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Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1221; doi:10.3390/molecules22071221

Characterization of Essential Oil Composition in Different Basil Species and Pot Cultures by a GC-MS Method

1
Department of Vegetable Growing and Floriculture, Faculty of Horticulture, Mendel University in Brno, Valtická 337, 691 44 Lednice, Czech Republic
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Nuclear Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Odbojárov 10, SK-832 32 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
3
Toxicological and Antidoping center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Odbojárov 10, SK-832 32 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Odbojárov 10, SK-832 32 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
5
Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University in Bratislava, Odbojárov 10, SK-832 32 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek McPhee
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [949 KB, uploaded 20 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Basil (Ocimum L.) species are used as medicinal plants due to their essential oils exhibiting specific biological activity. The present work demonstrated that both the variety and season/conditions of cultivation had a significant effect on (i) the produced amount (extraction yield), (ii) qualitative, as well as (iii) quantitative profile of basil essential oil. Among studied basil varieties, a new variety, ‘Mánes’, was characterized for the first time. Based on our quantitative evaluation of GC-MS profiles, the following chemotypes and average concentrations of a main component were detected in the studied basil varieties: ‘Ohře’, ‘Lettuce Leaf’, ‘Purple Opaal’, ‘Dark Green’ (linalool, 5.99, 2.49, 2.34, 2.01 mg/mL, respectively), and ‘Mammolo Genovese’, ‘Mánes’, ‘Red Rubin’ (eucalyptol, 1.34, 0.96, 0.76 mg/mL, respectively). At the same time, when considering other compounds identified in GC-MS profiles, all the studied varieties, except from ‘Lettuce Leaf’, were methyl eugenol-rich with a strong dependence of the eugenol:methyl eugenol ratio on the seasonal changes (mainly solar irradiation, but also temperature and relative humidity). More complex and/or variable (depending on the season and cultivation) chemotypes were observed with ‘Lettuce Leaf’ (plus estragole, 2.27 mg/mL), ‘Dark Green’ (plus eucalyptol, 1.36 mg/mL), ‘Mammolo Genovese’ (plus eugenol, 1.19 mg/mL), ‘Red Rubin’ (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.46 and 0.56 mg/mL, respectively), and ‘Mánes’ (plus linalool and eugenol, 0.58 and 0.40 mg/mL, respectively). When considering superior extraction yield (ca. 17 mL·kg−1, i.e., two to five times higher than other examined varieties) and consistent amounts (yields) of essential oil when comparing inter-seasonal or inter-year data (RSD and inter-year difference in mean yield values ˂2.5%), this new basil variety is very promising for use in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oils; basil varieties; pot cultures; profiling; GC-MS analysis essential oils; basil varieties; pot cultures; profiling; GC-MS analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Muráriková, A.; Ťažký, A.; Neugebauerová, J.; Planková, A.; Jampílek, J.; Mučaji, P.; Mikuš, P. Characterization of Essential Oil Composition in Different Basil Species and Pot Cultures by a GC-MS Method. Molecules 2017, 22, 1221.

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