Special Issue "Tissue and Organ Regeneration"

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A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Georg Breier (Website)

Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Methylcellulose Based Thermally Reversible Hydrogel System for Tissue Engineering Applications
Cells 2013, 2(3), 460-475; doi:10.3390/cells2030460
Received: 16 May 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 25 June 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The thermoresponsive behavior of a Methylcellulose (MC) polymer was systematically investigated to determine its usability in constructing MC based hydrogel systems in cell sheet engineering applications. Solution-gel analyses were made to study the effects of polymer concentration, molecular weight and dissolved salts [...] Read more.
The thermoresponsive behavior of a Methylcellulose (MC) polymer was systematically investigated to determine its usability in constructing MC based hydrogel systems in cell sheet engineering applications. Solution-gel analyses were made to study the effects of polymer concentration, molecular weight and dissolved salts on the gelation of three commercially available MCs using differential scanning calorimeter and rheology. For investigation of the hydrogel stability and fluid uptake capacity, swelling and degradation experiments were performed with the hydrogel system exposed to cell culture solutions at incubation temperature for several days. From these experiments, the optimal composition of MC-water-salt that was able to produce stable hydrogels at or above 32 °C, was found to be 12% to 16% of MC (Mol. wt. of 15,000) in water with 0.5× PBS (~150mOsm). This stable hydrogel system was then evaluated for a week for its efficacy to support the adhesion and growth of specific cells in culture; in our case the stromal/stem cells derived from human adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs). The results indicated that the addition (evenly spread) of ~200 µL of 2 mg/mL bovine collagen type -I (pH adjusted to 7.5) over the MC hydrogel surface at 37 °C is required to improve the ASC adhesion and proliferation. Upon confluence, a continuous monolayer ASC sheet was formed on the surface of the hydrogel system and an intact cell sheet with preserved cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix was spontaneously and gradually detached when the grown cell sheet was removed from the incubator and exposed to room temperature (~30 °C) within minutes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessArticle A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration
Cells 2013, 2(2), 244-265; doi:10.3390/cells2020244
Received: 24 January 2013 / Revised: 13 March 2013 / Accepted: 15 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma), hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Additive Effects of Mechanical Marrow Ablation and PTH Treatment on de Novo Bone Formation in Mature Adult Rats
Cells 2012, 1(4), 1168-1181; doi:10.3390/cells1041168
Received: 31 August 2012 / Revised: 9 October 2012 / Accepted: 14 October 2012 / Published: 5 December 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanical ablation of bone marrow in young rats induces rapid but transient bone growth, which can be enhanced and maintained for three weeks by the administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Additionally, marrow ablation, followed by PTH treatment for three months leads to [...] Read more.
Mechanical ablation of bone marrow in young rats induces rapid but transient bone growth, which can be enhanced and maintained for three weeks by the administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Additionally, marrow ablation, followed by PTH treatment for three months leads to increased cortical thickness. In this study, we sought to determine whether PTH enhances bone formation after marrow ablation in aged rats. Aged rats underwent unilateral femoral marrow ablation and treatment with PTH or vehicle for four weeks. Both femurs from each rat were analyzed by X-ray and pQCT, then analyzed either by microCT, histology or biomechanical testing. Marrow ablation alone induced transient bone formation of low abundance that persisted over four weeks, while marrow ablation followed by PTH induced bone formation of high abundance that also persisted over four weeks. Our data confirms that the osteo-inducive effect of marrow ablation and the additive effect of marrow ablation, followed by PTH, occurs in aged rats. Our observations open new avenues of investigations in the field of tissue regeneration. Local marrow ablation, in conjunction with an anabolic agent, might provide a new platform for rapid site-directed bone growth in areas of high bone loss, such as in the hip and wrist, which are subject to fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessArticle Successful Reconstruction of Tooth Germ with Cell Lines Requires Coordinated Gene Expressions from the Initiation Stage
Cells 2012, 1(4), 905-925; doi:10.3390/cells1040905
Received: 17 August 2012 / Revised: 28 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 October 2012 / Published: 30 October 2012
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Abstract
Tooth morphogenesis is carried out by a series of reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme in embryonic germs. Previously clonal dental epithelial cell (epithelium of molar tooth germ (emtg)) lines were established from an embryonic germ. They were odontogenic when combined [...] Read more.
