E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2015)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Magaly Koch

Center for Remote Sensing, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215-1401, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1-617-353-3200
Interests: applications of remote sensing in geology, geomorphology, and hydrogeology of arid lands; hyperspectral, multispectral and radar remote sensing; land use/cover changes; water resources exploration/assessment in arid/semiarid lands
Guest Editor
Prof. Thomas M. Missimer

U. A. Whitaker College of Engineering, Florida Gulf Coast University, 10501 FGCU Boulevard South, Fort Myers, FL 33965-6565, USA
E-Mail
Interests: natural recharge in alluvial aquifers (wadis); artificial recharge using treated wastewater; desalination in arid regions (using aquifer intake systems to reduce energy consumption); economics of water supply development in arid regions; capturing and storing flood waters for later use; hydrogeology of dune systems; aquifer storage and recovery’ groundwater restoration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Drylands are fragile environments and, therefore, highly susceptible to environmental changes. They cover nearly 50% of the world’s land surface and are increasingly being reclaimed by a growing population for food production and urbanization. This makes water resources management in drylands an extremely important issue. The unplanned water resources development may result in aquifer depletion, soil and/or water salinization, loss of water through evapotranspiration due to inadequate irrigation systems, and land degradation (e.g., soil erosion, soil crusting, and sand encroachment).

This Special Issue on “Water Resources Assessment and Management in Dryland” is intended to provide a collection of articles addressing various aspects of dryland hydrology. Articles about recent scientific discoveries in hydrology/hydrogeology, new emerging technologies and their use in water resources exploration, development, and management are very welcome.

Dr. Magaly Koch
Dr. Thomas M. Missimer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.



Keywords

  • Managed aquifer recharge
  • Impacts of climate change
  • Water supply growth management
  • New agriculture methods
  • Assessment of groundwater potential
  • Monitoring water resources development
  • Remote sensing of water resources

Published Papers (14 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-14
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands
Water 2016, 8(6), 239; doi:10.3390/w8060239
Received: 5 May 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 31 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
PDF Full-text (164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drylands regions of the world face difficult issues in maintaining water resources to meet current demands which will intensify in the future with population increases, infrastructure development, increased agricultural water demands, and climate change impacts on the hydrologic system. New water resources evaluation
[...] Read more.
Drylands regions of the world face difficult issues in maintaining water resources to meet current demands which will intensify in the future with population increases, infrastructure development, increased agricultural water demands, and climate change impacts on the hydrologic system. New water resources evaluation and management methods will be needed to assure that water resources in drylands are optimally managed in a sustainable manner. Development of water management and conservation methods is a multi-disciplinary endeavor. Scientists and engineers must collaborate and cooperate with water managers, planners, and politicians to successfully adopt new strategies to manage water not only for humans, but to maintain all aspects of the environment. This particularly applies to drylands regions where resources are already limited and conflicts over water are occurring. Every aspect of the hydrologic cycle needs to be assessed to be able to quantify the available water resources, to monitor natural and anthropogenic changes, and to develop flexible policies and management strategies that can change as conditions dictate. Optimal, sustainable water management is achieved by cooperation and not conflict, thereby necessitating the need for high quality scientific research and input into the process. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Anthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabia
Water 2016, 8(4), 136; doi:10.3390/w8040136
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia historically have been recharged primarily by channel loss (infiltration) during floods. Historically, seasonal groundwater levels fluctuated from land surface to about 3 m below the surface. Agricultural irrigation pumping has lowered the water table up to 35 m
[...] Read more.
Wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia historically have been recharged primarily by channel loss (infiltration) during floods. Historically, seasonal groundwater levels fluctuated from land surface to about 3 m below the surface. Agricultural irrigation pumping has lowered the water table up to 35 m below the surface. The geology surrounding the fluvial system at Wadi Qidayd consists of pelitic Precambrian rocks that contribute sediments ranging in size from mud to boulders to the alluvium. Sediments within the wadi channel consist of fining upward, downstream-dipping beds, causing channel floodwaters to pass through several sediment sequences, including several mud layers, before it can reach the water table. Investigation of the wadi aquifer using field observation, geological characterization, water-level monitoring, geophysical profiles, and a hypothetical model suggests a critical water level has been reached that affects the recharge of the aquifer. The wetted front can no longer reach the water table due to the water uptake in the wetting process, downstream deflection by the clay layers, and re-emergence of water at the surface with subsequent direct and diffusive evaporative loss, and likely uptake by deep-rooted acacia trees. In many areas of the wadi system, recharge can now occur only along the channel perimeter via fractured rocks that are in direct horizontal hydraulic connection to the permeable beds above and below the water table. Full article
Open AccessArticle Geospatial Techniques for Improved Water Management in Jordan
Water 2016, 8(4), 132; doi:10.3390/w8040132
Received: 24 November 2015 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 2 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (10118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research shows a case from Jordan where geospatial techniques were utilized for irrigation water auditing. The work was based on assessing records of groundwater abstraction in relation to irrigated areas and estimated crop water consumption in three water basins: Yarmouk, Amman-Zarqa and
[...] Read more.
This research shows a case from Jordan where geospatial techniques were utilized for irrigation water auditing. The work was based on assessing records of groundwater abstraction in relation to irrigated areas and estimated crop water consumption in three water basins: Yarmouk, Amman-Zarqa and Azraq. Mapping of irrigated areas and crop water requirements was carried out using remote sensing data of Landsat 8 and daily weather records. The methodology was based on visual interpretation and the unsupervised classification for remote sensing data, supported by ground surveys. Net (NCWR) and gross (GCWR) crop water requirements were calculated by merging crop evapotranspiration (ETc), calculated from daily weather records, with maps of irrigated crops. Gross water requirements were compared with groundwater abstractions recorded at a farm level to assess the levels of abstraction in relation to groundwater safe yield. Results showed that irrigated area and GCWR were higher than officially recorded cropped area and abstracted groundwater. The over abstraction of groundwater was estimated to range from 144% to 360% of the safe yield in the three basins. Overlaying the maps of irrigation and groundwater wells enabled the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI) to detect and uncover violations and illegal practices of irrigation, in the form of unlicensed wells, incorrect metering of pumped water and water conveyance for long distances. Results from the work were utilized at s high level of decision-making and changes to the water law were made, with remote sensing data being accredited for monitoring water resources in Jordan. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Predicting Soil Infiltration and Horizon Thickness for a Large-Scale Water Balance Model in an Arid Environment
Water 2016, 8(3), 96; doi:10.3390/w8030096
Received: 16 January 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prediction of soil characteristics over large areas is desirable for environmental modeling. In arid environments, soil characteristics often show strong ecological connectivity with natural vegetation, specifically biomass and/or canopy cover, suggesting that the soil characteristics may be predicted from vegetation data. The objective
[...] Read more.
Prediction of soil characteristics over large areas is desirable for environmental modeling. In arid environments, soil characteristics often show strong ecological connectivity with natural vegetation, specifically biomass and/or canopy cover, suggesting that the soil characteristics may be predicted from vegetation data. The objective of this study was to predict soil infiltration characteristics and horizon (soil layer) thickness using vegetation data for a large-scale water balance model in an arid region. Double-ring infiltrometer tests (at 23 sites), horizon thickness measurements (58 sites) and vegetation surveys (35 sites) were conducted in a 30 km × 50 km area in Western Australia during 1999 to 2003. The relationships between soil parameters and vegetation data were evaluated quantitatively by simple linear regression. The parameters for initial-term infiltration had strong and positive correlations with biomass and canopy coverage (R2 = 0.64 − 0.81). The horizon thickness also had strong positive correlations with vegetation properties (R2 = 0.53 − 0.67). These results suggest that the soil infiltration parameters and horizon thickness can be spatially predicted by properties of vegetation using their linear regression based equations and vegetation maps. The background and reasons of the strong ecological connectivity between soil and vegetation in this region were also considered. Full article
Open AccessArticle Precipitation Intensity Effects on Groundwater Recharge in the Southwestern United States
Water 2016, 8(3), 90; doi:10.3390/w8030090
Received: 27 December 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Episodic recharge as a result of infrequent, high intensity precipitation events comprises the bulk of groundwater recharge in arid environments. Climate change and shifts in precipitation intensity will affect groundwater continuity, thus altering groundwater recharge. This study aims to identify changes in the
[...] Read more.
