Special Issue "Brain and Language"

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A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Edna Andrews

Linguistics Program, Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University, 321B Languages Building, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1 919 660 3142
Fax: +1 919 660 3141
Interests: neurolinguistics; multilingualism; fMRI longitudinal studies of second and third language acquisition; semiotics; semantics; language and culture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The question of how language or languages are represented in the human brain is one of the more challenging problems of contemporary neuroscience and neurolinguistics. The last ten years have been an especially fruitful period for more profound research results from the disciplines of theoretical linguistics and neuroscience as the field of brain and language has emerged as an important subdiscipline of the cognitive neurosciences. However, many controversies and unanswered questions remain for the field. The current special issue is conceived to facilitate a deeper discussion of the issues that are central to advancing the study of language and brain, provide a forum for important theoretical and experimental contributions to the field, revisit central controversies, and offer new data and analysis obtained from studies incorporating a range of theoretical and empirical issues, imaging techniques, questions of multilingualism, language acquisition studies and perspectives on language across the life cycle.

Prof. Dr. Edna Andrews
Guest Editor

Submission

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Keywords

  • neurolinguistics
  • brain and language
  • bilingualism and multilingualism
  • language acquisition (first, second, third, etc.)
  • developmental perspectives of language, culture and cognition
  • imaging technologies in study of brain and languages

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Reorganization and Stability for Motor and Language Areas Using Cortical Stimulation: Case Example and Review of the Literature
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(4), 1597-1614; doi:10.3390/brainsci3041597
Received: 16 October 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
Abstract
The cerebral organization of language in epilepsy patients has been studied with invasive procedures such as Wada testing and electrical cortical stimulation mapping and more recently with noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI. In the setting of a chronic seizure disorder, clinical
[...] Read more.
The cerebral organization of language in epilepsy patients has been studied with invasive procedures such as Wada testing and electrical cortical stimulation mapping and more recently with noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI. In the setting of a chronic seizure disorder, clinical variables have been shown to contribute to cerebral language reorganization underscoring the need for language lateralization and localization procedures. We present a 14-year-old pediatric patient with a refractory epilepsy disorder who underwent two neurosurgical resections of a left frontal epileptic focus separated by a year. He was mapped extraoperatively through a subdural grid using cortical stimulation to preserve motor and language functions. The clinical history and extensive workup prior to surgery is discussed as well as the opportunity to compare the cortical maps for language, motor, and sensory function before each resection. Reorganization in cortical tongue sensory areas was seen concomitant with a new zone of ictal and interictal activity in the previous tongue sensory area. Detailed neuropsychological data is presented before and after any surgical intervention to hypothesize about the extent of reorganization between epochs. We conclude that intrahemispheric cortical plasticity does occur following frontal lobe resective surgery in a teenager with medically refractory seizures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle Altered Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Language-Related Brain Regions in Association with Verbal Memory Performance in Euthymic Bipolar Patients
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(3), 1357-1373; doi:10.3390/brainsci3031357
Received: 5 August 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 2 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 3
Abstract
Potential abnormalities in the structure and function of the temporal lobes have been studied much less in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. This may not be justified because language-related symptoms, such as pressured speech and flight of ideas, and cognitive deficits in the
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Potential abnormalities in the structure and function of the temporal lobes have been studied much less in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. This may not be justified because language-related symptoms, such as pressured speech and flight of ideas, and cognitive deficits in the domain of verbal memory are amongst the hallmark of bipolar disorder (BD), and contribution of temporal lobe dysfunction is therefore likely. In the current study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT]) and whole brain using seed correlation analysis in n = 21 BD euthymic patients and n = 20 matched healthy controls and associated it with verbal memory performance. In comparison to controls BD patients showed decreased functional connectivity between Heschl’s gyrus and planum temporale and the left superior and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, fronto-temporal functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal/precentral gyrus and the insula was increased in patients. Verbal episodic memory deficits in the investigated sample of BD patients and language-related symptoms might therefore be associated with a diminished FC within the auditory/temporal gyrus and a compensatory fronto-temporal pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(3), 1261-1281; doi:10.3390/brainsci3031261
Received: 1 June 2013 / Revised: 17 July 2013 / Accepted: 26 July 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM) capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2
[...] Read more.
