Next Article in Journal
Water Productivity under Drought Conditions Estimated Using SEEA-Water
Next Article in Special Issue
Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands
Previous Article in Journal
Preliminary Study on the Removal of Steroidal Estrogens Using TiO2-Doped PVDF Ultrafiltration Membranes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Geospatial Techniques for Improved Water Management in Jordan
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2016, 8(4), 136; doi:10.3390/w8040136

Anthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabia

1
Water Desalination and Reuse Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
3
Department of Earth and Engineering Science, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
4
U.A. Whitaker College of Engineering, Florida Gulf Coast University, 10501 FGCU Boulevard South, Fort Myers, FL 33965-6565, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6351 KB, uploaded 7 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia historically have been recharged primarily by channel loss (infiltration) during floods. Historically, seasonal groundwater levels fluctuated from land surface to about 3 m below the surface. Agricultural irrigation pumping has lowered the water table up to 35 m below the surface. The geology surrounding the fluvial system at Wadi Qidayd consists of pelitic Precambrian rocks that contribute sediments ranging in size from mud to boulders to the alluvium. Sediments within the wadi channel consist of fining upward, downstream-dipping beds, causing channel floodwaters to pass through several sediment sequences, including several mud layers, before it can reach the water table. Investigation of the wadi aquifer using field observation, geological characterization, water-level monitoring, geophysical profiles, and a hypothetical model suggests a critical water level has been reached that affects the recharge of the aquifer. The wetted front can no longer reach the water table due to the water uptake in the wetting process, downstream deflection by the clay layers, and re-emergence of water at the surface with subsequent direct and diffusive evaporative loss, and likely uptake by deep-rooted acacia trees. In many areas of the wadi system, recharge can now occur only along the channel perimeter via fractured rocks that are in direct horizontal hydraulic connection to the permeable beds above and below the water table. View Full-Text
Keywords: wadi aquifers; aquifer depletion; channel recharge; anthropogenic changes; fractured rock aquifer wadi aquifers; aquifer depletion; channel recharge; anthropogenic changes; fractured rock aquifer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jadoon, K.Z.; Al-Mashharawi, S.; Hanafy, S.M.; Schuster, G.T.; Missimer, T.M. Anthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabia. Water 2016, 8, 136.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top