Tooth morphogenesis is carried out by a series of reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme in embryonic germs. Previously clonal dental epithelial cell (epithelium of molar tooth germ (emtg)) lines were established from an embryonic germ. They were odontogenic when combined with a dental mesenchymal tissue, although the odontogenesis was quantitatively imperfect. To improve the microenvironment in the germs, freshly isolated dental epithelial cells were mixed with cells of lines, and germs were reconstructed in various combinations. The results demonstrated that successful tooth construction depends on the mixing ratio, the age of dental epithelial cells and the combination with cell lines. Analyses of gene expression in these germs suggest that some signal(s) from dental epithelial cells makes emtg cells competent to communicate with mesenchymal cells and the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments are able to progress odontogenesis from the initiation stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Pericytes, Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Wound Healing Process
Cells 2013, 2(3), 621-634; doi:10.3390/cells2030621
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 16 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 16 September 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pericytes are cells that reside on the wall of the blood vessels and their primary function is to maintain the vessel integrity. Recently, it has been realized that pericytes have a much greater role than just the maintenance of vessel integrity essential [...] Read more.
Pericytes are cells that reside on the wall of the blood vessels and their primary function is to maintain the vessel integrity. Recently, it has been realized that pericytes have a much greater role than just the maintenance of vessel integrity essential for the development and formation of a vascular network. Pericytes also have stem cell-like properties and are seemingly able to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and granulocytes, leading them to be identified as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). More recently it has been suggested that pericytes play a key role in wound healing, whereas the beneficial effects of MSCs in accelerating the wound healing response has been recognized for some time. In this review, we collate the most recent data on pericytes, particularly their role in vessel formation and how they can affect the wound healing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Cardiomyocyte Regeneration
Cells 2013, 2(1), 67-82; doi:10.3390/cells2010067
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 25 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The heart was initially believed to be a terminally differentiated organ; once the cardiomyocytes died, no recovery could be made to replace the dead cells. However, around a decade ago, the concept of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in adult hearts was proposed. [...] Read more.
The heart was initially believed to be a terminally differentiated organ; once the cardiomyocytes died, no recovery could be made to replace the dead cells. However, around a decade ago, the concept of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in adult hearts was proposed. CSCs differentiate into cardiomyocytes, keeping the heart functioning. Studies have proved the existence of stem cells in the heart. These somatic stem cells have been studied for use in cardiac regeneration. Moreover, recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were invented, and methodologies have now been developed to induce stable cardiomyocyte differentiation and purification of mature cardiomyocytes. A reprogramming method has also been applied to direct reprogramming using cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes. Here, we address cardiomyocyte differentiation of CSCs and iPSCs. Furthermore, we describe the potential of CSCs in regenerative biology and regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Redirection of Human Cancer Cells upon the Interaction with the Regenerating Mouse Mammary Gland Microenvironment
Cells 2013, 2(1), 43-56; doi:10.3390/cells2010043
Received: 4 December 2012 / Revised: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 8 January 2013 / Published: 10 January 2013
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Abstract
Tumorigenesis is often described as a result of accumulated mutations that lead to growth advantage and clonal expansion of mutated cells. There is evidence in the literature that cancer cells are influenced by the microenvironment. Our previous studies demonstrated that the mouse [...] Read more.
Tumorigenesis is often described as a result of accumulated mutations that lead to growth advantage and clonal expansion of mutated cells. There is evidence in the literature that cancer cells are influenced by the microenvironment. Our previous studies demonstrated that the mouse mammary gland is capable of redirecting mouse cells of non-mammary origins as well as Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV)-neu transformed cells toward normal mammary epithelial cell fate during gland regeneration. Interestingly, the malignant phenotype of MMTV-neu transformed cells was suppressed during serial transplantation experiments. Here, we discuss our studies that demonstrated the potential of the regenerating mouse mammary gland to redirect cancer cells of different species into a functional tumor-free mammary epithelial cell progeny. Immunochemistry for human specific CD133, mitochondria, cytokeratins as well as milk proteins and FISH for human specific probe identified human epithelial cell progeny in ducts, lobules, and secretory acini. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for human centromeric DNA and FACS analysis of propidium iodine staining excluded the possibility of mouse-human cell fusion. To our knowledge this is the first evidence that human cancer cells of embryonic or somatic origins respond to developmental signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Cytoskeletal Regulation of Dermal Regeneration
Cells 2012, 1(4), 1313-1327; doi:10.3390/cells1041313
Received: 31 August 2012 / Revised: 15 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (684 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wound healing results in the repair of injured tissues however fibrosis and scar formation are, more often than not the unfortunate consequence of this process. The ability of lower order vertebrates and invertebrates to regenerate limbs and tissues has been all but [...] Read more.
