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Biomolecules, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2013), Pages 351-732

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Sphingosine Phosphate Lyase Regulates Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation and Pluripotency through an S1P2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 351-368; doi:10.3390/biom3030351
Received: 18 April 2013 / Revised: 15 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 24 June 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that activates a family of G protein coupled-receptors (GPCRs) implicated in mammalian development, angiogenesis, immunity and tissue regeneration. S1P functions as a trophic factor for many cell types, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL)
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Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that activates a family of G protein coupled-receptors (GPCRs) implicated in mammalian development, angiogenesis, immunity and tissue regeneration. S1P functions as a trophic factor for many cell types, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible degradation of S1P. We found SPL to be highly expressed in murine ESCs (mESCs). To investigate the role of SPL in mESC biology, we silenced SPL in mESCs via stable transfection with a lentiviral SPL-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct. SPL-knockdown (SPL-KD) mESCs showed a 5-fold increase in cellular S1P levels, increased proliferation rates and high expression of cell surface pluripotency markers SSEA1 and OCT4 compared to vector control cells. Compared to control mESCs, SPL-KD cells showed robust activation of STAT3 and a 10-fold increase in S1P2 expression. Inhibition of S1P2 or STAT3 reversed the proliferation and pluripotency phenotypes of SPL-KD mESCs. Further, inhibition of S1P2 attenuated, in a dose-dependent fashion, the high levels of OCT4 and STAT3 activation observed in SPL-KD mESCs. Finally, we showed that SPL-KD cells are capable of generating embryoid bodies from which muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, can be isolated. These findings demonstrate an important role for SPL in ESC homeostasis and suggest that SPL inhibition could facilitate ex vivo ESC expansion for therapeutic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sphingolipids and Bioactive Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle Regulation of Cytoskeleton Organization by Sphingosine in a Mouse Cell Model of Progressive Ovarian Cancer
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 386-407; doi:10.3390/biom3030386
Received: 3 June 2013 / Revised: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is a multigenic disease and molecular events driving ovarian cancer progression are not well established. We have previously reported the dysregulation of the cytoskeleton during ovarian cancer progression in a syngeneic mouse cell model for progressive ovarian cancer. In the present
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Ovarian cancer is a multigenic disease and molecular events driving ovarian cancer progression are not well established. We have previously reported the dysregulation of the cytoskeleton during ovarian cancer progression in a syngeneic mouse cell model for progressive ovarian cancer. In the present studies, we investigated if the cytoskeleton organization is a potential target for chemopreventive treatment with the bioactive sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine. Long-term treatment with non-toxic concentrations of sphingosine but not other sphingolipid metabolites led to a partial reversal of a cytoskeleton architecture commonly associated with aggressive cancer phenotypes towards an organization reminiscent of non-malignant cell phenotypes. This was evident by increased F-actin polymerization and organization, a reduced focal adhesion kinase expression, increased a-actinin and vinculin levels which together led to the assembly of more mature focal adhesions. Downstream focal adhesion signaling, the suppression of myosin light chain kinase expression and hypophosphorylation of its targets were observed after treatment with sphingosine. These results suggest that sphingosine modulate the assembly of actin stress fibers via regulation of focal adhesions and myosin light chain kinase. The impact of these events on suppression of ovarian cancer by exogenous sphingosine and their potential as molecular markers for treatment efficacy warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sphingolipids and Bioactive Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Altered Sphingolipid Metabolism in Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 435-448; doi:10.3390/biom3030435
Received: 23 May 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 24 July 2013 / Published: 25 July 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (520 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although numerous genetic mutations and amplifications have been identified in pancreatic cancer, much of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease remains undefined. While proteomic and transcriptomic analyses have been utilized to probe and characterize pancreatic tumors, lipidomic analyses have not been applied to
