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Special Issue "Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bharat B. Aggarwal

Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1901 East Road, Unit 1950 Houston, TX 77054, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: curcumin, inflammation, oncology
Guest Editor
Dr. Sahdeo Prasad

Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1901 East Road, Unit 1950 Houston, TX 77054, USA
E-Mail
Interests: Inflammation and cancer; Natural products; Cancer prevention and therapy; Chemosensitization; Inflammatory transcription factors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chronic infections, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, radiation, environmental pollutants, and high-calorie diet have been recognized as major risk factors for the most chronic diseases, including cancer. All these risk factors are linked to chronic diseases through inflammation. While acute inflammation that persists for the short-term mediates host defense against infections, chronic inflammation that lasts for the long-term can predispose the host to various chronic illnesses, including cancer. Thus, suppression of these proinflammatory pathways may provide opportunities for both the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Although traditional medicines have been used for thousands of years, for most such medicines, neither the active component nor their molecular targets have been very well identified. Curcumin, a yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, however, is an exception. Although inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (Celebrex), HER2 (Herceptin), TNF (Enbrel, Humira, Remicade), EGFR (Erbitux and Iressa), Bcr-abl (Gleevec), proteosome (Velcade), and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (Avastin) have been approved for human use by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), curcumin as a single agent can downregulate all these targets. Curcumin can also activate apoptosis, downregulate cell survival gene products, and upregulate p53, p21, and p27. Thus, curcumin regulates multiple targets (multitargeted therapy), which is needed for treatment of most chronic diseases. Also, curcumin is inexpensive and has been found to be safe in human clinical trials.  The current Special Issue is devoted to exploring the potential of curcumin in various chronic diseases.  The leaders in this field are invited to contribute.  Suppression of inflammatory pathways and their role in the prevention and therapy of chronic diseases is the focus of this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Bharat B. Aggarwal
Dr. Sahdeo Prasad
Guest Editors

Submission

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Keywords

  • curcumin chemistry
  • molecular targets of curcumin
  • curcumin binders
  • curcumin analogues
  • curcumin and alzheimer
  • curcumin and depression
  • curcumin and diabetes
  • curcumin and cancer prevention and treatment
  • curcumin and ckd
  • curcumin and aging
  • curcumin and obesity

