Fragrance Allergens, Overview with a Focus on Recent Developments and Understanding of Abiotic and Biotic Activation
AbstractFragrances and fragranced formulated products are ubiquitous in society. Contact allergies to fragrance chemicals are among the most common findings when patch-testing patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, as well as in studies of contact allergy in the general population. The routine test materials for diagnosing fragrance allergy consist mainly of established mixes of fragrance compounds and natural extracts. The situation is more complex as several fragrance compounds have been shown to be transformed by activation inside or outside the skin via abiotic and/or biotic activation, thus increasing the risk of sensitization. For these fragrance chemicals, the parent compound is often non-allergenic or a very weak allergen, but potent sensitizers will be formed which can cause contact allergy. This review shows a series of fragrance chemicals with well-documented abiotic and/or biotic activation that are indicative and illustrative examples of the general problem. Other important aspects include new technologies such as ethosomes which may enhance both sensitization and elicitation, the effect on sensitization by the mixtures of fragrances found in commercial products and the effect of antioxidants. A contact allergy to fragrances may severely affect quality of life and many patients have multiple allergies which further impact their situation. Further experimental and clinical research is needed to increase the safety for the consumer. View Full-Text
Scifeed alert for new publicationsNever miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
- Get alerts for new papers matching your research
- Find out the new papers from selected authors
- Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
- Define your Scifeed now
Bråred Christensson, J.; Hagvall, L.; Karlberg, A.-T. Fragrance Allergens, Overview with a Focus on Recent Developments and Understanding of Abiotic and Biotic Activation. Cosmetics 2016, 3, 19.
Bråred Christensson J, Hagvall L, Karlberg A-T. Fragrance Allergens, Overview with a Focus on Recent Developments and Understanding of Abiotic and Biotic Activation. Cosmetics. 2016; 3(2):19.Chicago/Turabian Style
Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Hagvall, Lina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese. 2016. "Fragrance Allergens, Overview with a Focus on Recent Developments and Understanding of Abiotic and Biotic Activation." Cosmetics 3, no. 2: 19.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.