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Redirection of Human Cancer Cells upon the Interaction with the Regenerating Mouse Mammary Gland Microenvironment
Cell and Cancer Biology Branch (CCBB), Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Building 37, Room 1112B, 37 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2012; in revised form: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 8 January 2013 / Published: 10 January 2013
Abstract: Tumorigenesis is often described as a result of accumulated mutations that lead to growth advantage and clonal expansion of mutated cells. There is evidence in the literature that cancer cells are influenced by the microenvironment. Our previous studies demonstrated that the mouse mammary gland is capable of redirecting mouse cells of non-mammary origins as well as Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV)-neu transformed cells toward normal mammary epithelial cell fate during gland regeneration. Interestingly, the malignant phenotype of MMTV-neu transformed cells was suppressed during serial transplantation experiments. Here, we discuss our studies that demonstrated the potential of the regenerating mouse mammary gland to redirect cancer cells of different species into a functional tumor-free mammary epithelial cell progeny. Immunochemistry for human specific CD133, mitochondria, cytokeratins as well as milk proteins and FISH for human specific probe identified human epithelial cell progeny in ducts, lobules, and secretory acini. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for human centromeric DNA and FACS analysis of propidium iodine staining excluded the possibility of mouse-human cell fusion. To our knowledge this is the first evidence that human cancer cells of embryonic or somatic origins respond to developmental signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in vivo.
Keywords: human cancer cells; redirecting cell fate; progenitor cell; mammary gland; microenvironment
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Rosenfield, S.M.; Smith, G.H. Redirection of Human Cancer Cells upon the Interaction with the Regenerating Mouse Mammary Gland Microenvironment. Cells 2013, 2, 43-56.
Rosenfield SM, Smith GH. Redirection of Human Cancer Cells upon the Interaction with the Regenerating Mouse Mammary Gland Microenvironment. Cells. 2013; 2(1):43-56.
Rosenfield, Sonia M.; Smith, Gilbert H. 2013. "Redirection of Human Cancer Cells upon the Interaction with the Regenerating Mouse Mammary Gland Microenvironment." Cells 2, no. 1: 43-56.