This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM) capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity) and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control) were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee’s study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle Representation of Linguistic Information Determines Its Susceptibility to Memory Interference
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(3), 1244-1260; doi:10.3390/brainsci3031244
Received: 17 May 2013 / Revised: 18 July 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 8 August 2013
Cited by 2
Abstract
We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full
[...] Read more.
We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference. We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of auditorily presented letters. Chinese speakers showed significantly greater memory interference from the visuo-spatial than phonological distracting task, a pattern that was not present in the English group. Such a pattern suggests that retrieval of simplified Chinese characters differentially requires visuo-spatial processing resources in Chinese speakers; these are compromised under dual-task conditions when such resources are otherwise engaged in a distracting task. In a secondary analysis, we showed the complementary pattern in a group of English speakers, whose memory for English words was disrupted to a greater degree from the phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task. Together, these results suggest the mode of representation of linguistic information can be indexed behaviorally by susceptibility to retrieval interference that occurs when representations overlap with resources required in a competing task. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle The Neural Correlates of Abstract and Concrete Words: Evidence from Brain-Damaged Patients
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(3), 1229-1243; doi:10.3390/brainsci3031229
Received: 31 May 2013 / Revised: 19 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 7 August 2013
Cited by 1
Abstract
Neuropsychological and activation studies on the neural correlates of abstract and concrete words have produced contrasting results. The present study explores the anatomical substrates of abstract/concrete words in 22 brain-damaged patients with a single vascular lesion either in the right or left hemisphere.
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Neuropsychological and activation studies on the neural correlates of abstract and concrete words have produced contrasting results. The present study explores the anatomical substrates of abstract/concrete words in 22 brain-damaged patients with a single vascular lesion either in the right or left hemisphere. One hundred and twenty (60 concrete and 60 abstract) noun triplets were used for a semantic similarity judgment task. We found a significant interaction in word type × group since left temporal brain-damaged patients performed significantly better with concrete than abstract words. Lesion mapping of patients with predominant temporal damage showed that the left superior and middle temporal gyri and the insula were the areas of major overlapping, while the anterior portion of the left temporal lobe was generally spared. Errors on abstract words mainly concerned (although at a non-significant level) semantically associate targets, while in the case of concrete words, coordinate targets were significantly more impaired than associate ones. Our results suggest that the left superior and middle temporal gyri and the insula are crucial regions in processing abstract words. They also confirm the hypothesis of a semantic similarity vs. associative organization of concrete and abstract concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle Neural Correlates of Processing Passive Sentences
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(3), 1198-1214; doi:10.3390/brainsci3031198
Received: 27 May 2013 / Revised: 16 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
Cited by 8
Abstract
Previous research has shown that comprehension of complex sentences involving wh-movement (e.g., object-relative clauses) elicits activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left posterior temporal cortex. However, relatively little is known about the neural correlates of processing passive sentences, which
[...] Read more.
