Next Article in Journal
An Overview of Trials´Accreditation and Recognition of Brazilian Tests Used for the Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Products
Next Article in Special Issue
Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes
Previous Article in Journal
Anti-Melanogenesis Effect of Quercetin
Previous Article in Special Issue
Legislative Aspects of Cosmetic Safety in the European Union: The Case of Contact Allergy
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Cosmetics 2016, 3(2), 19; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3020019

Fragrance Allergens, Overview with a Focus on Recent Developments and Understanding of Abiotic and Biotic Activation

1
Department of Dermatology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, SE-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden
2
Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Dermatochemistry, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Emanuela Corsini and David Basketter
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetic Contact Allergens)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1842 KB, uploaded 3 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Fragrances and fragranced formulated products are ubiquitous in society. Contact allergies to fragrance chemicals are among the most common findings when patch-testing patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, as well as in studies of contact allergy in the general population. The routine test materials for diagnosing fragrance allergy consist mainly of established mixes of fragrance compounds and natural extracts. The situation is more complex as several fragrance compounds have been shown to be transformed by activation inside or outside the skin via abiotic and/or biotic activation, thus increasing the risk of sensitization. For these fragrance chemicals, the parent compound is often non-allergenic or a very weak allergen, but potent sensitizers will be formed which can cause contact allergy. This review shows a series of fragrance chemicals with well-documented abiotic and/or biotic activation that are indicative and illustrative examples of the general problem. Other important aspects include new technologies such as ethosomes which may enhance both sensitization and elicitation, the effect on sensitization by the mixtures of fragrances found in commercial products and the effect of antioxidants. A contact allergy to fragrances may severely affect quality of life and many patients have multiple allergies which further impact their situation. Further experimental and clinical research is needed to increase the safety for the consumer. View Full-Text
Keywords: contact allergy; fragrance; abiotic and biotic activation; autoxidation; fragrance allergens; prohaptens; patch test contact allergy; fragrance; abiotic and biotic activation; autoxidation; fragrance allergens; prohaptens; patch test
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bråred Christensson, J.; Hagvall, L.; Karlberg, A.-T. Fragrance Allergens, Overview with a Focus on Recent Developments and Understanding of Abiotic and Biotic Activation. Cosmetics 2016, 3, 19.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cosmetics EISSN 2079-9284 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top