Wound healing results in the repair of injured tissues however fibrosis and scar formation are, more often than not the unfortunate consequence of this process. The ability of lower order vertebrates and invertebrates to regenerate limbs and tissues has been all but lost in mammals; however, there are some instances where glimpses of mammalian regenerative capacity do exist. Here we describe the unlocked potential that exists in mammals that may help us understand the process of regeneration post-injury and highlight the potential role of the actin cytoskeleton in this process. The precise function and regulation of the cytoskeleton is critical to the success of the healing process and its manipulation may therefore facilitate regenerative healing. The gelsolin family of actin remodelling proteins in particular has been shown to have important functions in wound healing and family member Flightless I (Flii) is involved in both regeneration and repair. Understanding the interactions between different cytoskeletal proteins and their dynamic control of processes including cellular adhesion, contraction and motility may assist the development of therapeutics that will stimulate regeneration rather than repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Time to Reconsider Stem Cell Induction Strategies
Cells 2012, 1(4), 1293-1312; doi:10.3390/cells1041293
Received: 7 September 2012 / Revised: 12 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
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Abstract
Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called ‘induced [...] Read more.
Recent developments in stem cell research suggest that it may be time to reconsider the current focus of stem cell induction strategies. During the previous five years, approximately, the induction of pluripotency in somatic cells, i.e., the generation of so-called ‘induced pluripotent stem cells’ (iPSCs), has become the focus of ongoing research in many stem cell laboratories, because this technology promises to overcome limitations (both technical and ethical) seen in the production and use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A rapidly increasing number of publications suggest, however, that it is now possible to choose instead other, alternative ways of generating stem and progenitor cells bypassing pluripotency. These new strategies may offer important advantages with respect to ethics, as well as to safety considerations. The present communication discusses why these strategies may provide possibilities for an escape from the dilemma presented by pluripotent stem cells (self-organization potential, cloning by tetraploid complementation, patenting problems and tumor formation risk). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Signals and Cells Involved in Regulating Liver Regeneration
Cells 2012, 1(4), 1261-1292; doi:10.3390/cells1041261
Received: 3 October 2012 / Revised: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liver regeneration is a complex phenomenon aimed at maintaining a constant liver mass in the event of injury resulting in loss of hepatic parenchyma. Partial hepatectomy is followed by a series of events involving multiple signaling pathways controlled by mitogenic growth factors [...] Read more.
Liver regeneration is a complex phenomenon aimed at maintaining a constant liver mass in the event of injury resulting in loss of hepatic parenchyma. Partial hepatectomy is followed by a series of events involving multiple signaling pathways controlled by mitogenic growth factors (HGF, EGF) and their receptors (MET and EGFR). In addition multiple cytokines and other signaling molecules contribute to the orchestration of a signal which drives hepatocytes into DNA synthesis. The other cell types of the liver receive and transmit to hepatocytes complex signals so that, in the end of the regenerative process, complete hepatic tissue is assembled and regeneration is terminated at the proper time and at the right liver size. If hepatocytes fail to participate in this process, the biliary compartment is mobilized to generate populations of progenitor cells which transdifferentiate into hepatocytes and restore liver size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Macro and Microfluidic Flows for Skeletal Regenerative Medicine
Cells 2012, 1(4), 1225-1245; doi:10.3390/cells1041225
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 7 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
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Abstract
Fluid flow has a great potential as a cell stimulatory tool for skeletal regenerative medicine, because fluid flow-induced bone cell mechanotransduction in vivo plays a critical role in maintaining healthy bone homeostasis. Applications of fluid flow for skeletal regenerative medicine [...] Read more.