Episodic recharge as a result of infrequent, high intensity precipitation events comprises the bulk of groundwater recharge in arid environments. Climate change and shifts in precipitation intensity will affect groundwater continuity, thus altering groundwater recharge. This study aims to identify changes in the ratio of groundwater recharge and precipitation, the R:P ratio, in the arid southwestern United States to characterize observed changes in groundwater recharge attributed to variations in precipitation intensity. Our precipitation metric, precipitation intensity magnification, was used to investigate the relationship between the R:P ratio and precipitation intensity. Our analysis identified significant changes in the R:P ratio concurrent with decreases in precipitation intensity. The results illustrate the importance of precipitation intensity in relation to groundwater recharge in arid regions and provide further insights for groundwater management in nonrenewable groundwater systems and in a changing climate. Full article
Open AccessArticle Partitioning of Cotton Field Evapotranspiration under Mulched Drip Irrigation Based on a Dual Crop Coefficient Model
Water 2016, 8(3), 72; doi:10.3390/w8030072
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 14 February 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Estimation of field crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and its partitioning into evaporation and transpiration, are of great importance in hydrological modeling and agricultural water management. In this study, we used a dual crop coefficient model SIMDualKc to estimate the actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc act
[...] Read more.
Estimation of field crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and its partitioning into evaporation and transpiration, are of great importance in hydrological modeling and agricultural water management. In this study, we used a dual crop coefficient model SIMDualKc to estimate the actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc act ) and the basal crop coefficients over a cotton field in Northwestern China. A two-year field experiment was implemented in the cotton field under mulched drip irrigation. The simulated ETc act is consistent with observed ETc act as derived based on the eddy covariance system in the field. Basal crop coefficients of cotton for the initial, mid-season, and end-season are 0.20, 0.90, and 0.50, respectively. The transpiration components of ETc act are 96% (77%) and 94% (74%) in 2012 and 2013 with (without) plastic mulch, respectively. The impact of plastic mulch cover on soil evaporation is significant during drip irrigation ranging from crop development stage to mid-season stage. The extent of the impact depends on the variation of soil moisture, available energy of the soil surface, and the growth of the cotton leaves. Our results show that the SIMDualKc is capable of providing accurate estimation of ETc act for cotton field under mulched drip irrigation, and could be used as a valuable tool to establish irrigation schedule for cotton fields in arid regions as Northwestern China. Full article
Open AccessArticle Winter Irrigation Effects in Cotton Fields in Arid Inland Irrigated Areas in the North of the Tarim Basin, China
Water 2016, 8(2), 47; doi:10.3390/w8020047
Received: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 21 January 2016 / Published: 2 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November
[...] Read more.
Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in Korla City. A cotton field was divided into 18 plots with a size of 3 m × 3 m and five winter irrigation treatments (1200 m3/ha, 1800 m3/ha, 2400 m3/ha, 3000 m3/ha, and 3600 m3/ha) and one non-irrigation as a control were designed. The results showed that the higher winter irrigation volumes allowed the significant short-term difference after the irrigation in the fields with the higher soil moisture content. Therefore, the soil moisture in the next sowing season could be maintained at the level which was slightly lower than field capacity and four times that in the non-irrigation treatment. The desalination effect of winter irrigation increased with the increase of water irrigation volume, but its efficiency decreased with the increase of water irrigation volume. The desalination effect was characterized by short-term desalination, long-term salt accumulation, and the time-dependent gradually decreasing trend. During the winter irrigation period, air temperature was the most important external influencing factor of the soil temperature. During the period of the decrease in winter temperatures from December to January, soil temperature in the 5-cm depth showed no significant difference in all the treatments and the control. However, during the period of rising temperatures from January to March, soil temperature in the control increased significantly, faster than that in all treatments. Under the same irrigation volume, the temperature difference between the upper soil layer and the lower soil layer increased during the temperature drop period and decreased during the temperature rise period. In this paper, we proposed the proper winter irrigation volume of 1800–3000 m3/ha and suggested that the irrigation timing should be delayed to early December or performed in several stages in the fields with the drainage system. Under the current strict water management and fixed water supply quota situation, the methods are of great practical significance. Full article
Open AccessArticle Improving the Performance of Water Policies: Evidence from Drought in Spain
Water 2016, 8(2), 34; doi:10.3390/w8020034
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 22 January 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water scarcity is a critical environmental issue worldwide, especially in arid and semiarid regions. In those regions, climate change projections suggest further reductions in freshwater supplies and increases of the recurrence, longevity and intensity of drought events. At present, one important question for
[...] Read more.
Water scarcity is a critical environmental issue worldwide, especially in arid and semiarid regions. In those regions, climate change projections suggest further reductions in freshwater supplies and increases of the recurrence, longevity and intensity of drought events. At present, one important question for policy debate is the identification of water policies that could address the mounting water scarcity problems. Suitable policies should improve economic efficiency, achieve environmental sustainability, and meet equity needs. This paper develops and applies an integrated hydro-economic model that links hydrological, economic and environmental elements to such issues. The model is used to conduct a direct comparison of water markets, water pricing and institutional cooperation, based on their economic, environmental and equity outcomes. The analysis is performed in the Jucar Basin of Spain, which is a good natural experiment for studying water scarcity and climate change policies. Results indicate that both institutional and water market policies are high performing instruments to limit the economic damage costs of droughts, achieving almost the same social benefits. However, the environmental effects of water markets are worrying. Another important finding is that water pricing is a poor policy option not only in terms of private and environmental benefits but also in terms of equity. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Simulation of Water Use Dynamics by Salix Bush in a Semiarid Shallow Groundwater Area of the Chinese Erdos Plateau
Water 2015, 7(12), 6999-7021; doi:10.3390/w7126671
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study analyzed the water use of the Salix psammophila bush in a semi-arid area in northwest China using a Hydrus-1D model. The model incorporated the effect of thermally driven water flow coupling liquid water, water vapor and heat transport. The model was
[...] Read more.
This study analyzed the water use of the Salix psammophila bush in a semi-arid area in northwest China using a Hydrus-1D model. The model incorporated the effect of thermally driven water flow coupling liquid water, water vapor and heat transport. The model was calibrated and validated using hourly field measurements of soil water content and temperature at different depths for a growing season of 154 days. Furthermore, another Hydrus-1D model was established to simulate environments with decreased heat, rainfall or temperature and an increased leaf area index using calibrated and validated parameters. Our results show that upward and downward thermally driven water vapor fluxes account for 0.11% and 0.28%, respectively, of the corresponding direction of total water flux during the bush’s growing season. Although the vapor flux is very small, simulations incorporating heat flow revealed alterations in the temperature and pressure head gradients over the root zone, especially during dry periods. Consequently, the cumulative contributions of groundwater to evapotranspiration (ETg) with heat flow and without heat flow were 26.9% and 40.6%, respectively, during the simulation period. Therefore, the cumulative contribution of groundwater to ETg is overestimated when heat flow is excluded. Thus, we recommended that heat transport be incorporated when evaluating ETg in arid and semi-arid areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle Experimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in a Dune Sand Aquifer in Western Saudi Arabia: Assessment of Evaporation Loss for Design of an MAR System
Water 2015, 7(12), 6967-6982; doi:10.3390/w7126669
Received: 5 September 2015 / Revised: 22 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5862 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A component of designing a managed aquifer recharge system in a dune aquifer is the control of diffusive evaporative loss of water which is governed by the physical properties of the sediments and the position of the water table. A critical water table
[...] Read more.
