best potency (cholesteryl ester content: 41.51%; expression of ABCA1 mRNA: 319%) and low cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Study on Chemical Profile and Neuroprotective Activity of Myrica rubra Leaf Extract
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071226
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
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Abstract
The chemical profile of Myrica rubra (a native species in China) leaf extract was investigated by UPLC-PDA-HRMS, and the neuroprotective activity of two characteristic constituents, myricanol and myricetrin, was evaluated with N2a cells using H2O2-inducedoxidative challenge through a series
[...] Read more.
The chemical profile of Myrica rubra (a native species in China) leaf extract was investigated by UPLC-PDA-HRMS, and the neuroprotective activity of two characteristic constituents, myricanol and myricetrin, was evaluated with N2a cells using H2O2-inducedoxidative challenge through a series of methods, e.g., MTT assay, ROS assay and [Ca2+]i assay. Among the 188 constituents detected in the extract of Myrica rubra leaf, 116 were identified definitely or tentatively by the comprehensive utilization of precise molecular weight and abundant multistage fragmentation information obtained by quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry. In addition, 14 potential new compounds were reported for the first time. This work established an example for the research of microconstituents in a complex analyte and revealed that suppression of H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in N2a cells was achieved by the pretreatment with myricanol. The evidence suggested myricanol may potentially serve as a remedy for prevention and therapy of neurodegenerative diseases induced by oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Neighbor Affinity-Based Core-Attachment Method to Detect Protein Complexes in Dynamic PPI Networks
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071223
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein complexes play significant roles in cellular processes. Identifying protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is an effective strategy to understand biological processes and cellular functions. A number of methods have recently been proposed to detect protein complexes. However, most of methods
[...] Read more.
Protein complexes play significant roles in cellular processes. Identifying protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is an effective strategy to understand biological processes and cellular functions. A number of methods have recently been proposed to detect protein complexes. However, most of methods predict protein complexes from static PPI networks, and usually overlook the inherent dynamics and topological properties of protein complexes. In this paper, we proposed a novel method, called NABCAM (Neighbor Affinity-Based Core-Attachment Method), to identify protein complexes from dynamic PPI networks. Firstly, the centrality score of every protein is calculated. The proteins with the highest centrality scores are regarded as the seed proteins. Secondly, the seed proteins are expanded to complex cores by calculating the similarity values between the seed proteins and their neighboring proteins. Thirdly, the attachments are appended to their corresponding protein complex cores by comparing the affinity among neighbors inside the core, against that outside the core. Finally, filtering processes are carried out to obtain the final clustering result. The result in the DIP database shows that the NABCAM algorithm can predict protein complexes effectively in comparison with other state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, many protein complexes predicted by our method are biologically significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Analysis for Protein Structure and Interaction)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel and Practical Chromatographic “Fingerprint-ROC-SVM” Strategy Applied to Quality Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine Injections: Using KuDieZi Injection as a Case Study
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071237
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 22 July 2017 / Published: 23 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fingerprinting is widely and commonly used in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections. However, current studies informed that the fingerprint similarity evaluation was less sensitive and easily generated false positive results. For this reason, a novel and practical chromatographic “Fingerprint-ROC-SVM”
[...] Read more.