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Bisdemethoxycurcumin Induces Apoptosis in Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells via Cannabinoid Receptor 2
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 1277-1292; doi:10.3390/molecules20011277
Received: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells (HSCs), major fibrogenic cells in the liver, undergo apoptosis when liver injuries cease, which may contribute to the resolution of fibrosis. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is a natural derivative of curcumin with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The therapeutic potential of BDMC
[...] Read more.
Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells (HSCs), major fibrogenic cells in the liver, undergo apoptosis when liver injuries cease, which may contribute to the resolution of fibrosis. Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is a natural derivative of curcumin with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The therapeutic potential of BDMC in hepatic fibrosis has not been studied thus far in the context of the apoptosis in activated HSCs. In the current study, we compared the activities of BDMC and curcumin in the HSC-T6 cell line and demonstrated that BDMC relatively induced a potent apoptosis. BDMC-induced apoptosis was mediated by a combinatory inhibition of cytoprotective proteins, such as Bcl2 and heme oxygenase-1 and increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Intriguingly, BDMC-induced apoptosis was reversed with co-treatment of sr144528, a cannabinoid receptor (CBR) 2 antagonist, which was confirmed with genetic downregulation of the receptor using siCBR2. Additionally, incubation with BDMC increased the formation of death-induced signaling complex in HSC-T6 cells. Treatment with BDMC significantly diminished total intracellular ATP levels and upregulated ATP inhibitory factor-1. Collectively, the results demonstrate that BDMC induces apoptosis in activated HSCs, but not in hepatocytes, by impairing cellular energetics and causing a downregulation of cytoprotective proteins, likely through a mechanism that involves CBR2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of the NF-κB Signaling Pathway by a Novel Heterocyclic Curcumin Analogue
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 863-878; doi:10.3390/molecules20010863
Received: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 8 January 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study a series of curcumin analogues were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the activation of NF-κΒ, a transcription factor at the crossroads of cancer-inflammation. Our novel curcumin analogue BAT3 was identified to be the most potent NF-κB inhibitor and EMSA
[...] Read more.
In this study a series of curcumin analogues were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the activation of NF-κΒ, a transcription factor at the crossroads of cancer-inflammation. Our novel curcumin analogue BAT3 was identified to be the most potent NF-κB inhibitor and EMSA assays clearly showed inhibition of NF-κB/DNA-binding in the presence of BAT3, in agreement with reporter gene results. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that BAT3 did not seem to prevent nuclear p65 translocation, so our novel analogue may interfere with NF-κB/DNA-binding or transactivation, independently of IKK2 regulation and NF-κB-translocation. Gene expression studies on endogenous NF-κB target genes revealed that BAT3 significantly inhibited TNF-dependent transcription of IL6, MCP1 and A20 genes, whereas an NF-κB independent target gene heme oxygenase-1 remained unaffected. In conclusion, we demonstrate that BAT3 seems to inhibit different cancer-related inflammatory targets in the NF-κB signaling pathway through a different mechanism in comparison to similar analogues, previously reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
Open AccessArticle Curcumin Protects against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats by Inhibiting HIF-1α Through an ERK-Dependent Pathway
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18767-18780; doi:10.3390/molecules191118767
Received: 4 September 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ERK/HIF-1α signaling pathway is believed to play an important role in the genesis of progressive fibrosis. An increasing expression of HIF-1α and ERK accompanies CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Curcumin is verified to have antifibrotic effects in several kinds of