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Although numerous genetic mutations and amplifications have been identified in pancreatic cancer, much of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease remains undefined. While proteomic and transcriptomic analyses have been utilized to probe and characterize pancreatic tumors, lipidomic analyses have not been applied to identify perturbations in pancreatic cancer patient samples. Thus, we utilized a mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach, focused towards the sphingolipid class of lipids, to quantify changes in human pancreatic cancer tumor and plasma specimens. Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with positive lymph node metastasis have a markedly higher level of ceramide species (C16:0 and C24:1) in their tumor specimens compared to pancreatic cancer patients without nodal disease or to patients with pancreatitis. Also of interest, ceramide metabolites, including phosphorylated (sphingosine- and sphinganine-1-phosphate) and glycosylated (cerebroside) species were elevated in the plasma, but not the pancreas, of pancreatic cancer patients with nodal disease. Analysis of plasma level of cytokine and growth factors revealed that IL-6, IL-8, CCL11 (eotaxin), EGF and IP10 (interferon inducible protein 10, CXCL10) were elevated in patients with positive lymph nodes metastasis, but that only IP10 and EGF directly correlated with several sphingolipid changes. Taken together, these data indicate that sphingolipid metabolism is altered in human pancreatic cancer and associated with advanced disease. Assessing plasma and/or tissue sphingolipids could potentially risk stratify patients in the clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sphingolipids and Bioactive Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 449-460; doi:10.3390/biom3030449
Received: 3 July 2013 / Revised: 31 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 August 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The
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Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S)-selectivity and together with a highly (R)-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters Based on Green Monomers from Renewable Resources
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 461-480; doi:10.3390/biom3030461
Received: 15 July 2013 / Revised: 31 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (1232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bio-based commercially available succinate, itaconate and 1,4-butanediol are enzymatically co-polymerized in solution via a two-stage method, using Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB, in immobilized form as Novozyme® 435) as the biocatalyst. The chemical structures of the obtained products, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene
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Bio-based commercially available succinate, itaconate and 1,4-butanediol are enzymatically co-polymerized in solution via a two-stage method, using Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB, in immobilized form as Novozyme® 435) as the biocatalyst. The chemical structures of the obtained products, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-itaconate) (PBSI), are confirmed by 1H- and 13C-NMR. The effects of the reaction conditions on the CALB-catalyzed synthesis of PBSI are fully investigated, and the optimal polymerization conditions are obtained. With the established method, PBSI with tunable compositions and satisfying reaction yields is produced. The 1H-NMR results confirm that carbon-carbon double bonds are well preserved in PBSI. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicate that the amount of itaconate in the co-polyesters has no obvious effects on the glass-transition temperature and the thermal stability of PBS and PBSI, but has significant effects on the melting temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Lipases Immobilization for Effective Synthesis of Biodiesel Starting from Coffee Waste Oils
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 514-534; doi:10.3390/biom3030514
Received: 28 June 2013 / Revised: 4 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 13 August 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Immobilized lipases were applied to the enzymatic conversion of oils from spent coffee ground into biodiesel. Two lipases were selected for the study because of their conformational behavior analysed by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations taking into account that immobilization conditions affect conformational behavior
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Immobilized lipases were applied to the enzymatic conversion of oils from spent coffee ground into biodiesel. Two lipases were selected for the study because of their conformational behavior analysed by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations taking into account that immobilization conditions affect conformational behavior of the lipases and ultimately, their efficiency upon immobilization. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel was initially carried out on a model substrate (triolein) in order to select the most promising immobilized biocatalysts. The results indicate that oils can be converted quantitatively within hours. The role of the nature of the immobilization support emerged as a key factor affecting reaction rate, most probably because of partition and mass transfer barriers occurring with hydrophilic solid supports. Finally, oil from spent coffee ground was transformed into biodiesel with yields ranging from 55% to 72%. The synthesis is of particular interest in the perspective of developing sustainable processes for the production of bio-fuels from food wastes and renewable materials. The enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel is carried out under mild conditions, with stoichiometric amounts of substrates (oil and methanol) and the removal of free fatty acids is not required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus campestris and Agaricus xanthoderma: Characterization and Applications in Carbohydrate Conversions
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 535-552; doi:10.3390/biom3030535
Received: 28 June 2013 / Revised: 9 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 August 2013 / Published: 16 August 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is limited to a rather small group of litter-degrading basidiomycetes. The enzyme is unable to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor, using substituted benzoquinones and (organo) metal ions instead. PDH displays a broad substrate
