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Molecules 2015, 20(2), 3020-3026; doi:10.3390/molecules20023020

Curcumin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Enhance NK Cell-Induced Apoptosis of Pancreatic Cancer Cells but Curcumin Inhibits Interferon-γ Production: Benefits of Omega-3 with Curcumin against Cancer

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Academic Editor: Bharat B. Aggarwal
Received: 12 November 2014 / Revised: 15 January 2015 / Accepted: 27 January 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
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Abstract

STAT-3 and STAT-1 signaling have opposite effects in oncogenesis with STAT-3 acting as an oncogene and STAT-1 exerting anti-oncogenic activities through interferon-γ and interferon-α. The cytokine IL-6 promotes oncogenesis by stimulation of NFκB and STAT-3 signaling. Curcuminoids have bi-functional effects by blocking NFκB anti-apoptotic signaling but also blocking anti-oncogenic STAT-1 signaling and interferon-γ production. In our recent study (unpublished work [1]) in pancreatic cancer cell cultures, curcuminoids enhanced cancer cell apoptosis both directly and by potentiating natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic function. The cytotoxic effects of curcuminoids were increased by incubation of cancer cells and NK cells in an emulsion with omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants (Smartfish), which enhanced cancer cell apoptosis and protected NK cells against degradation. However, as also shown by others, curcuminoids blocked interferon-γ production by NK cells. The combined use of curcuminoids and omega-3 in cancer immunotherapy will require deeper understanding of their in vivo interactions with the immune system. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural killer cells; curcuminoids; omega-3 fatty acids; pancreatic cancer natural killer cells; curcuminoids; omega-3 fatty acids; pancreatic cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fiala, M. Curcumin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Enhance NK Cell-Induced Apoptosis of Pancreatic Cancer Cells but Curcumin Inhibits Interferon-γ Production: Benefits of Omega-3 with Curcumin against Cancer. Molecules 2015, 20, 3020-3026.

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