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Viruses 2014, 6(5), 1974-1991; doi:10.3390/v6051974
Review

Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon

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Received: 24 February 2014; in revised form: 5 April 2014 / Accepted: 22 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-based Vaccines)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [447 KB, uploaded 29 April 2014]
Abstract: Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines capable of conferring broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most effective factors for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interest for improved antigen design. The present review summarizes the recent progress in such endeavors and also covers the encouraging progress in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitate the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine.
Keywords: influenza; cross protection; universal influenza vaccine influenza; cross protection; universal influenza vaccine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, H.; Wang, L.; Compans, R.W.; Wang, B.-Z. Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon. Viruses 2014, 6, 1974-1991.

AMA Style

Zhang H, Wang L, Compans RW, Wang B-Z. Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon. Viruses. 2014; 6(5):1974-1991.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Han; Wang, Li; Compans, Richard W.; Wang, Bao-Zhong. 2014. "Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon." Viruses 6, no. 5: 1974-1991.


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