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Size-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Nanocarbon Blacks
School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China
Division of Physical Biology, and Bioimaging Center, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry and Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2013; in revised form: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of nanocarbon blacks (NCBs) with different sizes to mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. MTT and fluorescence-based LIVE assays demonstrated that NCBs uptake caused a size and dose-dependent growth inhibition to the cells. Optical microscopy observations and 99mTc radionuclide labeling techniques were used to investigate the cellular uptake of NCBs with different sizes qualitatively and quantitatively, respectively. Results showed that the cellular uptake amounts of NCBs increased with their increasing size. Large quantities of internal NCBs induced oxidative stress and nuclear damage in cells; these effects may be the critical factors involved in the cytotoxicity of NCBs. The implications associated with these findings are discussed.
Keywords: nanocarbon blacks (NCBs); size; cytotoxicity; cellular uptake; cytotoxic mechanism
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kong, H.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Cui, Z.; Xia, K.; Sun, Y.; Zhao, Q.; Zhu, Y. Size-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Nanocarbon Blacks. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 22529-22543.
Kong H, Zhang Y, Li Y, Cui Z, Xia K, Sun Y, Zhao Q, Zhu Y. Size-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Nanocarbon Blacks. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(11):22529-22543.
Kong, Huating; Zhang, Yu; Li, Yongjun; Cui, Zhifen; Xia, Kai; Sun, Yanhong; Zhao, Qunfen; Zhu, Ying. 2013. "Size-Dependent Cytotoxicity of Nanocarbon Blacks." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 11: 22529-22543.