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Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is limited to a rather small group of litter-degrading basidiomycetes. The enzyme is unable to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor, using substituted benzoquinones and (organo) metal ions instead. PDH displays a broad substrate specificity and intriguing variations in regioselectivity, depending on substrate, enzyme source and reaction conditions. In contrast to the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (POx), PDHs from several sources are capable of oxidizing α- or β-1→4-linked di- and oligosaccharides, including lactose. PDH from A. xanthoderma is able to perform C-1 and C-2 oxidation, producing, in addition to lactobionic acid, 2-dehydrolactose, an intermediate for the production of lactulose, whereas PDH from A. campestris oxidizes lactose nearly exclusively at the C-1 position. In this work, we present the isolation of PDH-encoding genes from A. campestris (Ac) and A. xanthoderma (Ax) and a comparison of other so far isolated PDH-sequences. Secretory overexpression of both enzymes in Pichia pastoris was successful when using their native signal sequences with yields of 371 U·L−1 for AxPDH and 35 U·L−1 for AcPDH. The pure enzymes were characterized biochemically and tested for applications in carbohydrate conversion reactions of industrial relevance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Sensitive DNA Enzyme-Based Fluorescent Assay for Bacterial Detection
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 563-577; doi:10.3390/biom3030563
Received: 25 July 2013 / Revised: 9 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial detection plays an important role in protecting public health and safety, and thus, substantial research efforts have been directed at developing bacterial sensing methods that are sensitive, specific, inexpensive, and easy to use. We have recently reported a novel “mix-and-read” assay where
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Bacterial detection plays an important role in protecting public health and safety, and thus, substantial research efforts have been directed at developing bacterial sensing methods that are sensitive, specific, inexpensive, and easy to use. We have recently reported a novel “mix-and-read” assay where a fluorogenic DNAzyme probe was used to detect model bacterium E. coli. In this work, we carried out a series of optimization experiments in order to improve the performance of this assay. The optimized assay can achieve a detection limit of 1000 colony-forming units (CFU) without a culturing step and is able to detect 1 CFU following as short as 4 h of bacterial culturing in a growth medium. Overall, our effort has led to the development of a highly sensitive and easy-to-use fluorescent bacterial detection assay that employs a catalytic DNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Production of Fungal Glucoamylase for Glucose Production from Food Waste
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 651-661; doi:10.3390/biom3030651
Received: 6 August 2013 / Revised: 15 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 September 2013 / Published: 19 September 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as
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The feasibility of using pastry waste as resource for glucoamylase (GA) production via solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. The crude GA extract obtained was used for glucose production from mixed food waste. Our results showed that pastry waste could be used as a sole substrate for GA production. A maximal GA activity of 76.1 ± 6.1 U/mL was obtained at Day 10. The optimal pH and reaction temperature for the crude GA extract for hydrolysis were pH 5.5 and 55 °C, respectively. Under this condition, the half-life of the GA extract was 315.0 minutes with a deactivation constant (kd) 2.20 × 10−3minutes−1. The application of the crude GA extract for mixed food waste hydrolysis and glucose production was successfully demonstrated. Approximately 53 g glucose was recovered from 100 g of mixed food waste in 1 h under the optimal digestion conditions, highlighting the potential of this approach as an alternative strategy for waste management and sustainable production of glucose applicable as carbon source in many biotechnological processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Biophysical Characterization of α-Synuclein and Rotenone Interaction
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 703-732; doi:10.3390/biom3030703
Received: 13 September 2013 / Revised: 21 September 2013 / Accepted: 23 September 2013 / Published: 24 September 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies revealed that pesticides interact with α-synuclein and accelerate the rate of fibrillation. These results are consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that the direct interaction of α-synuclein with pesticides is one of many suspected factors leading to α-synuclein fibrillation and ultimately to
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Previous studies revealed that pesticides interact with α-synuclein and accelerate the rate of fibrillation. These results are consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that the direct interaction of α-synuclein with pesticides is one of many suspected factors leading to α-synuclein fibrillation and ultimately to Parkinson’s disease. In this study, the biophysical properties and fibrillation kinetics of α-synuclein in the presence of rotenone were investigated and, more specifically, the effects of rotenone on the early-stage misfolded forms of α-synuclein were considered. The thioflavine T (ThT) fluorescence assay studies provide evidence that early-phase misfolded α-synuclein forms are affected by rotenone and that the fibrillation process is accelerated. Further characterization by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) shows that rotenone increases the amount of ordered secondary structure in this intrinsically disordered protein. Morphological characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) provide visualization of the differences in the aggregated α-synuclein species developing during the early kinetics of the fibrillation process in the absence and presence of rotenone. We believe that these data provide useful information for a better understanding of the molecular basis of rotenone-induced misfolding and aggregation of α-synuclein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Folding and Misfolding)