Fluid flow has a great potential as a cell stimulatory tool for skeletal regenerative medicine, because fluid flow-induced bone cell mechanotransduction in vivo plays a critical role in maintaining healthy bone homeostasis. Applications of fluid flow for skeletal regenerative medicine are reviewed at macro and microscale. Macroflow in two dimensions (2D), in which flow velocity varies along the normal direction to the flow, has explored molecular mechanisms of bone forming cell mechanotransduction responsible for flow-regulated differentiation, mineralized matrix deposition, and stem cell osteogenesis. Though 2D flow set-ups are useful for mechanistic studies due to easiness in in situ and post-flow assays, engineering skeletal tissue constructs should involve three dimensional (3D) flows, e.g., flow through porous scaffolds. Skeletal tissue engineering using 3D flows has produced promising outcomes, but 3D flow conditions (e.g., shear stress vs. chemotransport) and scaffold characteristics should further be tailored. Ideally, data gained from 2D flows may be utilized to engineer improved 3D bone tissue constructs. Recent microfluidics approaches suggest a strong potential to mimic in vivo microscale interstitial flows in bone. Though there have been few microfluidics studies on bone cells, it was demonstrated that microfluidic platform can be used to conduct high throughput screening of bone cell mechanotransduction behavior under biomimicking flow conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Neovascularization in Tissue Engineering
Cells 2012, 1(4), 1246-1260; doi:10.3390/cells1041246
Received: 31 August 2012 / Revised: 8 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 11 December 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A prerequisite for successful tissue engineering is adequate vascularization that would allow tissue engineering constructs to survive and grow. Angiogenic growth factors, alone and in combination, have been used to achieve this, and gene therapy has been used as a tool to [...] Read more.
A prerequisite for successful tissue engineering is adequate vascularization that would allow tissue engineering constructs to survive and grow. Angiogenic growth factors, alone and in combination, have been used to achieve this, and gene therapy has been used as a tool to enable sustained release of these angiogenic proteins. Cell-based therapy using endothelial cells and their precursors presents an alternative approach to tackling this challenge. These studies have occurred on a background of advancements in scaffold design and assays for assessing neovascularization. Finally, several studies have already attempted to translate research in neovascularization to clinical use in the blossoming field of therapeutic angiogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Surface Markers for Chondrogenic Determination: A Highlight of Synovium-Derived Stem Cells
Cells 2012, 1(4), 1107-1120; doi:10.3390/cells1041107
Received: 24 September 2012 / Revised: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising field in regenerative medicine that can provide substantial relief to people suffering from degenerative cartilage disease. Current research shows the greatest chondrogenic potential for healthy articular cartilage growth with minimal hypertrophic differentiation to be from mesenchymal [...] Read more.
Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising field in regenerative medicine that can provide substantial relief to people suffering from degenerative cartilage disease. Current research shows the greatest chondrogenic potential for healthy articular cartilage growth with minimal hypertrophic differentiation to be from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of synovial origin. These stem cells have the capacity for differentiation into multiple cell lineages related to mesenchymal tissue; however, evidence exists for cell surface markers that specify a greater potential for chondrogenesis than other differentiation fates. This review will examine relevant literature to summarize the chondrogenic differentiation capacities of tested synovium-derived stem cell (SDSC) surface markers, along with a discussion about various other markers that may hold potential, yet require further investigation. With this information, a potential clinical benefit exists to develop a screening system for SDSCs that will produce the healthiest articular cartilage possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Mesenchymal Stem or Stromal Cells from Amnion and Umbilical Cord Tissue and Their Potential for Clinical Applications
Cells 2012, 1(4), 1061-1088; doi:10.3390/cells1041061
Received: 4 September 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) have proven to offer great promise for cell-based therapies and tissue engineering applications, as these cells are capable of extensive self-renewal and display a multilineage differentiation potential. Furthermore, MSC were shown to exhibit immunomodulatory properties and [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) have proven to offer great promise for cell-based therapies and tissue engineering applications, as these cells are capable of extensive self-renewal and display a multilineage differentiation potential. Furthermore, MSC were shown to exhibit immunomodulatory properties and display supportive functions through parakrine effects. Besides bone marrow (BM), still today the most common source of MSC, these cells were found to be present in a variety of postnatal and extraembryonic tissues and organs as well as in a large variety of fetal tissues. Over the last decade, the human umbilical cord and human amnion have been found to be a rich and valuable source of MSC that is bio-equivalent to BM-MSC. Since these tissues are discarded after birth, the cells are easily accessible without ethical concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Regenerative Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Contribution of Muse Cells, a Novel Pluripotent Stem Cell Type that Resides in Mesenchymal Cells
