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Non-Covalent Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticle–Heparin Hybrid Systems: A New Approach to Bioactive Nanoparticles
Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "G. Natta" Polytechnic, 7 Mancinelli Street, 20131 Milan, Italy
Interuniversity Center "The Protein Factory," Polytechnic of Milan, ICRM-CNR Milan and Insubria University, 21100 Varese, Italy
Ronzoni Institute for Chemical and Biochemical Research, 81 G. Colombo Street, 20133 Milan, Italy
Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Sciences, University of Insubria, 3 Dunant Street, 21100 Varese, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2013; in revised form: 24 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 27 June 2013
Abstract: Heparin has been conjugated to Fe3O4, Co3O4, and NiO nanoparticles (NPs) through electrostatic interactions, producing colloidal suspensions of hybrid metal oxide heparin NPs that are stable in water. Negative zeta potentials and retention of heparin’s ability to capture toluidine blue indicate that heparin’s negative charges are exposed on the surface of the coated NPs. IR results confirmed the formation of nanohybrids as did NMR experiments, which were also interpreted on the basis of toluidine blue tests. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the heparin coating does not modify the shape or dimension of the NPs. Dynamic light scattering and negative zeta potential measurements confirmed that heparin surface functionalisation is an effective strategy to prevent NP aggregation.
Keywords: heparin; transition metal oxide nanoparticles; organic inorganic nanostructures; electrostatic interaction; NMR spectroscopy; microscopy
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Vismara, E.; Valerio, A.; Coletti, A.; Torri, G.; Bertini, S.; Eisele, G.; Gornati, R.; Bernardini, G. Non-Covalent Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticle–Heparin Hybrid Systems: A New Approach to Bioactive Nanoparticles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 13463-13481.
Vismara E, Valerio A, Coletti A, Torri G, Bertini S, Eisele G, Gornati R, Bernardini G. Non-Covalent Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticle–Heparin Hybrid Systems: A New Approach to Bioactive Nanoparticles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):13463-13481.
Vismara, Elena; Valerio, Antonio; Coletti, Alessia; Torri, Giangiacomo; Bertini, Sabrina; Eisele, Giorgio; Gornati, Rosalba; Bernardini, Giovanni. 2013. "Non-Covalent Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanoparticle–Heparin Hybrid Systems: A New Approach to Bioactive Nanoparticles." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 13463-13481.