Special Issue "Virus-based Vaccines"


A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Antivirals & Vaccines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2014

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Polly Roy
Department of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Room 363b, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
Website: http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/aboutus/people/roy.polly
E-Mail: polly.roy@lshtm.ac.uk
Phone: +44 20 7927 2324
Fax: +44 20 7927 2839
Interests: orbiviruses; rotaviruses; viral vaccines; virus assembly and structure

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Charles J. Russell
Infectious Diseases, MS 330, Room I-6309, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105-3678, USA
Website: http://www.stjude.org/stjude/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=99a310e88ce70110VgnVCM1000001e0215acRCRD&vgnextchannel=01a813c016118010VgnVCM1000000e2015acRCRD
E-Mail: charles.russell@stjude.org
Phone: +901 595 5648
Fax: +901 595 8559
Interests: emerging influenza viruses; paramyxoviruses; influenza viruses; paramyxoviruses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are planning to publish a special issue of Viruses devoted to current trends in vaccine development for viral diseases.  This issue will cover the diverse technologies that are currently being used for the development of rationally designed vaccines and will highlight both recombinant protein‑based vaccines and the application of genomic (e.g. RG‑based) technologies in vaccine research. Work on both animal and human vaccines will be considered.

In light of your expertise in the vaccine area, I would like to invite you to submit a review article on your subject for this special issue.

Prof. Dr. Polly Roy
Prof. Dr.Charles Russell
Guest Editors


Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (3 papers)

Viruses 2014, 6(4), 1672-1700; doi:10.3390/v6041672
Received: 31 January 2014; in revised form: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 2 April 2014 / Published: 11 April 2014
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Viruses 2014, 6(2), 856-874; doi:10.3390/v6020856
Received: 20 January 2014; in revised form: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 18 February 2014
Show/Hide Abstract | Download PDF Full-text (1352 KB) | View HTML Full-text | Download XML Full-text

Viruses 2014, 6(2), 371-390; doi:10.3390/v6020371
Received: 3 December 2013; in revised form: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 24 January 2014
Show/Hide Abstract | Download PDF Full-text (1541 KB) | View HTML Full-text | Download XML Full-text
abstract graphic

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Universal Influenza Vaccines—A Dream to be Real Soon
Authors: Han Zhang, Li Wang, Richard W. Compans and Bao-Zhong Wang
Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1518 Clifton Road, Room 5000, Claudia Nance Rollins Building, Atlanta, GA 30322; E-mail: bwang3@emory.edu
Abstract: Due to the frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. And current vaccines are powerless against an occasional outbreak of influenza pandemics. These challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines that confer broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most important approaches for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interests for improved antigen designs. The present review summarized the recent progress in such endeavors. The review also covered the encouraging progresses in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitates the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine.

Type of Paper:
Title: RNA Virus Reverse Genetics: Implications for Rational Design of Vaccines
Authors: Christopher C. Stobart 1,2 and Martin L. Moore 1,2*
1 Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322
Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30322; * Correspondance should be addressed to: mlmoor2@emory.edu
Abstract: RNA viruses are capable of rapid spread and severe or potentially lethal disease in both animals and humans. The development of reverse genetics systems for manipulation and study of RNA virus genomes has provided platforms for designing and optimizing viral mutants for vaccine development. Here, we review the impact of RNA virus reverse genetics systems on past and current efforts to design effective and safe viral therapeutics and vaccines.

Type of Paper: Article
Provisional Title: Hurdles and Options for the Design of Universal Influenza Vaccine
Authors: Yo Han Jang 1 and Baik Lin Seong 1,2,3
Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea
Translational Vaccine Research Center,
3 Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.
Corresponding author: Baik Lin Seong. PhD, Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749, South Korea. Phone: 82-2-2123-2885. Fax: 82-2-362-7265. E-mail: blseong@yonsei.ac.kr.
Abstract: Inspired by the discovery of antibodies specific to the highly conserved membrane-proximal stalk region of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), eliciting such antibodies has been considered the key to developing a universal influenza vaccine that confer broad-spectrum protection against a wide range of viruses. To achieve this goal, prime and boost immunization strategy has been heralded, using chimeric recombinant HA antigen, to redirect the host immune responses from the variable globular head domain into conserved stalk domain of HA antigen. While successful in eliciting the cross-reactive antibodies against the conserved stalk domain, the protective efficacy remains poor due to the lack of neutralization of virus infectivity. Furthermore, the cross-reactivity was only within the same group, rather than among different groups. In addition, concerns are raised on the possibility of vaccine associated enhancement of viral infection, and whether the multiple boost immunization protocol would be considered practical from clinical standpoint. So far, live attenuated vaccine remains unexplored, but is expected to provide an alternative option for the universal vaccine approach considering its proven superior cross-reactivity based on mucosal immune responses. This review summarizes the recent advancements in the HA stalk-based universal influenza vaccine approaches, discusses pros and cons of these approaches with respect to potentially beneficial and harmful effects of neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, and suggest future guidelines towards the design of truly protective universal influenza vaccine.

