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Synergistic Effects of Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide and Zinc on the Photosynthetic Capacity and Survival of Anabaena sp.
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2013; in revised form: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Abstract: Anabaena sp. was used to examine the toxicity of exposure to a nano-TiO2 suspension, Zn2+ solution, and mixtures of nano-TiO2 and Zn2+ suspensions. Typical chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, including effective quantum yield, photosynthetic efficiency and maximal electron transport rate, were measured by a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer. Nano-TiO2 particles exhibited no significant toxicity at concentrations lower than 10.0 mg/L. The 96 h concentration for the 50% maximal effect (EC50) of Zn2+ alone to Anabaena sp. was 0.38 ± 0.004 mg/L. The presence of nano-TiO2 at low concentrations (<1.0 mg/L) significantly enhanced the toxicity of Zn2+ and consequently reduced the EC50 value to 0.29 ± 0.003 mg/L. However, the toxicity of the Zn2+/TiO2 system decreased with increasing nano-TiO2 concentration because of the substantial adsorption of Zn2+ by nano-TiO2. The toxicity curve of the Zn2+/TiO2 system as a function of incremental nano-TiO2 concentrations was parabolic. The toxicity significantly increased at the initial stage, reached its maximum, and then decreased with increasing nano-TiO2 concentration. Hydrodynamic sizes, concentration of nano-TiO2 and Zn2+ loaded nano-TiO2 were the main parameters for synergistic toxicity.
Keywords: synergistic toxicity; zinc; nanoparticles; titanium dioxide; Anabaena sp.
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MDPI and ACS Style
Tang, Y.; Li, S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, H.; Li, L. Synergistic Effects of Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide and Zinc on the Photosynthetic Capacity and Survival of Anabaena sp.. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14395-14407.
Tang Y, Li S, Qiao J, Wang H, Li L. Synergistic Effects of Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide and Zinc on the Photosynthetic Capacity and Survival of Anabaena sp.. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):14395-14407.
Tang, Yulin; Li, Shuyan; Qiao, Junlian; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Lei. 2013. "Synergistic Effects of Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide and Zinc on the Photosynthetic Capacity and Survival of Anabaena sp.." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 14395-14407.