Previous research has shown that comprehension of complex sentences involving wh-movement (e.g., object-relative clauses) elicits activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left posterior temporal cortex. However, relatively little is known about the neural correlates of processing passive sentences, which differ from other complex sentences in terms of representation (i.e., noun phrase (NP)-movement) and processing (i.e., the time course of syntactic reanalysis). In the present study, 27 adults (14 younger and 13 older) listened to passive and active sentences and performed a sentence-picture verification task using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Passive sentences, relative to active sentences, elicited greater activation in bilateral IFG and left temporo-occipital regions. Participant age did not significantly affect patterns of activation. Consistent with previous research, activation in left temporo-occipital cortex likely reflects thematic reanalysis processes, whereas, activation in the left IFG supports processing of complex syntax (i.e., NP-movement). Right IFG activation may reflect syntactic reanalysis processing demands associated with the sentence-picture verification task. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle Reading the Wrong Way with the Right Hemisphere
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(3), 1060-1075; doi:10.3390/brainsci3031060
Received: 26 April 2013 / Revised: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 6
Abstract
Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the
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Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased activation of the left posterior language system in dyslexia is well documented but there is relatively limited attention given to the role of the right hemisphere. The current study investigated differences in right and left hemisphere activation between individuals with dyslexia and non-impaired readers in lexical decision tasks (regular words, irregular words, pseudowords) during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results revealed the expected hypo-activation in the left posterior areas in those with dyslexia but also areas of overactivation in the right hemisphere. During pseudoword decisions, for example, adults with dyslexia showed more right inferior occipital gyrus activation than controls. In general the increased activation of left-hemisphere language areas found in response to both regular and pseudowords was absent in dyslexics. Laterality indices showed that while controls showed left lateralised activation of the temporal lobe during lexical decision making, dyslexic readers showed right activation. Findings will inform theories of reading and will have implications for the design of reading interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle Psychophysical Estimates of Frequency Discrimination: More than Just Limitations of Auditory Processing
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(3), 1023-1042; doi:10.3390/brainsci3031023
Received: 14 April 2013 / Revised: 20 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 3
Abstract
Efficient auditory processing is hypothesized to support language and literacy development. However, behavioral tasks used to assess this hypothesis need to be robust to non-auditory specific individual differences. This study compared frequency discrimination abilities in a heterogeneous sample of adults using two different
[...] Read more.
Efficient auditory processing is hypothesized to support language and literacy development. However, behavioral tasks used to assess this hypothesis need to be robust to non-auditory specific individual differences. This study compared frequency discrimination abilities in a heterogeneous sample of adults using two different psychoacoustic task designs, referred to here as: 2I_6A_X and 3I_2AFC designs. The role of individual differences in nonverbal IQ (NVIQ), socioeconomic status (SES) and musical experience in predicting frequency discrimination thresholds on each task were assessed using multiple regression analyses. The 2I_6A_X task was more cognitively demanding and hence more susceptible to differences specifically in SES and musical training. Performance on this task did not, however, relate to nonword repetition ability (a measure of language learning capacity). The 3I_2AFC task, by contrast, was only susceptible to musical training. Moreover, thresholds measured using it predicted some variance in nonword repetition performance. This design thus seems suitable for use in studies addressing questions regarding the role of auditory processing in supporting language and literacy development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle Congenital Unilateral Deafness Affects Cerebral Organization of Reading
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(2), 908-922; doi:10.3390/brainsci3020908
Received: 8 March 2013 / Revised: 17 May 2013 / Accepted: 22 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 1
Abstract
It is known that early sensory deprivation modifies brain functional structure and connectivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuro-functional organization of reading in a patient with profound congenital unilateral deafness. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we compared
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It is known that early sensory deprivation modifies brain functional structure and connectivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuro-functional organization of reading in a patient with profound congenital unilateral deafness. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we compared cortical networks supporting the processing of written words in patient RA (completely deaf in the right ear since birth) and in a group of control volunteers. We found that congenital unilateral hearing deprivation modifies neural mechanisms of word reading. Indeed, while written word processing was left-lateralized in controls, we found a strong right lateralization of the fusiform and inferior occipital gyri activation in RA. This finding goes in the same direction of recent proposals that the ventral occipito-temporal activity in word reading seem to lateralize to the same hemisphere as the one involved in spoken language processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle Multilingualism and fMRI: Longitudinal Study of Second Language Acquisition
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(2), 849-876; doi:10.3390/brainsci3020849
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 3 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 28 May 2013
Cited by 1
Abstract
BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a
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BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1) already proficient in at least two languages; or (2) are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1) longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2) statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle Changes in Oscillatory Brain Networks after Lexical Tone Training
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(2), 757-780; doi:10.3390/brainsci3020757
Received: 15 January 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Cited by 2
Abstract
Learning foreign speech contrasts involves creating new representations of sound categories in memory. This formation of new memory representations is likely to involve changes in neural networks as reflected by oscillatory brain activity. To explore this, we conducted time-frequency analyses of electro-encephalography (EEG)
[...] Read more.