Type of Paper:
Title: Virotherapy from Canine and Feline Tumors
Authors: Ivaylo Gentschev 1,2,, Marion Adelfinger 1 and Aladar A. Szalay 1,2,3

Department of Biochemistry, University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg, Germany
Genelux Corporation, San Diego Science Center, San Diego, California, USA
Department of Radiation Oncology, Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Abstract: Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related deaths in dogs and cats worldwide. Despite progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not substantially improved in the past. Virotherapy using oncolytic virus strains is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells without causing excessive damage to surrounding normal tissue. The current review describes therapies of canine and feline tumors via different oncolytic virus strains.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Alphavirus-based Vaccines
Author: Kenneth Lundstrom
Affiliation: PanTherapeutics, Rue des Remparts 4, CH1095 Lutry, Switzerland; E-Mail: lundstromkenneth@gmail.com (K.L.)
Abstract: Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high-levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and therefore possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and more recently as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses such as Chikungunya virus have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans attention has also been paid to the development on vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed to conducting clinical trials in humans.
Keywords: alphaviruses; vaccines; naked RNA; DNA vaccines; recombinant particles; protection against lethal virus challenges; tumor protection; clinical trials

Type of Paper: Article
Application of Reverse Genetics to the Improvement of Existing and Development of New Rotavirus Vaccines
Authors: Aitor Navarri Nieto and John T. Patton
Abstract: Rotaviruses (RV) belong to the Reoviridae family and are the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Development of a complete reverse genetics system that allows engineering of any of the rotavirus double-stranded RNA genome segments remains elusive. However, several single-gene replacement systems have been established for rotavirus, and these have been useful for generating reassortant viruses, introducing foreign sequences into the viral genome, and altering the structure and function of viral molecules. The application of single gene and complete reverse genetics technologies has the potential to improve existing and generate more effective rotavirus vaccines by allowing the rational design of new candidate strains of vaccine viruses. This includes the conversion of circulating virulent viruses into attenuated vaccine candidates via mutation of virulence determinants, modification of immunodominant epitopes of vaccine viruses to match more closely locally circulating rotaviruses, and generation of vaccines viruses with superior stability properties that are more amenable to high titer growth in cell culture. Perhaps most importantly, reverse genetic technologies may provide for the generation of a new class of vaccine viruses that, due to their capacity to express foreign proteins, are capable of inducing protection not only again rotavirus but also other enteric pathogens. In this article, we review the state of the art for rotavirus reverse genetics technologies and consider the potential impact of these technologies on the rotavirus vaccine programs.

Title: Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara vaccines against emerging infectious diseases – from animal models to clinical evaluation
Author: Gerd Sutter
Affiliation: Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Department of Veterinary Sciences, LMU University of Munich, 80539 München, Germany
Abstract: Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a preferred strain of vaccinia virus to be used in biomedicine for vaccine development. Major benefits of MVA include the distinct safety advantage compared to conventional vaccinia viruses, the longstanding experience in the genetic engineering of the viral genome, and the availability of established procedures for production at an industrial scale. MVA vectors can be handled under biosafety level 1 conditions and various recombinant MVA vaccines have proven to be immunogenic and protective when delivering heterologous antigens in animals and humans. Here, we review the development of MVA candidate vaccines against infectious diseases of humans and animals. Recent studies revealed particular immune stimulatory capacities of MVA and an unappreciated efficacy of MVA when used as emergency vaccine. Thus, we will highlight examples of recombinant MVA for prevention of newly emerging zoonotic infections such as severe respiratory infections associated with coronavirus infections, avian influenza or West Nile fever.

Announced Papers

  1. Guus Rimmelzwaan; Department of Viroscience, Ersamus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; MVA-based virus vaccines
  2. Ralph A. Tripp; University of Georgia, USA; Development of New Technologies in Vaccine Research
  3. Luc Willems; GIGA, B-4000 Liège, Belgium; Vaccination Against Bovine Leukemia Virus
  4. Nikos Vasilakis; University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA
  5. Mark R. Schleiss; University of Minnesota, USA
  6. Kathleen Hefferon; University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
  7. Benedikt Kaufer; Institut für Virologie, 14163 Berlin, Germany
  8. Ed Rybicki; MCB Principal Investigator
  9. Florian Krammer; Mount Sinai Hospital
  10. Steffen Müller; Stony Brook University

Last update: 3 December 2013

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