A component of designing a managed aquifer recharge system in a dune aquifer is the control of diffusive evaporative loss of water which is governed by the physical properties of the sediments and the position of the water table. A critical water table position is the “extinction depth”, below which no further loss of water occurs via diffusion. Field experiments were conducted to measure the extinction depth of sediments taken from a typical dune field in the region. The soil grain size characteristics, laboratory porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured. The sand is classified as well-sorted, very fine sand with a mean grain diameter of 0.15 mm. Soil moisture gradients and diffusion loss rates were measured using sensors in a non-weighing lysimeter that was placed below land surface. The sand was saturated carefully with water from the bottom to the top and was exposed to the natural climate for a period of about two months. The moisture gradient showed a gradual decline during measurement until extinction depth was reached at about 100 cm below surface after 56 days. Diurnal temperature changes were observed in the upper 75 cm of the column and were negligible at greater depth. Full article
Open AccessArticle Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia
Water 2015, 7(11), 6411-6426; doi:10.3390/w7116411
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 12 October 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2004 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some
[...] Read more.
Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some type of empirical equation. Over 50 samples from the Wadi Khulays dune field in Western Saudi Arabia were collected and the grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured. An evaluation of 20 existing empirical equations showed a generally high degree of error in the predicted compared to the measured hydraulic conductivity values of these samples. Statistical analyses comparing estimated versus measured hydraulic conductivity demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage (and skewness). The modified Beyer equation, which showed a generally low prediction error, was modified by adding a second term fitting parameter related to the mud concentration based on 25 of the 50 samples analyzed. An inverse optimization process was conducted to quantify the fitting parameter and a new empirical equation was developed. This equation was tested against the remaining 25 samples analyzed and produced an estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity with the lowest error of any empirical equation. This methodology can be used for large dune field hydraulic conductivity estimation and reduce planning costs for MAR systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Simulation of Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions under Different Land Use Scenarios in the Bulang Catchment, Northwest China
Water 2015, 7(11), 5959-5985; doi:10.3390/w7115959
Received: 11 July 2015 / Revised: 12 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 30 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Groundwater is the most important resource for local society and the ecosystem in the semi-arid Hailiutu River catchment. The catchment water balance was analyzed by considering vegetation types with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), determining evapotranspiration rates by combining sap flow measurements
[...] Read more.