[...] Read more.
The ERK/HIF-1α signaling pathway is believed to play an important role in the genesis of progressive fibrosis. An increasing expression of HIF-1α and ERK accompanies CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Curcumin is verified to have antifibrotic effects in several kinds of liver fibrosis models. There is no specific evidence illustrating a connection between curcumin and the HIF-1α/ERK pathway in rat liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. In this study, liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in treated rats. The data demonstrated that curcumin was able to attenuate liver fibrosis and inhibit the proliferation of HSC. Moreover, curcumin could remarkably elevate the hepatic function by decreasing serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP, and increasing levels of ALB, TP and α-SMA, Col III mRNA expression. Meanwhile, ECM status could also be reflected by curcumin treatment. The alleviation with curcumin treatment was associated with inhibition of HIF-1α and phosphor-ERK. This study indicates that curcumin alleviates fibrosis by reducing the expression of HIF-1α partly through the ERK pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
Open AccessArticle Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18283-18295; doi:10.3390/molecules191118283
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 25 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to
[...] Read more.
Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA action of curcumin was analyzed by the viability assay in the presence of detergents, ATPase inhibitors and peptidoglycan (PGN) from S. aureus, and the PBP2a protein level was analyzed by western blotting. The morphological changes in the curcumin-treated MRSA strains were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We analyzed increased susceptibility to MRSA isolates in the presence of curcumin. The optical densities at 600 nm (OD600) of the suspensions treated with the combinations of curcumin with triton X-100 and Tris were reduced to 63% and 59%, respectively, compared to curcumin without treatment. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and sodium azide (NaN3) were reduced to 94% and 55%, respectively. When peptidoglycan (PGN) from S. aureus was combined with curcumin, PGN (0–125 μg/mL) gradually blocked the antibacterial activity of curcumin (125 μg/mL); however, at a concentration of 125 µg/mL PGN, it did not completely block curcumin. Curcumin has a significant effect on the protein level of PBP2a. The TEM images of MRSA showed damage of the cell wall, disruption of the cytoplasmic contents, broken cell membrane and cell lysis after the treatment of curcumin. These data indicate a remarkable antibacterial effect of curcumin, with membrane permeability enhancers and ATPase inhibitors, and curcumin did not directly bind to PGN on the cell wall. Further, the antimicrobial action of curcumin involved in the PBP2a-mediated resistance mechanism was investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How Are They Linked?
Molecules 2015, 20(5), 9183-9213; doi:10.3390/molecules20059183
Received: 25 January 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 14 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (1120 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is extensively verified that continued oxidative stress and oxidative damage may lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn can mediate most chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, neurological, inflammatory bowel disease and pulmonary diseases. Curcumin, a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric,
[...] Read more.
It is extensively verified that continued oxidative stress and oxidative damage may lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn can mediate most chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, neurological, inflammatory bowel disease and pulmonary diseases. Curcumin, a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric, shows strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities when used as a remedy for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. How oxidative stress activates inflammatory pathways leading to the progression of chronic diseases is the focus of this review. Thus, research to date suggests that chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and most chronic diseases are closely linked, and the antioxidant properties of curcumin can play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
Figures

