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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 22529-22543; doi:10.3390/ijms141122529

Size-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Nanocarbon Blacks

1,*  and 2,*
1 School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China 2 Division of Physical Biology, and Bioimaging Center, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China 3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China 4 Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry and Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
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In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of nanocarbon blacks (NCBs) with different sizes to mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. MTT and fluorescence-based LIVE assays demonstrated that NCBs uptake caused a size and dose-dependent growth inhibition to the cells. Optical microscopy observations and 99mTc radionuclide labeling techniques were used to investigate the cellular uptake of NCBs with different sizes qualitatively and quantitatively, respectively. Results showed that the cellular uptake amounts of NCBs increased with their increasing size. Large quantities of internal NCBs induced oxidative stress and nuclear damage in cells; these effects may be the critical factors involved in the cytotoxicity of NCBs. The implications associated with these findings are discussed.
Keywords: nanocarbon blacks (NCBs); size; cytotoxicity; cellular uptake; cytotoxic mechanism nanocarbon blacks (NCBs); size; cytotoxicity; cellular uptake; cytotoxic mechanism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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Kong, H.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Cui, Z.; Xia, K.; Sun, Y.; Zhao, Q.; Zhu, Y. Size-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Nanocarbon Blacks. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 22529-22543.

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