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Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharide Nanoparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell-Targeted Delivery of Adenosine Triphosphate
Department of Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou 310009, China
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2013; in revised form: 7 July 2013 / Accepted: 23 July 2013 / Published: 29 July 2013
Abstract: Nanoparticles composed of galactosylated chitosan oligosaccharide (Gal-CSO) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were prepared for hepatocellular carcinoma cell-specific uptake, and the characteristics of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were evaluated. CSO/ATP nanoparticles were prepared as a control. The average diameter and zeta potential of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were 51.03 ± 3.26 nm and 30.50 ± 1.25 mV, respectively, suggesting suitable properties for a drug delivery system. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were examined by the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated with HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that the cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles on HepG2 cells was low. In the meantime, it was also found that the Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles could be uptaken by HepG2 cells, due to expression of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) on their surfaces. The presented results indicate that the Gal-CSO nanoparticles might be very attractive to be used as an intracellular drug delivery carrier for hepatocellular carcinoma cell targeting, thus warranting further in vivo or clinical investigations.
Keywords: galactosylated chitosan oligosaccharide; adenosine triphosphate; nanoparticles; hepatocyte uptake; targeted drug delivery
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MDPI and ACS Style
Zhu, X.L.; Du, Y.Z.; Yu, R.S.; Liu, P.; Shi, D.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Y.; Huang, F.F. Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharide Nanoparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell-Targeted Delivery of Adenosine Triphosphate. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 15755-15766.
Zhu XL, Du YZ, Yu RS, Liu P, Shi D, Chen Y, Wang Y, Huang FF. Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharide Nanoparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell-Targeted Delivery of Adenosine Triphosphate. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):15755-15766.
Zhu, Xiu L.; Du, Yong Z.; Yu, Ri S.; Liu, Ping; Shi, Dan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ying; Huang, Fang F. 2013. "Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharide Nanoparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell-Targeted Delivery of Adenosine Triphosphate." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 15755-15766.