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Mesenchymal Stem or Stromal Cells from Amnion and Umbilical Cord Tissue and Their Potential for Clinical Applications
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, AUVA Research Center, Vienna/Linz 1200, Austria
Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Austria
Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna 1190, Austria
Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service of Upper Austria, Linz 4020, Austria
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2012; in revised form: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
Abstract: Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) have proven to offer great promise for cell-based therapies and tissue engineering applications, as these cells are capable of extensive self-renewal and display a multilineage differentiation potential. Furthermore, MSC were shown to exhibit immunomodulatory properties and display supportive functions through parakrine effects. Besides bone marrow (BM), still today the most common source of MSC, these cells were found to be present in a variety of postnatal and extraembryonic tissues and organs as well as in a large variety of fetal tissues. Over the last decade, the human umbilical cord and human amnion have been found to be a rich and valuable source of MSC that is bio-equivalent to BM-MSC. Since these tissues are discarded after birth, the cells are easily accessible without ethical concerns.
Keywords: MSC; mesenchymal stem cell; mesenchymal stromal cell; amnion; umbilical cord; clinical applications
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Lindenmair, A.; Hatlapatka, T.; Kollwig, G.; Hennerbichler, S.; Gabriel, C.; Wolbank, S.; Redl, H.; Kasper, C. Mesenchymal Stem or Stromal Cells from Amnion and Umbilical Cord Tissue and Their Potential for Clinical Applications. Cells 2012, 1, 1061-1088.
Lindenmair A, Hatlapatka T, Kollwig G, Hennerbichler S, Gabriel C, Wolbank S, Redl H, Kasper C. Mesenchymal Stem or Stromal Cells from Amnion and Umbilical Cord Tissue and Their Potential for Clinical Applications. Cells. 2012; 1(4):1061-1088.
Lindenmair, Andrea; Hatlapatka, Tim; Kollwig, Gregor; Hennerbichler, Simone; Gabriel, Christian; Wolbank, Susanne; Redl, Heinz; Kasper, Cornelia. 2012. "Mesenchymal Stem or Stromal Cells from Amnion and Umbilical Cord Tissue and Their Potential for Clinical Applications." Cells 1, no. 4: 1061-1088.