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Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters Based on Green Monomers from Renewable Resources
Department of Polymer Chemistry, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
Dutch Polymer Institute (DPI), P.O. Box 902, 5600 AX Eindhoven, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2013; in revised form: 31 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
Abstract: Bio-based commercially available succinate, itaconate and 1,4-butanediol are enzymatically co-polymerized in solution via a two-stage method, using Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB, in immobilized form as Novozyme® 435) as the biocatalyst. The chemical structures of the obtained products, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-itaconate) (PBSI), are confirmed by 1H- and 13C-NMR. The effects of the reaction conditions on the CALB-catalyzed synthesis of PBSI are fully investigated, and the optimal polymerization conditions are obtained. With the established method, PBSI with tunable compositions and satisfying reaction yields is produced. The 1H-NMR results confirm that carbon-carbon double bonds are well preserved in PBSI. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicate that the amount of itaconate in the co-polyesters has no obvious effects on the glass-transition temperature and the thermal stability of PBS and PBSI, but has significant effects on the melting temperature.
Keywords: enzymatic polymerizations; CALB; unsaturated aliphatic polyesters; bio-based monomers; succinate; itaconate; 1,4-butanediol; renewable resources
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Jiang, Y.; Woortman, A.J.; van Ekenstein, G.O.A.; Loos, K. Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters Based on Green Monomers from Renewable Resources. Biomolecules 2013, 3, 461-480.
Jiang Y, Woortman AJ, van Ekenstein GOA, Loos K. Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters Based on Green Monomers from Renewable Resources. Biomolecules. 2013; 3(3):461-480.
Jiang, Yi; Woortman, Albert J.; van Ekenstein, Gert O.A.; Loos, Katja. 2013. "Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters Based on Green Monomers from Renewable Resources." Biomolecules 3, no. 3: 461-480.