Review

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Open AccessReview Architecture of Amylose Supramolecules in Form of Inclusion Complexes by Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Enzymatic Polymerization
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 369-385; doi:10.3390/biom3030369
Received: 18 June 2013 / Revised: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 28 June 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the architecture of amylose supramolecules in form of inclusion complexes with synthetic polymers by phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization. Amylose is known to be synthesized by enzymatic polymerization using α-d-glucose 1-phosphate as a monomer, by phosphorylase catalysis. When the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization
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This paper reviews the architecture of amylose supramolecules in form of inclusion complexes with synthetic polymers by phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization. Amylose is known to be synthesized by enzymatic polymerization using α-d-glucose 1-phosphate as a monomer, by phosphorylase catalysis. When the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization was conducted in the presence of various hydrophobic polymers, such as polyethers, polyesters, poly(ester-ether), and polycarbonates as a guest polymer, such inclusion supramolecules were formed by the hydrophobic interaction in the progress of polymerization. Because the representation of propagation in the polymerization is similar to the way that a vine of a plant grows, twining around a rod, this polymerization method for the formation of amylose-polymer inclusion complexes was proposed to be named “vine-twining polymerization”. To yield an inclusion complex from a strongly hydrophobic polyester, the parallel enzymatic polymerization system was extensively developed. The author found that amylose selectively included one side of the guest polymer from a mixture of two resemblant guest polymers, as well as a specific range in molecular weights of the guest polymers poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF) in the vine-twining polymerization. Selective inclusion behavior of amylose toward stereoisomers of chiral polyesters, poly(lactide)s, also appeared in the vine-twining polymerization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Emerging Role of Sphingosine-1-phosphate in Inflammation, Cancer, and Lymphangiogenesis
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 408-434; doi:10.3390/biom3030408
Received: 11 June 2013 / Revised: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main function of the lymphatic system is to control and maintain fluid homeostasis, lipid transport, and immune cell trafficking. In recent years, the pathological roles of lymphangiogenesis, the generation of new lymphatic vessels from preexisting ones, in inflammatory diseases and cancer progression
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The main function of the lymphatic system is to control and maintain fluid homeostasis, lipid transport, and immune cell trafficking. In recent years, the pathological roles of lymphangiogenesis, the generation of new lymphatic vessels from preexisting ones, in inflammatory diseases and cancer progression are beginning to be elucidated. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid, mediates multiple cellular events, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and trafficking, and is now known as an important mediator of inflammation and cancer. In this review, we will discuss recent findings showing the emerging role of S1P in lymphangiogenesis, in inflammation, and in cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sphingolipids and Bioactive Lipids)
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Open AccessReview The Impact of Sphingosine Kinase-1 in Head and Neck Cancer
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 481-513; doi:10.3390/biom3030481
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 3 August 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a high reoccurrence rate and an extremely low survival rate. There is limited availability of effective therapies to reduce the rate of recurrence, resulting in high morbidity and mortality of advanced cases. Late presentation, delay
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a high reoccurrence rate and an extremely low survival rate. There is limited availability of effective therapies to reduce the rate of recurrence, resulting in high morbidity and mortality of advanced cases. Late presentation, delay in detection of lesions, and a high rate of metastasis make HNSCC a devastating disease. This review offers insight into the role of sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1), a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism, in HNSCC. Sphingolipids not only play a structural role in cellular membranes, but also modulate cell signal transduction pathways to influence biological outcomes such as senescence, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis. SphK1 is a critical regulator of the delicate balance between proliferation and apoptosis. The highest expression of SphK1 is found in the advanced stage of disease, and there is a positive correlation between SphK1 expression and recurrent tumors. On the other hand, silencing SphK1 reduces HNSCC tumor growth and sensitizes tumors to radiation-induced death.  Thus, SphK1 plays an important and influential role in determining HNSCC proliferation and metastasis. We discuss roles of SphK1 and other sphingolipids in HNSCC development and therapeutic strategies against HNSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sphingolipids and Bioactive Lipids)
