Special Issue "Cosmetic Contact Allergens"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Emanuela Corsini

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milano, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390250318241
Fax: +390250318284
Interests: in vitro immunotoxicology; skin toxicity; contact dermatitis; mechanims of action; oxidative stress
Guest Editor
Dr. David Basketter

BSc, DSc, FRCPath, CBiol, FSB, FBTS, FATS Eurotox Registered Toxicologist DABMEB Consultancy Ltd 2 Normans Road, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1PR, UK
E-Mail
Interests: skin and respiratory allergy; predictive tests; risk assessment; in vitro alternatives

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Cosmetic Contact Allergens Special Issue is a collection of several authoritative papers that draws upon the collective expertise of undisputed leaders in the fields of contact hypersensitivity, immunity, immunotoxicology, and in vitro and in silico methods. The Special Issue explores the immunological and biological mechanisms underlying chemical allergen-induced contact allergy and the opportunity to identify their allergenic potentials based on non-animal testing, with the ultimate aim of making contact allergy to cosmetics history. The clinical relevance of cosmetic allergens is critically discussed and collectively, this Special Issue links the health effects of cosmetic allergens, immune dysfunction, and toxicology.

Prof. Dr. Emanuela Corsini
Dr. David Basketter
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-11
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Special Issue “Cosmetic Contact Allergens”
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
PDF Full-text (130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Europe, a cosmetic is defined as any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes
[...] Read more.
In Europe, a cosmetic is defined as any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, changing their appearance and/or correcting body odours and/or protecting them or keeping them in good condition.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients Regarding Their Skin Sensitization Potential
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1060 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients. Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit
[...] Read more.
Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients. Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk assessment. Proper skin sensitization data of the individual chemicals is essential, especially when dermal contact is intended, like for cosmetics. In some cases, e.g., in the presence of irritating chemicals, the combination of individual ingredients may also need to be evaluated to cover possible mixture effects. Today, it seems unlikely or even impossible that skin sensitization in humans can be adequately described by a single test result or even by a simple combination of a few data points (in vivo or in vitro). It is becoming evident that a set of data (including human data and market data) and knowledge about the ingredient’s specific sensitizing potency needs to be taken into account to enable a reliable assessment of skin sensitization. A more in-depth understanding on mechanistic details of the Adverse-Outcome-Pathway of skin sensitization could contribute key data for a robust conclusion on skin sensitization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cosmetic Contact Allergens
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 29 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015) in 603 patients
[...] Read more.
This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015) in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Contact Allergy to Preservatives—Is the European Commission a Commendable Risk Manager?
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although preservatives are necessary to prevent deterioration by microbial growth in cosmetic products, daily skin contact with preserved cosmetic products may cause a preservative contact allergy. Only preservatives with sufficient pre-market risk assessment, presumably being safe for the consumer from a public health
[...] Read more.
Although preservatives are necessary to prevent deterioration by microbial growth in cosmetic products, daily skin contact with preserved cosmetic products may cause a preservative contact allergy. Only preservatives with sufficient pre-market risk assessment, presumably being safe for the consumer from a public health point of view, are permitted for use in cosmetic products in the European Union. Notwithstanding the efforts by the European Commission (EC) to avoid epidemics of contact allergy, the former epidemic of contact allergy to methyldibromo glutaronitrile and the unprecedented epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone show the procrastination of the European Union risk management process for cosmetic ingredients. Timely risk management is of the utmost importance to avoid rapidly increasing numbers of contact allergy to turn into full-blown epidemics. It is therefore proposed that in order to avoid future epidemics of contact allergy to preservatives, the allowed preservatives in cosmetic products should be entered onto Annex V on a time-limited basis only, and they must be re-evaluated in order to stay on Annex V. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)
Open AccessReview Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes
Received: 5 February 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD), toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA) and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex
[...] Read more.
Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD), toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA) and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD), a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed. Although developed for the prevention of sensitization, ME-PPD appears to be tolerated in some PPD/TDA-allergic individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)
Open AccessReview Fragrance Allergens, Overview with a Focus on Recent Developments and Understanding of Abiotic and Biotic Activation
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fragrances and fragranced formulated products are ubiquitous in society. Contact allergies to fragrance chemicals are among the most common findings when patch-testing patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, as well as in studies of contact allergy in the general population. The routine test
[...] Read more.
Fragrances and fragranced formulated products are ubiquitous in society. Contact allergies to fragrance chemicals are among the most common findings when patch-testing patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, as well as in studies of contact allergy in the general population. The routine test materials for diagnosing fragrance allergy consist mainly of established mixes of fragrance compounds and natural extracts. The situation is more complex as several fragrance compounds have been shown to be transformed by activation inside or outside the skin via abiotic and/or biotic activation, thus increasing the risk of sensitization. For these fragrance chemicals, the parent compound is often non-allergenic or a very weak allergen, but potent sensitizers will be formed which can cause contact allergy. This review shows a series of fragrance chemicals with well-documented abiotic and/or biotic activation that are indicative and illustrative examples of the general problem. Other important aspects include new technologies such as ethosomes which may enhance both sensitization and elicitation, the effect on sensitization by the mixtures of fragrances found in commercial products and the effect of antioxidants. A contact allergy to fragrances may severely affect quality of life and many patients have multiple allergies which further impact their situation. Further experimental and clinical research is needed to increase the safety for the consumer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Legislative Aspects of Cosmetic Safety in the European Union: The Case of Contact Allergy
