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Trophic Actions of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Muscle Repair/Regeneration
Department of Anatomy, Histology and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, Florence 50134, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2012; in revised form: 28 September 2012 / Accepted: 9 October 2012 / Published: 17 October 2012
Abstract: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) represent the leading candidate cell in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These cells can be easily isolated, expanded in vitro and are capable of providing significant functional benefits after implantation in the damaged muscle tissues. Despite their plasticity, the participation of BM-MSCs to new muscle fiber formation is controversial; in fact, emerging evidence indicates that their therapeutic effects occur without signs of long-term tissue engraftment and involve the paracrine secretion of cytokines and growth factors with multiple effects on the injured tissue, including modulation of inflammation and immune reaction, positive extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, angiogenesis and protection from apoptosis. Recently, a new role for BM-MSCs in the stimulation of muscle progenitor cells proliferation has been demonstrated, suggesting the potential ability of these cells to influence the fate of local stem cells and augment the endogenous mechanisms of repair/regeneration in the damaged tissues.
Keywords: cell-based therapy; cell proliferation; mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs); muscle repair/regeneration; myogenic progenitors; paracrine factors
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Sassoli, C.; Zecchi-Orlandini, S.; Formigli, L. Trophic Actions of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Muscle Repair/Regeneration. Cells 2012, 1, 832-850.
Sassoli C, Zecchi-Orlandini S, Formigli L. Trophic Actions of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Muscle Repair/Regeneration. Cells. 2012; 1(4):832-850.
Sassoli, Chiara; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra; Formigli, Lucia. 2012. "Trophic Actions of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Muscle Repair/Regeneration." Cells 1, no. 4: 832-850.