Open AccessReview Carbonic Anhydrases and Their Biotechnological Applications
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 553-562; doi:10.3390/biom3030553
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 7 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are mostly zinc-containing metalloenzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of carbon dioxide/bicarbonate. The CAs have been extensively studied because of their broad physiological importance in all kingdoms of life and clinical relevance as drug targets. In particular, human CA
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The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are mostly zinc-containing metalloenzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of carbon dioxide/bicarbonate. The CAs have been extensively studied because of their broad physiological importance in all kingdoms of life and clinical relevance as drug targets. In particular, human CA isoform II (HCA II) has a catalytic efficiency of 108 M−1 s−1, approaching the diffusion limit. The high catalytic rate, relatively simple procedure of expression and purification, relative stability and extensive biophysical studies of HCA II has made it an exciting candidate to be incorporated into various biomedical applications such as artificial lungs, biosensors and CO2 sequestration systems, among others. This review highlights the current state of these applications, lists their advantages and limitations, and discusses their future development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Decarboxylation of Pyruvate to Acetaldehyde for Ethanol Production by Hyperthermophiles
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 578-596; doi:10.3390/biom3030578
Received: 9 July 2013 / Revised: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 21 August 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC encoded by pdc) is a thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-containing enzyme responsible for the conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde in many mesophilic organisms. However, no pdc/PDC homolog has yet been found in fully sequenced genomes and proteomes of hyper/thermophiles. The
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Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC encoded by pdc) is a thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-containing enzyme responsible for the conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde in many mesophilic organisms. However, no pdc/PDC homolog has yet been found in fully sequenced genomes and proteomes of hyper/thermophiles. The only PDC activity reported in hyperthermophiles was a bifunctional, TPP- and CoA-dependent pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR)/PDC enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Another enzyme known to be involved in catalysis of acetaldehyde production from pyruvate is CoA-acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (AcDH encoded by mhpF and adhE). Pyruvate is oxidized into acetyl-CoA by either POR or pyruvate formate lyase (PFL), and AcDH catalyzes the reduction of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde in mesophilic organisms. AcDH is present in some mesophilic (such as clostridia) and thermophilic bacteria (e.g., Geobacillus and Thermoanaerobacter). However, no AcDH gene or protein homologs could be found in the released genomes and proteomes of hyperthermophiles. Moreover, no such activity was detectable from the cell-free extracts of different hyperthermophiles under different assay conditions. In conclusion, no commonly-known PDCs was found in hyperthermophiles. Instead of the commonly-known PDC, it appears that at least one multifunctional enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde in hyperthermophiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Microbial Enzymes with Special Characteristics for Biotechnological Applications
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 597-611; doi:10.3390/biom3030597
Received: 28 June 2013 / Revised: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 23 August 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article overviews the enzymes produced by microorganisms, which have been extensively studied worldwide for their isolation, purification and characterization of their specific properties. Researchers have isolated specific microorganisms from extreme sources under extreme culture conditions, with the objective that such isolated microbes
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This article overviews the enzymes produced by microorganisms, which have been extensively studied worldwide for their isolation, purification and characterization of their specific properties. Researchers have isolated specific microorganisms from extreme sources under extreme culture conditions, with the objective that such isolated microbes would possess the capability to bio-synthesize special enzymes. Various Bio-industries require enzymes possessing special characteristics for their applications in processing of substrates and raw materials. The microbial enzymes act as bio-catalysts to perform reactions in bio-processes in an economical and environmentally-friendly way as opposed to the use of chemical catalysts. The special characteristics of enzymes are exploited for their commercial interest and industrial applications, which include: thermotolerance, thermophilic nature, tolerance to a varied range of pH, stability of enzyme activity over a range of temperature and pH, and other harsh reaction conditions. Such enzymes have proven their utility in bio-industries such as food, leather, textiles, animal feed, and in bio-conversions and bio-remediations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Fungal Beta-Glucosidases: A Bottleneck in Industrial Use of Lignocellulosic Materials