Cells 2012, 1(4), 1045-1060; doi:10.3390/cells1041045
Received: 8 October 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible and safe for regenerative medicine. MSCs exert trophic, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, and tissue regeneration effects in a variety of tissues and organs, but their entity remains an enigma. Because MSCs are generally harvested from mesenchymal tissues, [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible and safe for regenerative medicine. MSCs exert trophic, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, and tissue regeneration effects in a variety of tissues and organs, but their entity remains an enigma. Because MSCs are generally harvested from mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord as adherent cells, MSCs comprise crude cell populations and are heterogeneous. The specific cells responsible for each effect have not been clarified. The most interesting property of MSCs is that, despite being adult stem cells that belong to the mesenchymal tissue lineage, they are able to differentiate into a broad spectrum of cells beyond the boundary of mesodermal lineage cells into ectodermal or endodermal lineages, and repair tissues. The broad spectrum of differentiation ability and tissue-repairing effects of MSCs might be mediated in part by the presence of a novel pluripotent stem cell type recently found in adult human mesenchymal tissues, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells. Here we review recently updated studies of the regenerative effects of MSCs and discuss their potential in regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Cell and Gene Therapy Approaches for Cardiac Vascularization
Cells 2012, 1(4), 961-975; doi:10.3390/cells1040961
Received: 13 September 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 25 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite encouraging preclinical results for therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemia, a suitable approach providing sustained, safe and efficacious vascular growth in the heart is still lacking. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is the master regulator of angiogenesis, but it also can easily induce [...] Read more.
Despite encouraging preclinical results for therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemia, a suitable approach providing sustained, safe and efficacious vascular growth in the heart is still lacking. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is the master regulator of angiogenesis, but it also can easily induce aberrant and dysfunctional vascular growth if its expression is not tightly controlled. Control of the released level in the microenvironment around each cell in vivo and its distribution in tissue are critical to induce stable and functional vessels for therapeutic angiogenesis. The present review discusses the limitations and perspectives of VEGF gene therapy and of different cell-based approaches for the implementation of therapeutic angiogenesis in the treatment of cardiac ischemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration
Cells 2012, 1(4), 994-1009; doi:10.3390/cells1040994
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 24 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. [...] Read more.
The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Decellularized Tendon Extracellular Matrix—A Valuable Approach for Tendon Reconstruction?
Cells 2012, 1(4), 1010-1028; doi:10.3390/cells1041010
Received: 17 August 2012 / Revised: 18 October 2012 / Accepted: 25 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tendon healing is generally a time-consuming process and often leads to a functionally altered reparative tissue. Using degradable scaffolds for tendon reconstruction still remains a compromise in view of the required high mechanical strength of tendons. Regenerative approaches based on natural decellularized [...] Read more.
Tendon healing is generally a time-consuming process and often leads to a functionally altered reparative tissue. Using degradable scaffolds for tendon reconstruction still remains a compromise in view of the required high mechanical strength of tendons. Regenerative approaches based on natural decellularized allo- or xenogenic tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) have recently started to attract interest. This ECM combines the advantages of its intrinsic mechanical competence with that of providing tenogenic stimuli for immigrating cells mediated, for example, by the growth factors and other mediators entrapped within the natural ECM. A major restriction for their therapeutic application is the mainly cell-associated immunogenicity of xenogenic or allogenic tissues and, in the case of allogenic tissues, also the risk of disease transmission. A survey of approaches for tendon reconstruction using cell-free tendon ECM is presented here, whereby the problems associated with the decellularization procedures, the success of various recellularization strategies, and the applicable cell types will be thoroughly discussed. Encouraging in vivo results using cell-free ECM, as, for instance, in rabbit models, have already been reported. However, in comparison to native tendon, cells remain mostly inhomogeneously distributed in the reseeded ECM and do not align. Hence, future work should focus on the optimization of tendon ECM decellularization and recolonization strategies to restore tendon functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview The Potential for Resident Lung Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Promote Functional Tissue Regeneration: Understanding Microenvironmental Cues
Cells 2012, 1(4), 874-885; doi:10.3390/cells1040874
Received: 28 August 2012 / Revised: 19 September 2012 / Accepted: 25 September 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are currently being considered and tested in clinical trials as [...] Read more.
Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important regulators of tissue repair or regeneration, fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are currently being considered and tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in patients with such inflammatory lung diseases including, but not limited to, chronic lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pulmonary fibrosis (PF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema and asthma. However, our current understanding of tissue resident lung MSCs remains limited. This review addresses how environmental cues impact on the phenotype and function of this endogenous stem cell pool. In addition, it examines how these local factors influence the efficacy of cell-based treatments for lung diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Recent Advances towards the Clinical Application of Stem Cells for Retinal Regeneration
Cells 2012, 1(4), 851-873; doi:10.3390/cells1040851
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 29 September 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 18 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retinal degenerative diseases constitute a major cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Stem cell-based therapies offer hope for these patients at risk of or suffering from blindness due to the deterioration of the neural retina. Various sources of stem cells are [...] Read more.
Retinal degenerative diseases constitute a major cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Stem cell-based therapies offer hope for these patients at risk of or suffering from blindness due to the deterioration of the neural retina. Various sources of stem cells are currently being investigated, ranging from human embryonic stem cells to adult-derived induced pluripotent stem cells as well as human Müller stem cells, with the first clinical trials to investigate the safety and tolerability of human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium cells having recently commenced. This review aims to summarize the latest advances in the development of stem cell strategies for the replacement of retinal neurons and their supportive cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affected by retinal degenerative conditions. Particular emphasis will be given to the advances in stem cell transplantation and the challenges associated with their translation into clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview Trophic Actions of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Muscle Repair/Regeneration
Cells 2012, 1(4), 832-850; doi:10.3390/cells1040832
Received: 27 August 2012 / Revised: 28 September 2012 / Accepted: 9 October 2012 / Published: 17 October 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (439 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) represent the leading candidate cell in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These cells can be easily isolated, expanded in vitro and are capable of providing significant functional benefits after implantation in the damaged muscle tissues. Despite [...] Read more.
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) represent the leading candidate cell in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These cells can be easily isolated, expanded in vitro and are capable of providing significant functional benefits after implantation in the damaged muscle tissues. Despite their plasticity, the participation of BM-MSCs to new muscle fiber formation is controversial; in fact, emerging evidence indicates that their therapeutic effects occur without signs of long-term tissue engraftment and involve the paracrine secretion of cytokines and growth factors with multiple effects on the injured tissue, including modulation of inflammation and immune reaction, positive extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, angiogenesis and protection from apoptosis. Recently, a new role for BM-MSCs in the stimulation of muscle progenitor cells proliferation has been demonstrated, suggesting the potential ability of these cells to influence the fate of local stem cells and augment the endogenous mechanisms of repair/regeneration in the damaged tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview High Mobility Group Box Protein-1 in Wound Repair
Cells 2012, 1(4), 699-710; doi:10.3390/cells1040699
Received: 10 August 2012 / Revised: 10 September 2012 / Accepted: 19 September 2012 / Published: 28 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a member of highly conserved non-histone DNA binding protein family, has been studied as transcription factor and growth factor. Secreted extracellularly by activated monocytes and macrophages or passively released by necrotic or damaged cells, extracellular HMGB1 [...] Read more.
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a member of highly conserved non-histone DNA binding protein family, has been studied as transcription factor and growth factor. Secreted extracellularly by activated monocytes and macrophages or passively released by necrotic or damaged cells, extracellular HMGB1 is a potent mediator of inflammation. Extracellular HMGB1 has apparently contrasting biological actions: it sustains inflammation (with the possible establishment of autoimmunity or of self-maintaining tissue damage), but it also activates and recruits stem cells, boosting tissue repair. Here, we focus on the role of HMGB1 in physiological and pathological responses, the mechanisms by which it contributes to tissue repair and therapeutic strategies base on targeting HMGB1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)
Open AccessReview The Myc Road to Hearing Restoration
Cells 2012, 1(4), 667-698; doi:10.3390/cells1040667
Received: 3 July 2012 / Revised: 12 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 25 September 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current treatments for hearing loss, the most common neurosensory disorder, do not restore perfect hearing. Regeneration of lost organ of Corti hair cells through forced cell cycle re-entry of supporting cells or through manipulation of stem cells, both avenues towards a permanent [...] Read more.