Fingerprinting is widely and commonly used in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections. However, current studies informed that the fingerprint similarity evaluation was less sensitive and easily generated false positive results. For this reason, a novel and practical chromatographic “Fingerprint-ROC-SVM” strategy was established by using KuDieZi (KDZ) injection as a case study in the present article. Firstly, the chromatographic fingerprints of KDZ injection were obtained by UPLC and the common characteristic peaks were identified with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS under the same chromatographic conditions. Then, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to optimize common characteristic peaks by the AUCs value greater than 0.7. Finally, a support vector machine (SVM) model, with the accuracy of 97.06%, was established by the optimized characteristic peaks and applied to monitor the quality of KDZ injection. As a result, the established model could sensitively and accurately distinguish the qualified products (QPs) with the unqualified products (UPs), high-temperature processed samples (HTPs) and high-illumination processed samples (HIPs) of KDZ injection, and the prediction accuracy was 100.00%, 93.75% and 100.00%, respectively. Furthermore, through the comparison with other chemometrics methods, the superiority of the novel analytical strategy was more prominent. It indicated that the novel and practical chromatographic “Fingerprint-ROC-SVM” strategy could be further applied to facilitate the development of the quality analysis of TCM injections. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Brominated Alkaloid Securidine A, Isolated from the Marine Bryozoan Securiflustra securifrons
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071236
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 23 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (760 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A novel brominated alkaloid, Securidine A, was isolated from the cold water marine bryozoan Securiflustra securifrons. Securidine A was isolated using semi-preparative HPLC, and the structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The isolated Securidine A was tested for cytotoxic, antibacterial, and anti-diabetic
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A novel brominated alkaloid, Securidine A, was isolated from the cold water marine bryozoan Securiflustra securifrons. Securidine A was isolated using semi-preparative HPLC, and the structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The isolated Securidine A was tested for cytotoxic, antibacterial, and anti-diabetic activities as well as for its potential for inhibition of biofilm formation. No significant biological activity was observed in the applied bioassays, thus expanded bioactivity profiling is required, in order to reveal any potential applications for Securidine A. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Host Defense Peptide Temporin L and Its Q3K Derivative: An Atomic Level View from Aggregation in Water to Bilayer Perturbation
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071235
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Temporin L (TempL) is a 13 residue Host Defense Peptide (HDP) isolated from the skin of frogs. It has a strong affinity for lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which is related to its high activity against Gram-negative bacteria and also to its strong tendency to neutralize
[...] Read more.
Temporin L (TempL) is a 13 residue Host Defense Peptide (HDP) isolated from the skin of frogs. It has a strong affinity for lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which is related to its high activity against Gram-negative bacteria and also to its strong tendency to neutralize the pro-inflammatory response caused by LPS release from inactivated bacteria. A designed analog with the Q3K substitution shows an enhancement in both these activities. In the present paper, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to investigate the origin of these improved properties. To this end, we have studied the behavior of the peptides both in water solution and in the presence of LPS lipid-A bilayers, demonstrating that the main effect through which the Q3K substitution improves the peptide activities is the destabilization of peptide aggregates in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomolecular Simulations)
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Open AccessArticle New Cinchona Oximes Evaluated as Reactivators of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibited by Organophosphorus Compounds
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071234
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
For the last six decades, researchers have been focused on finding efficient reactivators of organophosphorus compound (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). In this study, we have focused our research on a new oxime scaffold based on the Cinchona structure since it was
[...] Read more.
For the last six decades, researchers have been focused on finding efficient reactivators of organophosphorus compound (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). In this study, we have focused our research on a new oxime scaffold based on the Cinchona structure since it was proven to fit the cholinesterases active site and reversibly inhibit their activity. Three Cinchona oximes (C1, C2, and C3), derivatives of the 9-oxocinchonidine, were synthesized and investigated in reactivation of various OP-inhibited AChE and BChE. As the results showed, the tested oximes were more efficient in the reactivation of BChE and they reactivated enzyme activity to up to 70% with reactivation rates similar to known pyridinium oximes used as antidotes in medical practice today. Furthermore, the oximes showed selectivity towards binding to the BChE active site and the determined enzyme-oxime dissociation constants supported work on the future development of inhibitors in other targeted studies (e.g., in treatment of neurodegenerative disease). Also, we monitored the cytotoxic effect of Cinchona oximes on two cell lines Hep G2 and SH-SY5Y to determine the possible limits for in vivo application. The cytotoxicity results support future studies of these compounds as long as their biological activity is targeted in the lower micromolar range. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Physico-chemical Characterization, Crystal Structure and Influence on Microbial and Tumor Cells of Some Co(II) Complexes with 5,7-Dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071233
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three complexes, namely [Co(dmtp)2(OH2)4][CoCl4] (1), [Co(dmtp)2Cl2] (2) and [Co(dmtp)2(OH2)4]Cl2∙2H2O (3) (dmtp: 5,7-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine), were
[...] Read more.
