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Mechanisms Underlying Auditory Hallucinations—Understanding Perception without Stimulus
Brain Sci. 2013, 3(2), 728-743; doi:10.3390/brainsci3020728
Article

Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Brain Functional Marker of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Patients

1,2
, 3
, 4
, 2
, 1
 and 1,2,*
1 CHU de Caen, Service Universitaire de Psychiatrie, Centre Esquirol, Caen 14000, France 2 Université de Caen Basse Normandie, UMR 6301 CNRS CEA, Centre Cyceron, Caen 14074, France 3 Université de Bordeaux, GIN UMR 5296 CNRS CEA, Bordeaux 33076, France 4 CHU de Caen, Service d'Explorations Fonctionnelles du Système Nerveux, Caen 14000, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2013 / Revised: 15 March 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain and Language)
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Abstract

Several cross-sectional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies reported a negative correlation between auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) severity and amplitude of the activations during language tasks. The present study assessed the time course of this correlation and its possible structural underpinnings by combining structural, functional MRI and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). Methods: Nine schizophrenia patients with AVH (evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating scale; AHRS) and nine healthy participants underwent two sessions of an fMRI speech listening paradigm. Meanwhile, patients received high frequency (20 Hz) rTMS. Results: Before rTMS, activations were negatively correlated with AHRS in a left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) cluster, considered henceforward as a functional region of interest (fROI). After rTMS, activations in this fROI no longer correlated with AHRS. This decoupling was explained by a significant decrease of AHRS scores after rTMS that contrasted with a relative stability of cerebral activations. A voxel-based-morphometry analysis evidenced a cluster of the left pSTS where grey matter volume negatively correlated with AHRS before rTMS and positively correlated with activations in the fROI at both sessions. Conclusion: rTMS decreases the severity of AVH leading to modify the functional correlate of AVH underlain by grey matter abnormalities.
Keywords: schizophrenia; auditory verbal hallucinations; functional magnetic resonance imaging; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; voxel based morphometry; functional marker; language network schizophrenia; auditory verbal hallucinations; functional magnetic resonance imaging; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; voxel based morphometry; functional marker; language network
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maïza, O.; Hervé, P.-Y.; Etard, O.; Razafimandimby, A.; Montagne-Larmurier, A.; Dollfus, S. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Brain Functional Marker of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Patients. Brain Sci. 2013, 3, 728-743.

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