Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 15755-15766; doi:10.3390/ijms140815755
Article

Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharide Nanoparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell-Targeted Delivery of Adenosine Triphosphate

1,†email, 2,†email, 1,* email, 2email, 1email, 1email, 1email and 1email
Received: 27 April 2013; in revised form: 7 July 2013 / Accepted: 23 July 2013 / Published: 29 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
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Abstract: Nanoparticles composed of galactosylated chitosan oligosaccharide (Gal-CSO) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were prepared for hepatocellular carcinoma cell-specific uptake, and the characteristics of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were evaluated. CSO/ATP nanoparticles were prepared as a control. The average diameter and zeta potential of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were 51.03 ± 3.26 nm and 30.50 ± 1.25 mV, respectively, suggesting suitable properties for a drug delivery system. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles were examined by the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated with HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that the cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles on HepG2 cells was low. In the meantime, it was also found that the Gal-CSO/ATP nanoparticles could be uptaken by HepG2 cells, due to expression of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) on their surfaces. The presented results indicate that the Gal-CSO nanoparticles might be very attractive to be used as an intracellular drug delivery carrier for hepatocellular carcinoma cell targeting, thus warranting further in vivo or clinical investigations.
Keywords: galactosylated chitosan oligosaccharide; adenosine triphosphate; nanoparticles; hepatocyte uptake; targeted drug delivery
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, X.L.; Du, Y.Z.; Yu, R.S.; Liu, P.; Shi, D.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Y.; Huang, F.F. Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharide Nanoparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell-Targeted Delivery of Adenosine Triphosphate. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 15755-15766.

AMA Style

Zhu XL, Du YZ, Yu RS, Liu P, Shi D, Chen Y, Wang Y, Huang FF. Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharide Nanoparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell-Targeted Delivery of Adenosine Triphosphate. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):15755-15766.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Xiu L.; Du, Yong Z.; Yu, Ri S.; Liu, Ping; Shi, Dan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ying; Huang, Fang F. 2013. "Galactosylated Chitosan Oligosaccharide Nanoparticles for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell-Targeted Delivery of Adenosine Triphosphate." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 15755-15766.


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