Learning foreign speech contrasts involves creating new representations of sound categories in memory. This formation of new memory representations is likely to involve changes in neural networks as reflected by oscillatory brain activity. To explore this, we conducted time-frequency analyses of electro-encephalography (EEG) data recorded in a passive auditory oddball paradigm using Thai language tones. We compared native speakers of English (a non-tone language) and native speakers of Mandarin Chinese (a tone language), before and after a two-day laboratory training. Native English speakers showed a larger gamma-band power and stronger alpha-band synchrony across EEG channels than the native Chinese speakers, especially after training. This is compatible with the view that forming new speech categories on the basis of unfamiliar perceptual dimensions involves stronger gamma activity and more coherent activity in alpha-band networks than forming new categories on the basis of familiar dimensions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Brain Functional Marker of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Patients
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(2), 728-743; doi:10.3390/brainsci3020728
Received: 8 February 2013 / Revised: 15 March 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 2
Abstract
Several cross-sectional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies reported a negative correlation between auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) severity and amplitude of the activations during language tasks. The present study assessed the time course of this correlation and its possible structural underpinnings by combining
[...] Read more.
Several cross-sectional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies reported a negative correlation between auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) severity and amplitude of the activations during language tasks. The present study assessed the time course of this correlation and its possible structural underpinnings by combining structural, functional MRI and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). Methods: Nine schizophrenia patients with AVH (evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating scale; AHRS) and nine healthy participants underwent two sessions of an fMRI speech listening paradigm. Meanwhile, patients received high frequency (20 Hz) rTMS. Results: Before rTMS, activations were negatively correlated with AHRS in a left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) cluster, considered henceforward as a functional region of interest (fROI). After rTMS, activations in this fROI no longer correlated with AHRS. This decoupling was explained by a significant decrease of AHRS scores after rTMS that contrasted with a relative stability of cerebral activations. A voxel-based-morphometry analysis evidenced a cluster of the left pSTS where grey matter volume negatively correlated with AHRS before rTMS and positively correlated with activations in the fROI at both sessions. Conclusion: rTMS decreases the severity of AVH leading to modify the functional correlate of AVH underlain by grey matter abnormalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessArticle Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia I: H.M.’s Spared Retrieval Categories
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(1), 262-293; doi:10.3390/brainsci3010262
Received: 5 November 2012 / Revised: 28 February 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 14 March 2013
Cited by 3
Abstract
Three studies examined amnesic H.M.’s use of words, phrases, and propositions on the Test of Language Competence (TLC). In Study 1, H.M. used 19 lexical categories (e.g., common nouns, verbs) and one syntactic category (noun phrases) with the same relative frequency as memory-normal
[...] Read more.