Three complexes, namely [Co(dmtp)2(OH2)4][CoCl4] (1), [Co(dmtp)2Cl2] (2) and [Co(dmtp)2(OH2)4]Cl2∙2H2O (3) (dmtp: 5,7-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine), were synthesized and characterized by spectral (IR, UV-Vis-NIR), and magnetic measurements at room temperature, as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex (1) crystallizes in monoclinic system (space group C2/c), complex (2) adopts an orthorhombic system (space group Pbca), and complex (3) crystallizes in triclinic system (space group P1). Various types of extended hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions provide a supramolecular architecture for all complexes. All species were evaluated for antimicrobial activity towards planktonic and biofilm-embedded microbial cells and influence on HEp-2 cell viability, cellular cycle and gene expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organometallic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Spectrum Effect Relationship and Component Knock-Out in Angelica Dahurica Radix by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Q Exactive Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071231
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Different extracts of Angelica dahuricae were available for whitening or treating vitiligo clinically. They showed inhibitory or activating effects on tyrosinase, a rate-limiting enzyme of melanogenesis. This study aimed to identify active compounds on tyrosinase in water extract of Angelica dahurica Radix. We
[...] Read more.
Different extracts of Angelica dahuricae were available for whitening or treating vitiligo clinically. They showed inhibitory or activating effects on tyrosinase, a rate-limiting enzyme of melanogenesis. This study aimed to identify active compounds on tyrosinase in water extract of Angelica dahurica Radix. We applied spectrum-effect relationship and component knock-out methods to make it clear. HPLC was used to obtain the specific chromatograms. The effects on tyrosinase activity were examined by measuring the oxidation rate of levodopa in vitro. Partial least squares method was used to examine the spectrum-effect relationships. The knocked-out samples were prepared by HPLC method, and the identification of knocked-out compounds was conducted by the high performance liquid chromatography-four stage rod-electrostatic field orbit trap high resolution mass spectrometry. Results showed that S6, S14, S18, S21, S35, S36, S37, S40, and S41 were positively correlated to inhibitory activity of Angelica dahuricae on tyrosinase whereas S9, S11, S8, S12, S22, and S30 were negatively correlated. When the concentration of each sample was 1 g·mL−1, equal to the amount of raw medicinal herbs, oxypeucedanin hydrate, imperatorin, cnidilin, and isoimperatorin had inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity whereas byakangelicin and bergapten had activating effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Glycosylation of Natural and Synthetic Prenylated Flavonoids on Binding to Human Serum Albumin and Inhibition of Cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071230
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The synthesis of different classes of prenylated aglycones (α,β-dihydroxanthohumol (2) and (Z)-6,4’-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-7-prenylaurone (3)) was performed in one step reactions from xanthohumol (1)—major prenylated chalcone naturally occurring in hops. Obtained flavonoids (23)
[...] Read more.