Open AccessReview Curcumin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Enhance NK Cell-Induced Apoptosis of Pancreatic Cancer Cells but Curcumin Inhibits Interferon-γ Production: Benefits of Omega-3 with Curcumin against Cancer
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 3020-3026; doi:10.3390/molecules20023020
Received: 12 November 2014 / Revised: 15 January 2015 / Accepted: 27 January 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
STAT-3 and STAT-1 signaling have opposite effects in oncogenesis with STAT-3 acting as an oncogene and STAT-1 exerting anti-oncogenic activities through interferon-γ and interferon-α. The cytokine IL-6 promotes oncogenesis by stimulation of NFκB and STAT-3 signaling. Curcuminoids have bi-functional effects by blocking NFκB
[...] Read more.
STAT-3 and STAT-1 signaling have opposite effects in oncogenesis with STAT-3 acting as an oncogene and STAT-1 exerting anti-oncogenic activities through interferon-γ and interferon-α. The cytokine IL-6 promotes oncogenesis by stimulation of NFκB and STAT-3 signaling. Curcuminoids have bi-functional effects by blocking NFκB anti-apoptotic signaling but also blocking anti-oncogenic STAT-1 signaling and interferon-γ production. In our recent study (unpublished work [1]) in pancreatic cancer cell cultures, curcuminoids enhanced cancer cell apoptosis both directly and by potentiating natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic function. The cytotoxic effects of curcuminoids were increased by incubation of cancer cells and NK cells in an emulsion with omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants (Smartfish), which enhanced cancer cell apoptosis and protected NK cells against degradation. However, as also shown by others, curcuminoids blocked interferon-γ production by NK cells. The combined use of curcuminoids and omega-3 in cancer immunotherapy will require deeper understanding of their in vivo interactions with the immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
Open AccessReview The Multifaceted Role of Curcumin in Cancer Prevention and Treatment
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 2728-2769; doi:10.3390/molecules20022728
Received: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 30 January 2015 / Published: 5 February 2015
Cited by 56 | PDF Full-text (3236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite significant advances in treatment modalities over the last decade, neither the incidence of the disease nor the mortality due to cancer has altered in the last thirty years. Available anti-cancer drugs exhibit limited efficacy, associated with severe side effects, and are also
[...] Read more.
Despite significant advances in treatment modalities over the last decade, neither the incidence of the disease nor the mortality due to cancer has altered in the last thirty years. Available anti-cancer drugs exhibit limited efficacy, associated with severe side effects, and are also expensive. Thus identification of pharmacological agents that do not have these disadvantages is required. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric (Curcumin longa), is one such agent that has been extensively studied over the last three to four decades for its potential anti-inflammatory and/or anti-cancer effects. Curcumin has been found to suppress initiation, progression, and metastasis of a variety of tumors. These anti-cancer effects are predominantly mediated through its negative regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other oncogenic molecules. It also abrogates proliferation of cancer cells by arresting them at different phases of the cell cycle and/or by inducing their apoptosis. The current review focuses on the diverse molecular targets modulated by curcumin that contribute to its efficacy against various human cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
Open AccessReview Curcumin Differs from Tetrahydrocurcumin for Molecular Targets, Signaling Pathways and Cellular Responses
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 185-205; doi:10.3390/molecules20010185
Received: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1040 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a golden pigment from turmeric, has been linked with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antidiabetic properties. Most of the these activities have been assigned to methoxy, hydroxyl, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety or to diketone groups present in curcumin. One of the
[...] Read more.
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a golden pigment from turmeric, has been linked with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antidiabetic properties. Most of the these activities have been assigned to methoxy, hydroxyl, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety or to diketone groups present in curcumin. One of the major metabolites of curcumin is tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), which lacks α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety and is white in color. Whether THC is superior to curcumin on a molecular level is unclear and thus is the focus of this review. Various studies suggest that curcumin is a more potent antioxidant than THC; curcumin (but not THC) can bind and inhibit numerous targets including DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase-1, heme oxygenase-1, Nrf2, β-catenin, cyclooxygenase-2, NF-kappaB, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, amyloid plaques, reactive oxygen species, vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclin D1, glutathione, P300/CBP, 5-lipoxygenase, cytosolic phospholipase A2, prostaglandin E2, inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase-1, -2, P38MAPK, p-Tau, tumor necrosis factor-α, forkhead box O3a, CRAC; curcumin can inhibit tumor cell growth and suppress cellular entry of viruses such as influenza A virus and hepatitis C virus much more effectively than THC; curcumin affects membrane mobility; and curcumin is also more effective than THC in suppressing phorbol-ester-induced tumor promotion. Other studies, however, suggest that THC is superior to curcumin for induction of GSH peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, NADPH: quinone reductase, and quenching of free radicals. Most studies have indicated that THC exhibits higher antioxidant activity, but curcumin exhibits both pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
Open AccessReview Eliminating the Heart from the Curcumin Molecule: Monocarbonyl Curcumin Mimics (MACs)
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 249-292; doi:10.3390/molecules20010249
Received: 29 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Curcumin is a natural product with several thousand years of heritage. Its traditional Asian application to human ailments has been subjected in recent decades to worldwide pharmacological, biochemical and clinical investigations. Curcumin’s Achilles heel lies in its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation
[...] Read more.
Curcumin is a natural product with several thousand years of heritage. Its traditional Asian application to human ailments has been subjected in recent decades to worldwide pharmacological, biochemical and clinical investigations. Curcumin’s Achilles heel lies in its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation at pH ~ 7.4. Researchers have sought to unlock curcumin’s assets by chemical manipulation. One class of molecules under scrutiny are the monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs). A thousand plus such agents have been created and tested primarily against cancer and inflammation. The outcome is clear. In vitro, MACs furnish a 10–20 fold potency gain vs. curcumin for numerous cancer cell lines and cellular proteins. Similarly, MACs have successfully demonstrated better pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in mice and greater tumor regression in cancer xenografts in vivo than curcumin. The compounds reveal limited toxicity as measured by murine weight gain and histopathological assessment. To our knowledge, MAC members have not yet been monitored in larger animals or humans. However, Phase 1 clinical trials are certainly on the horizon. The present review focuses on the large and evolving body of work in cancer and inflammation, but also covers MAC structural diversity and early discovery for treatment of bacteria, tuberculosis, Alzheimer’s disease and malaria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
Figures

