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Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 461-480; doi:10.3390/biom3030461

Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters Based on Green Monomers from Renewable Resources

1
Department of Polymer Chemistry, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Dutch Polymer Institute (DPI), P.O. Box 902, 5600 AX Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2013 / Revised: 31 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 12 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications)
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Abstract

Bio-based commercially available succinate, itaconate and 1,4-butanediol are enzymatically co-polymerized in solution via a two-stage method, using Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB, in immobilized form as Novozyme® 435) as the biocatalyst. The chemical structures of the obtained products, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-itaconate) (PBSI), are confirmed by 1H- and 13C-NMR. The effects of the reaction conditions on the CALB-catalyzed synthesis of PBSI are fully investigated, and the optimal polymerization conditions are obtained. With the established method, PBSI with tunable compositions and satisfying reaction yields is produced. The 1H-NMR results confirm that carbon-carbon double bonds are well preserved in PBSI. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicate that the amount of itaconate in the co-polyesters has no obvious effects on the glass-transition temperature and the thermal stability of PBS and PBSI, but has significant effects on the melting temperature.
Keywords: enzymatic polymerizations; CALB; unsaturated aliphatic polyesters; bio-based monomers; succinate; itaconate; 1,4-butanediol; renewable resources enzymatic polymerizations; CALB; unsaturated aliphatic polyesters; bio-based monomers; succinate; itaconate; 1,4-butanediol; renewable resources
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, Y.; Woortman, A.J.; van Ekenstein, G.O.A.; Loos, K. Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis of Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters Based on Green Monomers from Renewable Resources. Biomolecules 2013, 3, 461-480.

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