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Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2012; in revised form: 25 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Abstract: The heart was initially believed to be a terminally differentiated organ; once the cardiomyocytes died, no recovery could be made to replace the dead cells. However, around a decade ago, the concept of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in adult hearts was proposed. CSCs differentiate into cardiomyocytes, keeping the heart functioning. Studies have proved the existence of stem cells in the heart. These somatic stem cells have been studied for use in cardiac regeneration. Moreover, recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were invented, and methodologies have now been developed to induce stable cardiomyocyte differentiation and purification of mature cardiomyocytes. A reprogramming method has also been applied to direct reprogramming using cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes. Here, we address cardiomyocyte differentiation of CSCs and iPSCs. Furthermore, we describe the potential of CSCs in regenerative biology and regenerative medicine.
Keywords: heart; cardiomyocyte; stem cell; TGF-b; differentiation; regenerative medicine; c-Kit; myocardial; infarct; cardiac stem cell
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kawaguchi, N.; Nakanishi, T. Cardiomyocyte Regeneration. Cells 2013, 2, 67-82.
Kawaguchi N, Nakanishi T. Cardiomyocyte Regeneration. Cells. 2013; 2(1):67-82.
Kawaguchi, Nanako; Nakanishi, Toshio. 2013. "Cardiomyocyte Regeneration." Cells 2, no. 1: 67-82.