The synthesis of different classes of prenylated aglycones (α,β-dihydroxanthohumol (2) and (Z)-6,4’-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-7-prenylaurone (3)) was performed in one step reactions from xanthohumol (1)—major prenylated chalcone naturally occurring in hops. Obtained flavonoids (23) and xanthohumol (1) were used as substrates for regioselective fungal glycosylation catalyzed by two Absidia species and Beauveria bassiana. As a result six glycosides (49) were formed, of which four glycosides (69) have not been published so far. The influence of flavonoid skeleton and the presence of glucopyranose and 4-O-methylglucopyranose moiety in flavonoid molecule on binding to main protein in plasma, human serum albumin (HSA), and inhibition of cyclooxygenases COX-1 and COX-2 were investigated. Results showed that chalcone (1) had the highest binding affinity to HSA (8.624 × 104 M−1) of all tested compounds. It has also exhibited the highest inhibition of cyclooxygenases activity, and it was a two-fold stronger inhibitor than α,β-dihydrochalcone (2) and aurone (3). The presence of sugar moiety in flavonoid molecule caused the loss of HSA binding activity as well as the decrease in inhibition of cyclooxygenases activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Biological Applications of Glycoconjugates)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of K11R and G31P Mutations on the Structure and Biological Activities of CXCL8: Solution Structure of Human CXCL8(3-72)K11R/G31P
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071229
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
The ELR-CXC chemokines are important to neutrophil inflammation in many acute and chronic diseases. Among them, CXCL8 (interleukin-8, IL-8), the expression levels of which are elevated in many inflammatory diseases, binds to both the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors with high affinity. Recently, an
[...] Read more.
The ELR-CXC chemokines are important to neutrophil inflammation in many acute and chronic diseases. Among them, CXCL8 (interleukin-8, IL-8), the expression levels of which are elevated in many inflammatory diseases, binds to both the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors with high affinity. Recently, an analogue of human CXCL8, CXCL8(3–72)K11R/G31P (hG31P) has been developed. It has been demonstrated that hG31P is a high affinity antagonist for both the CXCR1 and CXCR2. Herein, we have determined the solution structure and the CXCR1 N-terminal peptide binding sites of hG31P by NMR spectroscopy. We have found that the displacement within the tertiary structure of the 30 s loop and the N-terminal region and more specifically change of the loop conformation (especially H33), of hG31P may affect its binding to the CXCR1 receptor and thereby inhibit human neutrophil chemotactic responses induced by ELR-CXC chemokines. Our results provide a structural basis for future clinical investigations of this CXCR1/CXCR2 receptor antagonist and for the further development of CXCL8 based antagonists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biomolecular NMR Spectroscopy)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Chlorhexidine-Encapsulated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles on the Anti-Biofilm and Mechanical Properties of Glass Ionomer Cement
Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071225
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
One of the primary causes for the failure of glass ionomer cement (GIC) is secondary caries. To enhance the anti-microbial performance of GIC without affecting its mechanical properties, chlorhexidine (CHX) was encapsulated in expanded-pore mesoporous silica nanoparticles (pMSN) to synthesize CHX@pMSN. CHX@pMSN was
[...] Read more.
One of the primary causes for the failure of glass ionomer cement (GIC) is secondary caries. To enhance the anti-microbial performance of GIC without affecting its mechanical properties, chlorhexidine (CHX) was encapsulated in expanded-pore mesoporous silica nanoparticles (pMSN) to synthesize CHX@pMSN. CHX@pMSN was added at three mass fractions (1%, 5%, and 10% (w/w)) to GIC powder as the experimental groups. Pure GIC was set as the control group. The mechanical and anti-biofilm properties of GIC from each group were tested. The results demonstrated that CHX was successfully encapsulated on/into pMSN, and the encapsulating efficiency of CHX was 44.62% in CHX@pMSN. The anti-biofilm ability was significantly enhanced in all experimental groups (p < 0.001) compared with that in the control group. CHX was continuously released, and anti-biofilm ability was maintained up to 30 days. In addition, the mechanical properties (compressive strength, surface hardness, elastic modulus, water sorption, and solubility) of 1% (w/w) group were maintained compared with those in the control group (p > 0.05). In conclusion, adding 1% (w/w) CHX@pMSN to GIC led to conspicuous anti-biofilm ability and had no adverse effect on the mechanical properties of this restorative material. This study proposes a new strategy for preventing secondary caries by using CHX@pMSN-modified GIC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesoporous Silica in Biomedical Applications)
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