Open AccessReview Curcumin and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Potential and Limits of Innovative Treatments
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 21127-21153; doi:10.3390/molecules191221127
Received: 7 October 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1097 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Curcumin belongs to the family of natural compounds collectively called curcuminoids and it possesses remarkable beneficial anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective properties. Moreover it is commonly assumed that curcumin has also been suggested as a remedy for digestive diseases such as inflammatory bowel
[...] Read more.
Curcumin belongs to the family of natural compounds collectively called curcuminoids and it possesses remarkable beneficial anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective properties. Moreover it is commonly assumed that curcumin has also been suggested as a remedy for digestive diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a chronic immune disorder affecting the gastrointestinal tract and that can be divided in two major subgroups: Crohn’s disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), depending mainly on the intestine tract affected by the inflammatory events. The chronic and intermittent nature of IBD imposes, where applicable, long-term treatments conducted in most of the cases combining different types of drugs. In more severe cases and where there has been no good response to the drugs, a surgery therapy is carried out. Currently, IBD-pharmacological treatments are generally not curative and often present serious side effects; for this reason, being known the relationship between nutrition and IBD, it is worthy of interesting the study and the development of new dietary strategy. The curcumin principal mechanism is the suppression of IBD inflammatory compounds (NF-κB) modulating immune response. This review summarizes literature data of curcumin as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant in IBD, trying to understand the different effects in CD e UC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
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Open AccessReview Hybrid Curcumin Compounds: A New Strategy for Cancer Treatment
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20839-20863; doi:10.3390/molecules191220839
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer is a multifactorial disease that requires treatments able to target multiple intracellular components and signaling pathways. The natural compound, curcumin, was already described as a promising anticancer agent due to its multipotent properties and huge amount of molecular targets in vitro.
[...] Read more.
Cancer is a multifactorial disease that requires treatments able to target multiple intracellular components and signaling pathways. The natural compound, curcumin, was already described as a promising anticancer agent due to its multipotent properties and huge amount of molecular targets in vitro. Its translation to the clinic is, however, limited by its reduced solubility and bioavailability in patients. In order to overcome these pharmacokinetic deficits of curcumin, several strategies, such as the design of synthetic analogs, the combination with specific adjuvants or nano-formulations, have been developed. By taking into account the risk-benefit profile of drug combinations, as well as the knowledge about curcumin’s structure-activity relationship, a new concept for the combination of curcumin with scaffolds from different natural products or components has emerged. The concept of a hybrid curcumin molecule is based on the incorporation or combination of curcumin with specific antibodies, adjuvants or other natural products already used or not in conventional chemotherapy, in one single molecule. The high diversity of such conjugations enhances the selectivity and inherent biological activities and properties, as well as the efficacy of the parental compound, with particular emphasis on improving the efficacy of curcumin for future clinical treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
Open AccessReview Relevance of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Curcumin in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Depression
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20864-20879; doi:10.3390/molecules191220864
Received: 21 October 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (753 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review is an attempt to summarize our current understanding of curcumin’s potential as a neuroprotectant and an antidepressant. This dual property confers a unique advantage to this herbal medication, believed to be devoid of any major side effects, to combat commonly observed
[...] Read more.
This review is an attempt to summarize our current understanding of curcumin’s potential as a neuroprotectant and an antidepressant. This dual property confers a unique advantage to this herbal medication, believed to be devoid of any major side effects, to combat commonly observed co-morbid conditions of a neurodegenerative and a neuropsychiatric disorder. Moreover, in line with the theme of this series, the role of inflammation and stress in these diseases and possible anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin, as well as its interaction with signal transduction proteins as a common denominator in its varied mechanisms of action, are also discussed. Thus, following a brief introduction of curcumin’s pharmacology, we present research suggesting how its anti-inflammatory properties have therapeutic potential in treating a devastating neurological disorder (Parkinson’s disease = PD) and a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder (major depressive disorder = MDD). It is concluded that curcumin, or better yet, an analog with better and longer bioavailability could be of important therapeutic potential in PD and/or major depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
Open AccessReview Curcumin and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Major Mode of Action through Stimulating Endogenous Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20139-20156; doi:10.3390/molecules191220139
Received: 13 October 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 2 December 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Curcumin, an active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), an inflammatory disease, can lead to end stage renal disease resulting in dialysis and transplant. Furthermore, it is
[...] Read more.
Curcumin, an active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), an inflammatory disease, can lead to end stage renal disease resulting in dialysis and transplant. Furthermore, it is frequently associated with other inflammatory disease such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review will focus on the clinically relevant inflammatory molecules that play a role in CKD and associated diseases. Various enzymes, transcription factors, growth factors modulate production and action of inflammatory molecules; curcumin can blunt the generation and action of these inflammatory molecules and ameliorate CKD as well as associated inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have shown that increased intestinal permeability results in the leakage of pro-inflammatory molecules (cytokines and lipopolysaccharides) from gut into the circulation in diseases such as CKD, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This change in intestinal permeability is due to decreased expression of tight junction proteins and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). Curcumin increases the expression of IAP and tight junction proteins and corrects gut permeability. This action reduces the levels of circulatory inflammatory biomolecules. This effect of curcumin on intestine can explain why, despite poor bioavailability, curcumin has potential anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and beneficial effects on CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
Open AccessReview The Chemistry of Curcumin: From Extraction to Therapeutic Agent
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20091-20112; doi:10.3390/molecules191220091
Received: 13 October 2014 / Revised: 25 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 1 December 2014
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Curcumin, a pigment from turmeric, is one of the very few promising natural products that has been extensively investigated by researchers from both the biological and chemical point of view. While there are several reviews on the biological and pharmacological effects of curcumin,
[...] Read more.
Curcumin, a pigment from turmeric, is one of the very few promising natural products that has been extensively investigated by researchers from both the biological and chemical point of view. While there are several reviews on the biological and pharmacological effects of curcumin, chemistry reviews are comparatively scarcer. In this article, an overview of different aspects of the unique chemistry research on curcumin will be discussed. These include methods for the extraction from turmeric, laboratory synthesis methods, chemical and photochemical degradation and the chemistry behind its metabolism. Additionally other chemical reactions that have biological relevance like nucleophilic addition reactions, and metal chelation will be discussed. Recent advances in the preparation of new curcumin nanoconjugates with metal and metal oxide nanoparticles will also be mentioned. Directions for future investigations to be undertaken in the chemistry of curcumin have also been suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)

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