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Fungal Beta-Glucosidases: A Bottleneck in Industrial Use of Lignocellulosic Materials
Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Aalborg University Copenhagen, A C Meyers Vaenge 15, 2450 Copenhagen SV, Denmark
Bioproducts, Sciences & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way, Richland, WA 99354, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2013; in revised form: 17 August 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
Abstract: Profitable biomass conversion processes are highly dependent on the use of efficient enzymes for lignocellulose degradation. Among the cellulose degrading enzymes, beta-glucosidases are essential for efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass as they relieve the inhibition of the cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases by reducing cellobiose accumulation. In this review, we discuss the important role beta-glucosidases play in complex biomass hydrolysis and how they create a bottleneck in industrial use of lignocellulosic materials. An efficient beta-glucosidase facilitates hydrolysis at specified process conditions, and key points to consider in this respect are hydrolysis rate, inhibitors, and stability. Product inhibition impairing yields, thermal inactivation of enzymes, and the high cost of enzyme production are the main obstacles to commercial cellulose hydrolysis. Therefore, this sets the stage in the search for better alternatives to the currently available enzyme preparations either by improving known or screening for new beta-glucosidases.
Keywords: beta-glucosidase; cellulase; biomass; hydrolysis; biofuels
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Sørensen, A.; Lübeck, M.; Lübeck, P.S.; Ahring, B.K. Fungal Beta-Glucosidases: A Bottleneck in Industrial Use of Lignocellulosic Materials. Biomolecules 2013, 3, 612-631.
Sørensen A, Lübeck M, Lübeck PS, Ahring BK. Fungal Beta-Glucosidases: A Bottleneck in Industrial Use of Lignocellulosic Materials. Biomolecules. 2013; 3(3):612-631.
Sørensen, Annette; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K. 2013. "Fungal Beta-Glucosidases: A Bottleneck in Industrial Use of Lignocellulosic Materials." Biomolecules 3, no. 3: 612-631.