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Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration
Center for Tissue Regeneration and Repair, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, 4635 Second Avenue, Research Building I Room 2000, Sacramento 95817, CA, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2012; in revised form: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 24 October 2012 / Published: 5 November 2012
Abstract: The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.
Keywords: stem cells; articular cartilage; growth factors
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Inui, A.; Iwakura, T.; Reddi, A.H. Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration. Cells 2012, 1, 994-1009.
Inui A, Iwakura T, Reddi AH. Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration. Cells. 2012; 1(4):994-1009.
Inui, Atsuyuki; Iwakura, Takashi; Reddi, A. H. 2012. "Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration." Cells 1, no. 4: 994-1009.