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Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20139-20156; doi:10.3390/molecules191220139

Curcumin and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Major Mode of Action through Stimulating Endogenous Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase

1
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
2
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 2 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [657 KB, uploaded 2 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Curcumin, an active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), an inflammatory disease, can lead to end stage renal disease resulting in dialysis and transplant. Furthermore, it is frequently associated with other inflammatory disease such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review will focus on the clinically relevant inflammatory molecules that play a role in CKD and associated diseases. Various enzymes, transcription factors, growth factors modulate production and action of inflammatory molecules; curcumin can blunt the generation and action of these inflammatory molecules and ameliorate CKD as well as associated inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have shown that increased intestinal permeability results in the leakage of pro-inflammatory molecules (cytokines and lipopolysaccharides) from gut into the circulation in diseases such as CKD, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This change in intestinal permeability is due to decreased expression of tight junction proteins and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). Curcumin increases the expression of IAP and tight junction proteins and corrects gut permeability. This action reduces the levels of circulatory inflammatory biomolecules. This effect of curcumin on intestine can explain why, despite poor bioavailability, curcumin has potential anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and beneficial effects on CKD. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; cytokines; atherosclerosis; diabetes; intestinal permeability; intestinal alkaline phosphatase inflammation; cytokines; atherosclerosis; diabetes; intestinal permeability; intestinal alkaline phosphatase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghosh, S.S.; Gehr, T.W.B.; Ghosh, S. Curcumin and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Major Mode of Action through Stimulating Endogenous Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase. Molecules 2014, 19, 20139-20156.

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