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Viruses 2014, 6(6), 2392-2415; doi:10.3390/v6062392
Review

Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

Received: 2 April 2014; in revised form: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 16 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-based Vaccines)
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Abstract: Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.
Keywords: alphaviruses; vaccines; naked RNA; DNA vaccines; recombinant particles; protection against lethal virus challenges; tumor protection; clinical trials alphaviruses; vaccines; naked RNA; DNA vaccines; recombinant particles; protection against lethal virus challenges; tumor protection; clinical trials
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lundstrom, K. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines. Viruses 2014, 6, 2392-2415.

AMA Style

Lundstrom K. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines. Viruses. 2014; 6(6):2392-2415.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lundstrom, Kenneth. 2014. "Alphavirus-Based Vaccines." Viruses 6, no. 6: 2392-2415.



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