Groundwater is the most important resource for local society and the ecosystem in the semi-arid Hailiutu River catchment. The catchment water balance was analyzed by considering vegetation types with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), determining evapotranspiration rates by combining sap flow measurements and NDVI values, recorded precipitation, measured river discharge and groundwater levels from November 2010 to October 2011. A simple water balance computation, a steady state groundwater flow model, and a transient groundwater flow model were used to assess water balance changes under different land use scenarios. It was shown that 91% of the precipitation is consumed by the crops, bushes and trees; only 9% of the annual precipitation becomes net groundwater recharge which maintains a stable stream discharge in observed year. Four land use scenarios were formulated for assessing the impacts of land use changes on the catchment water balance, the river discharge, and groundwater storage in the Bulang catchment. The scenarios are: (1) the quasi natural state of the vegetation covered by desert grasses; (2) the current land use/vegetation types; (3) the change of crop types to dry resistant crops; and (4) the ideal land use covered by dry resistant crops and desert grasses, These four scenarios were simulated and compared with measured data from 2011, which was a dry year. Furthermore, the scenarios (2) and (4) were evaluated under normal and wet conditions for years in 2009 and 2014, respectively. The simulation results show that replacing current vegetation and crop types with dry resistant types can significantly increase net groundwater recharge which leads to the increase of groundwater storage and river discharges. The depleted groundwater storage during the dry year could be restored during the normal and wet years so that groundwater provides a reliable resource to sustain river discharge and the dependent vegetations in the area. Full article
Open AccessArticle Quantification of Environmental Flow Requirements to Support Ecosystem Services of Oasis Areas: A Case Study in Tarim Basin, Northwest China
Water 2015, 7(10), 5657-5675; doi:10.3390/w7105657
Received: 8 June 2015 / Revised: 1 October 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 19 October 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, a wide range of quantitative research on the identification of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) has been conducted. However, little focus is given to EFRs to maintain multiple ecosystem services in oasis areas. The present study quantifies the EFRs in oasis areas of
[...] Read more.
Recently, a wide range of quantitative research on the identification of environmental flow requirements (EFRs) has been conducted. However, little focus is given to EFRs to maintain multiple ecosystem services in oasis areas. The present study quantifies the EFRs in oasis areas of Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China on the basis of three ecosystem services: (1) maintenance of riverine ecosystem health, (2) assurance of the stability of oasis–desert ecotone and riparian (Tugai) forests, and (3) restoration of oasis–desert ecotone groundwater. The identified consumptive and non-consumptive water requirements are used to quantify and determine the EFRs in Qira oasis by employing the summation and compatibility rules (maximum principle). Results indicate that the annual maximum, medium, and minimum EFRs are 0.752 × 108, 0.619 × 108, and 0.516 × 108 m3, respectively, which account for 58.75%, 48.36%, and 40.29% of the natural river runoff. The months between April and October are identified as the most important periods to maintain the EFRs. Moreover, the water requirement for groundwater restoration of the oasis–desert ecotone accounts for a large proportion, representing 48.27%, 42.32%, and 37.03% of the total EFRs at maximum, medium, and minimum levels, respectively. Therefore, to allocate the integrated EFRs, focus should be placed on the water demand of the desert vegetation’s groundwater restoration, which is crucial for maintaining desert vegetation to prevent sandstorms and soil erosion. This work provides a reference to quantify the EFRs of oasis areas in arid regions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Distribution of Soil Moisture and Salinity in the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt
Water 2015, 7(8), 4343-4361; doi:10.3390/w7084343
Received: 2 June 2015 / Revised: 26 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 6 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Salinization and secondary salinization often appear after irrigation with saline water. The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt has been irrigated with saline ground water for more than ten years; however, soil salinity in the shelterbelt has not been evaluated. The objective of this study
[...] Read more.
Salinization and secondary salinization often appear after irrigation with saline water. The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt has been irrigated with saline ground water for more than ten years; however, soil salinity in the shelterbelt has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture and salinity in the shelterbelt system. Using a non-uniform grid method, soil samples were collected every two days during one ten-day irrigation cycle in July 2014 and one day in spring, summer, and autumn. The results indicated that soil moisture declined linearly with time during the irrigation cycle. Soil moisture was greatest in the southern and eastern sections of the study area. In contrast to soil moisture, soil electrical conductivity increased from 2 to 6 days after irrigation, and then gradually decreased from 6 to 8 days after irrigation. Soil moisture was the greatest in spring and the least in summer. In contrast, soil salinity increased from spring to autumn. Long time drip-irrigation with saline groundwater increased soil salinity slightly. The soil salt content was closely associated with soil texture. The current soil salt content did not affect plant growth, however, the soil in the shelterbelt should be continuously monitored to prevent salinization in the future. Full article

Submitted Abstracts


Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Water Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Water Edit a special issue Review for Water
logo
loading...
Back to Top