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 612-631; doi:10.3390/biom3030612
Received: 23 July 2013 / Revised: 17 August 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Profitable biomass conversion processes are highly dependent on the use of efficient enzymes for lignocellulose degradation. Among the cellulose degrading enzymes, beta-glucosidases are essential for efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass as they relieve the inhibition of the cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases by reducing cellobiose
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Profitable biomass conversion processes are highly dependent on the use of efficient enzymes for lignocellulose degradation. Among the cellulose degrading enzymes, beta-glucosidases are essential for efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass as they relieve the inhibition of the cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases by reducing cellobiose accumulation. In this review, we discuss the important role beta-glucosidases play in complex biomass hydrolysis and how they create a bottleneck in industrial use of lignocellulosic materials. An efficient beta-glucosidase facilitates hydrolysis at specified process conditions, and key points to consider in this respect are hydrolysis rate, inhibitors, and stability. Product inhibition impairing yields, thermal inactivation of enzymes, and the high cost of enzyme production are the main obstacles to commercial cellulose hydrolysis. Therefore, this sets the stage in the search for better alternatives to the currently available enzyme preparations either by improving known or screening for new beta-glucosidases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Arming Technology in Yeast—Novel Strategy for Whole-cell Biocatalyst and Protein Engineering
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 632-650; doi:10.3390/biom3030632
Received: 23 July 2013 / Revised: 28 August 2013 / Accepted: 2 September 2013 / Published: 9 September 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cell surface display of proteins/peptides, in contrast to the conventional intracellular expression, has many attractive features. This arming technology is especially effective when yeasts are used as a host, because eukaryotic modifications that are often required for functional use can be added to
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Cell surface display of proteins/peptides, in contrast to the conventional intracellular expression, has many attractive features. This arming technology is especially effective when yeasts are used as a host, because eukaryotic modifications that are often required for functional use can be added to the surface-displayed proteins/peptides. A part of various cell wall or plasma membrane proteins can be genetically fused to the proteins/peptides of interest to be displayed. This technology, leading to the generation of so-called “arming technology”, can be employed for basic and applied research purposes. In this article, we describe various strategies for the construction of arming yeasts, and outline the diverse applications of this technology to industrial processes such as biofuel and chemical productions, pollutant removal, and health-related processes, including oral vaccines. In addition, arming technology is suitable for protein engineering and directed evolution through high-throughput screening that is made possible by the feature that proteins/peptides displayed on cell surface can be directly analyzed using intact cells without concentration and purification. Actually, novel proteins/peptides with improved or developed functions have been created, and development of diagnostic/therapeutic antibodies are likely to benefit from this powerful approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Quantum Mechanical Modeling: A Tool for the Understanding of Enzyme Reactions
Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 662-702; doi:10.3390/biom3030662
Received: 6 August 2013 / Revised: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 19 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most enzyme reactions involve formation and cleavage of covalent bonds, while electrostatic effects, as well as dynamics of the active site and surrounding protein regions, may also be crucial. Accordingly, special computational methods are needed to provide an adequate description, which combine quantum
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Most enzyme reactions involve formation and cleavage of covalent bonds, while electrostatic effects, as well as dynamics of the active site and surrounding protein regions, may also be crucial. Accordingly, special computational methods are needed to provide an adequate description, which combine quantum mechanics for the reactive region with molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics describing the environment and dynamic effects, respectively. In this review we intend to give an overview to non-specialists on various enzyme models as well as established computational methods and describe applications to some specific cases. For the treatment of various enzyme mechanisms, special approaches are often needed to obtain results, which adequately refer to experimental data. As a result of the spectacular progress in the last two decades, most enzyme reactions can be quite precisely treated by various computational methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications) Print Edition available
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