Received: 22 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For several decades, the European Union (EU) has amongst its many tenets and principles the aim, enshrined in an EU Directive, that cosmetic products should not cause harm to the consumer. To a great extent, this is been successful, although it is noteworthy
[...] Read more.
For several decades, the European Union (EU) has amongst its many tenets and principles the aim, enshrined in an EU Directive, that cosmetic products should not cause harm to the consumer. To a great extent, this is been successful, although it is noteworthy that the frequency of contact allergy to a number of ingredients commonly found in cosmetics has remained stubbornly high. Perhaps because of this, but certainly because of the drive by the European Commission towards better, more streamlined, regulation, the Directive was recast into a Regulation, usually referred to as the EU Cosmetics Regulation ((EC) No 1223/2009). As with the Directive, for each and every cosmetic product placed on the consumer market in the EU, a safety assessment is required. The Regulation requires that a dossier is prepared detailing the composition of the product, the safety of each of its ingredients, as well as an evaluation of overall product safety. This has to be completed by suitably trained and qualified assessors. Also relevant to cosmetic products are the general regulations pertaining to chemicals used in the EU where again many details of the toxicological profile must be ascertained and reviewed. On this basis, it should be possible to ensure that the extent of contact allergy attributed to cosmetic products declines. However, legislation is one thing, but it is also necessary to ensure that the cosmetic industry safety assessment process is completed in a rigourous manner (or even done at all) and that demands enforcement of the legislation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)
Open AccessReview Integrated Testing Strategies for Skin Sensitization Hazard and Potency Assessment—State of the Art and Challenges
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper provides an overview of existing Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) for assessing hazard and potency of skin sensitization. The ITS research is active, diverse and constantly evolving as new assays are being developed and new mechanistic insights are discovered. Despite the need
[...] Read more.
The paper provides an overview of existing Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) for assessing hazard and potency of skin sensitization. The ITS research is active, diverse and constantly evolving as new assays are being developed and new mechanistic insights are discovered. Despite the need to assess potency, the majority of the ITS approaches developed to date assess hazard only. Reasons for this situation are analyzed and include, for example, the dynamic range of existing alternative assays versus the range of in vivo responses, but also sporadic use of kinetic information and molar units. Depending on the application, regulatory or product development, standardized and nonstandard ITS approaches will be developed. Challenges to practical applications, with focus on regulatory are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)
Open AccessReview Can We Make Cosmetic Contact Allergy History?
Received: 5 January 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemical allergy is of considerable importance to the toxicologist, who, amongst other things, has the responsibility of identifying and characterizing the skin (and respiratory) sensitizing potential of chemicals, and estimating the risk they pose to human health. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is to
[...] Read more.
Chemical allergy is of considerable importance to the toxicologist, who, amongst other things, has the responsibility of identifying and characterizing the skin (and respiratory) sensitizing potential of chemicals, and estimating the risk they pose to human health. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is to a large extent a preventable disease. Although quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for contact allergy can be performed, it is reasonable to ask why the burden of the skin disease ACD appears to remain stubbornly high, and in particular, that the general level of ACD to sensitizing ingredients found in cosmetics has not fallen noticeably over recent decades; some could argue that it has increased. In this review, this conundrum is addressed, considering whether and to what extent the prevalence of cosmetic allergy is truly unchanged, whether the predicted test methods and potency estimations are sufficiently precise and how proposed changes to the QRA process (i.e., cumulative exposure) may ameliorate the situation. Improved and more widespread use of risk assessment, better education of risk assessors, better post-marketing surveillance and monitoring of dermatology clinic feedback to improve QRA, all together could help to “make contact allergy history”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Mechanistic Understanding of Contact Allergy
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cosmetic products contain potential contact allergens or precursors that require metabolic conversion or oxidation to generate contact allergens. The most relevant contact allergens are fragrances and preservatives. These substances can pose hazards to human health due to their ability to activate T cells
[...] Read more.
Cosmetic products contain potential contact allergens or precursors that require metabolic conversion or oxidation to generate contact allergens. The most relevant contact allergens are fragrances and preservatives. These substances can pose hazards to human health due to their ability to activate T cells that can cause allergic contact dermatitis, an inflammatory skin disease. In recent years, much progress has been made in the elucidation of the mechanistic basis for immune system activation by contact allergens. This is essential for the development of better diagnostic tools, targeted therapies and animal-free in vitro assays for contact allergen identification. This overview will highlight some aspects of the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses by contact allergens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Alternative Approach for Potency Assessment: In Vitro Methods
Received: 7 January 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last decade, incredible progress has been made in the development of non-animal tests to assess contact hypersensitivity. Four methods have been successfully validated and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines are available or soon will be. Currently validated methods
[...] Read more.
Over the last decade, incredible progress has been made in the development of non-animal tests to assess contact hypersensitivity. Four methods have been successfully validated and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines are available or soon will be. Currently validated methods are useful for hazard identification, classification and labeling. However, to achieve a complete replacement of animals in skin sensitization assessment, dose-response information and evaluation of relative skin sensitizing potency to support effective risk assessment are necessary. In this context, potency is based on the concentration of chemicals needed to induce a positive response. This will require a better understanding of the mechanisms determining potency, including pathway analysis and marker signature identification (selection of an appropriate immune-mediated response to serve as the basis), together with quantitative and qualitative correlations between marker signatures and potency of chemicals in relation with T cell responses. This review aims to discuss the state-of-the-art in the field of in vitro assessment of the no induction sensitization level of contact sensitizers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top