Current treatments for hearing loss, the most common neurosensory disorder, do not restore perfect hearing. Regeneration of lost organ of Corti hair cells through forced cell cycle re-entry of supporting cells or through manipulation of stem cells, both avenues towards a permanent cure, require a more complete understanding of normal inner ear development, specifically the balance of proliferation and differentiation required to form and to maintain hair cells. Direct successful alterations to the cell cycle result in cell death whereas regulation of upstream genes is insufficient to permanently alter cell cycle dynamics. The Myc gene family is uniquely situated to synergize upstream pathways into downstream cell cycle control. There are three Mycs that are embedded within the Myc/Max/Mad network to regulate proliferation. The function of the two ear expressed Mycs, N-Myc and L-Myc were unknown less than two years ago and their therapeutic potentials remain speculative. In this review, we discuss the roles the Mycs play in the body and what led us to choose them to be our candidate gene for inner ear therapies. We will summarize the recently published work describing the early and late effects of N-Myc and L-Myc on hair cell formation and maintenance. Lastly, we detail the translational significance of our findings and what future work must be performed to make the ultimate hearing aid: the regeneration of the organ of Corti. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)

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Open AccessConcept Paper The “Stars and Stripes” Metaphor for Animal Regeneration-Elucidating Two Fundamental Strategies along a Continuum
Cells 2013, 2(1), 1-18; doi:10.3390/cells2010001
Received: 27 September 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A number of challenges have hindered the development of a unified theory for metazoan regeneration. To describe the full range of complex regeneration phenomena in Animalia, we suggest that metazoans that regenerate missing body parts exhibit biological attributes that are tailored along [...] Read more.
A number of challenges have hindered the development of a unified theory for metazoan regeneration. To describe the full range of complex regeneration phenomena in Animalia, we suggest that metazoans that regenerate missing body parts exhibit biological attributes that are tailored along a morpho-spatial regeneration continuum, illustrated in its polar scenarios by the USA “stars and stripes” flag. Type 1 organisms (“T1, ‘stars’”) are typical colonial organisms (but contain unitary taxa) that are able to regenerate “whole new stars”, namely, whole bodies and colonial modules, through systemic induction and sometimes multiple regeneration foci (hollow regeneration spheres, resembling the blastula) that compete for dominance. They regenerate soma and germ constituents with pluripotent adult stem cells and exhibit somatic-embryogenesis mode of ontogeny. Type 2 organisms (“T2, ‘stripes’”) are capable of limited regeneration of somatic constituents via fate-restricted stem cells, and regenerate through centralized inductions that lead to a single regeneration front. T2 organisms are unitary and use preformistic mode of ontogeny. T1 and T2 organisms also differ in interpretation of what constitutes positional information. T2 organisms also execute alternative, less effective, regeneration designs (i.e., scar formation). We assigned 15 characteristics that distinguish between T1/T2 strategies: those involving specific regeneration features and those operating on biological features at the whole-organism level. Two model organisms are discussed, representing the two strategies of T1/T2 along the regeneration continuum, the Botrylloides whole body regeneration (T1) and the mouse digit-tip regeneration (T2) phenomena. The above working hypothesis also postulates that regeneration is a primeval attribute of metazoans. As specified, the “stars and stripes” paradigm allows various combinations of the biological features assigned to T1 and T2 regeneration strategies. It does not consider any concentration gradient or thresholds and does not refer to the “epimorphosis” and “morphallaxis” terms, regeneration types across phyla or across body plans. The “stars and stripes” paradigm also ignores, at this stage of analysis, cases of regeneration loss that may obscure biological trajectories. The main advantage of the “stars and stripes” paradigm is that it allows us to compare T1/T2 regeneration, as well as other modes of regeneration, through critical determining characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue and Organ Regeneration)

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