Three studies examined amnesic H.M.’s use of words, phrases, and propositions on the Test of Language Competence (TLC). In Study 1, H.M. used 19 lexical categories (e.g., common nouns, verbs) and one syntactic category (noun phrases) with the same relative frequency as memory-normal controls, he used no lexical or syntactic category with less-than-normal frequency, and he used proper names (e.g., Melanie) and coordinative conjunctions (e.g., and) with reliably greater-than-normal frequency. In Study 2, H.M. overused proper names relative to controls when answering episodic memory questions about childhood experiences in speech and writing, replicating and extending Study 1 results for proper names. Based on detailed analyses of the use (and misuse) of coordinating conjunctions on the TLC, Study 3 developed a syntax-level “compensation hypothesis” for explaining why H.M. overused coordinating conjunctions relative to controls in Study 1. Present results suggested that (a) frontal mechanisms for retrieving word-, phrase-, and propositional-categories are intact in H.M., unlike in category-specific aphasia, (b) using his intact retrieval mechanisms, H.M. has developed a never-previously-observed proposition-level free association strategy to compensate for the hippocampal region damage that has impaired his mechanisms for encoding novel linguistic structures, and (c) H.M.’s overuse of proper names warrants further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Musical Expertise and Second Language Learning
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(2), 923-940; doi:10.3390/brainsci3020923
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 23 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 6 June 2013
Cited by 6
Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests that musical expertise influences brain organization and brain functions. Moreover, results at the behavioral and neurophysiological levels reveal that musical expertise positively influences several aspects of speech processing, from auditory perception to speech production. In this review, we focus on
[...] Read more.
Increasing evidence suggests that musical expertise influences brain organization and brain functions. Moreover, results at the behavioral and neurophysiological levels reveal that musical expertise positively influences several aspects of speech processing, from auditory perception to speech production. In this review, we focus on the main results of the literature that led to the idea that musical expertise may benefit second language acquisition. We discuss several interpretations that may account for the influence of musical expertise on speech processing in native and foreign languages, and we propose new directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessReview Human Temporal Cortical Single Neuron Activity during Language: A Review
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(2), 627-641; doi:10.3390/brainsci3020627
Received: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 8 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 4
Abstract
Findings from recordings of human temporal cortical single neuron activity during several measures of language, including object naming and word reading are reviewed and related to changes in activity in the same neurons during recent verbal memory and verbal associative learning measures, in
[...] Read more.
Findings from recordings of human temporal cortical single neuron activity during several measures of language, including object naming and word reading are reviewed and related to changes in activity in the same neurons during recent verbal memory and verbal associative learning measures, in studies conducted during awake neurosurgery for the treatment of epilepsy. The proportion of neurons changing activity with language tasks was similar in either hemisphere. Dominant hemisphere activity was characterized by relative inhibition, some of which occurred during overt speech, possibly to block perception of one’s own voice. However, the majority seems to represent a dynamic network becoming active with verbal memory encoding and especially verbal learning, but inhibited during performance of overlearned language tasks. Individual neurons are involved in different networks for different aspects of language, including naming or reading and naming in different languages. The majority of the changes in activity were tonic sustained shifts in firing. Patterned phasic activity for specific language items was very infrequently recorded. Human single neuron recordings provide a unique perspective on the biologic substrate for language, for these findings are in contrast to many of the findings from other techniques for investigating this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
Open AccessReview Mechanisms Underlying Auditory Hallucinations—Understanding Perception without Stimulus
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(2), 642-669; doi:10.3390/brainsci3020642
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 7 April 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 5
Abstract
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a common phenomenon, occurring in the “healthy” population as well as in several mental illnesses, most notably schizophrenia. Current thinking supports a spectrum conceptualisation of AVH: several neurocognitive hypotheses of AVH have been proposed, including the “feed-forward” model
[...] Read more.
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a common phenomenon, occurring in the “healthy” population as well as in several mental illnesses, most notably schizophrenia. Current thinking supports a spectrum conceptualisation of AVH: several neurocognitive hypotheses of AVH have been proposed, including the “feed-forward” model of failure to provide appropriate information to somatosensory cortices so that stimuli appear unbidden, and an “aberrant memory model” implicating deficient memory processes. Neuroimaging and connectivity studies are in broad agreement with these with a general dysconnectivity between frontotemporal regions involved in language, memory and salience properties. Disappointingly many AVH remain resistant to standard treatments and persist for many years. There is a need to develop novel therapies to augment existing pharmacological and psychological therapies: transcranial magnetic stimulation has emerged as a potential treatment, though more recent clinical data has been less encouraging. Our understanding of AVH remains incomplete though much progress has been made in recent years. We herein provide a broad overview and review of this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)

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