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Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 535-552; doi:10.3390/biom3030535
Article

Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus campestris and Agaricus xanthoderma: Characterization and Applications in Carbohydrate Conversions

,
,
 and
*
Food Biotechnology Laboratory, BOKU–University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Muthgasse 11, Vienna 1190, Austria These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2013 / Revised: 9 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 August 2013 / Published: 16 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications)
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Abstract

Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is limited to a rather small group of litter-degrading basidiomycetes. The enzyme is unable to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor, using substituted benzoquinones and (organo) metal ions instead. PDH displays a broad substrate specificity and intriguing variations in regioselectivity, depending on substrate, enzyme source and reaction conditions. In contrast to the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (POx), PDHs from several sources are capable of oxidizing α- or β-1→4-linked di- and oligosaccharides, including lactose. PDH from A. xanthoderma is able to perform C-1 and C-2 oxidation, producing, in addition to lactobionic acid, 2-dehydrolactose, an intermediate for the production of lactulose, whereas PDH from A. campestris oxidizes lactose nearly exclusively at the C-1 position. In this work, we present the isolation of PDH-encoding genes from A. campestris (Ac) and A. xanthoderma (Ax) and a comparison of other so far isolated PDH-sequences. Secretory overexpression of both enzymes in Pichia pastoris was successful when using their native signal sequences with yields of 371 U·L−1 for AxPDH and 35 U·L−1 for AcPDH. The pure enzymes were characterized biochemically and tested for applications in carbohydrate conversion reactions of industrial relevance.
Keywords: pyranose dehydrogenase; heterologous expression; agaricus; lactose conversion; lactobionic acid pyranose dehydrogenase; heterologous expression; agaricus; lactose conversion; lactobionic acid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Staudigl, P.; Krondorfer, I.; Haltrich, D.; Peterbauer, C.K. Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus campestris and Agaricus xanthoderma: Characterization and Applications in Carbohydrate Conversions. Biomolecules 2013, 3, 535-552.

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