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Biomolecules 2013, 3(3), 553-562; doi:10.3390/biom3030553
Review

Carbonic Anhydrases and Their Biotechnological Applications

,
,
 and *
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100245, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 7 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes and Their Biotechnological Applications)
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Abstract

The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are mostly zinc-containing metalloenzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration of carbon dioxide/bicarbonate. The CAs have been extensively studied because of their broad physiological importance in all kingdoms of life and clinical relevance as drug targets. In particular, human CA isoform II (HCA II) has a catalytic efficiency of 108 M−1 s−1, approaching the diffusion limit. The high catalytic rate, relatively simple procedure of expression and purification, relative stability and extensive biophysical studies of HCA II has made it an exciting candidate to be incorporated into various biomedical applications such as artificial lungs, biosensors and CO2 sequestration systems, among others. This review highlights the current state of these applications, lists their advantages and limitations, and discusses their future development.
Keywords: carbonic anhydrase; artificial lungs; biosensor; carbon sequestration carbonic anhydrase; artificial lungs; biosensor; carbon sequestration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Boone, C.D.; Habibzadegan, A.; Gill, S.; McKenna, R. Carbonic Anhydrases and Their Biotechnological Applications. Biomolecules 2013, 3, 553-562.

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