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Biosensors, Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessReview Conjugation of Nanomaterials and Nematic Liquid Crystals for Futuristic Applications and Biosensors
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030069
Received: 12 May 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
The established role of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) in the recent rapid development of displays has motivated researchers to modulate the electro-optical properties of LCs. Furthermore, adding nanomaterials into NLCs has led to enhancements of the properties of NLCs, like reduced threshold of
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The established role of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) in the recent rapid development of displays has motivated researchers to modulate the electro-optical properties of LCs. Furthermore, adding nanomaterials into NLCs has led to enhancements of the properties of NLCs, like reduced threshold of the operating voltage, variation in pretilt angle, reduced switching time, etc. These enhanced properties, due to interfacial dynamics, are enabling wider applications of NLCs and nanomaterials. The recent literature of nanomaterial-doped NLCs is rich with various kinds of nanomaterials in a variety of NLCs. The light has been focused on the most widely used and studied gold nanoparticles in NLCs. The intrinsic inherent property of easy excitation of surface plasmons polaritons (SPP) is the mediating interaction of NLC electric dipoles and the polarization of charges in the GNP surface. The concepts and methods for the application of metal nanomaterials as dopants in NLCs are discussed for future applications, especially biosensors. The biosensing application of NLCs alone has already been proven in the literature. However, it is always desirable to further enhance the detection efficiency and selectivity, which have been achieved by the conjugation of GNPs and nickel nanoparticles with NLCs and their compatibility with biological materials. This aspect of future application of nanoparticles and NLC makes the point more selective to be included in the present manuscript. Full article
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Open AccessReview Clinical Assessment of Dental Implant Stability During Follow-Up: What Is Actually Measured, and Perspectives
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030068
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
The optimization of loading protocols following dental implant insertion requires setting up patient-specific protocols, customized according to the actual implant osseointegration, measured through quantitative, objective methods. Various devices for the assessment of implant stability as an indirect measure of implant osseointegration have been
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The optimization of loading protocols following dental implant insertion requires setting up patient-specific protocols, customized according to the actual implant osseointegration, measured through quantitative, objective methods. Various devices for the assessment of implant stability as an indirect measure of implant osseointegration have been developed. They are analyzed here, introducing the respective physical models, outlining major advantages and critical aspects, and reporting their clinical performance. A careful discussion of underlying hypotheses is finally reported, as is a suggestion for further development of instrumentation and signal analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implantable Biosensors for in vivo Detection and Measurement)
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Open AccessReview Autoantibodies as Potential Biomarkers in Breast Cancer
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030067
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality in women; however, technologies for early stage screening and diagnosis (e.g., mammography and other imaging technologies) are not optimal for the accurate detection of cancer. This creates demand for a more effective diagnostic means to
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Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality in women; however, technologies for early stage screening and diagnosis (e.g., mammography and other imaging technologies) are not optimal for the accurate detection of cancer. This creates demand for a more effective diagnostic means to replace or be complementary to existing technologies for early discovery of breast cancer. Cancer neoantigens could reflect tumorigenesis, but they are hardly detectable at the early stage. Autoantibodies, however, are biologically amplified and hence may be measurable early on, making them promising biomarkers to discriminate breast cancer from healthy tissue accurately. In this review, we summarized the recent findings of breast cancer specific antigens and autoantibodies, which may be useful in early detection, disease stratification, and monitoring of treatment responses of breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
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Open AccessEditorial Microscale and Nanoscale Biosensors
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030066
Received: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
The emerge of nanotechnology along with the success of the microelectronics industry has motivated the miniaturization of biosensors into the nano/microscale. This Special Issue highlights recent advances in microscale and nanoscale biosensors, including self-propelled micromotors: their materials, fabrication, and applications. A total of
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The emerge of nanotechnology along with the success of the microelectronics industry has motivated the miniaturization of biosensors into the nano/microscale. This Special Issue highlights recent advances in microscale and nanoscale biosensors, including self-propelled micromotors: their materials, fabrication, and applications. A total of seven papers (five research and two review papers) are included. Different but related topics are covered, from biosensor design (paper strips and digital microfluidic chips) to integrated configurations that monitor metabolites in cellular environments. The reviews are devoted to protein-based biosensors and moving biosensors based on self-propelled micromotors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
Open AccessReview Transistors for Chemical Monitoring of Living Cells
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030065
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
We review here the chemical sensors for pH, glucose, lactate, and neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine or glutamate, made of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), including organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and electrolyte-gated OFETs (EGOFETs), for the monitoring of cell activity. First, the various chemicals that
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We review here the chemical sensors for pH, glucose, lactate, and neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine or glutamate, made of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), including organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and electrolyte-gated OFETs (EGOFETs), for the monitoring of cell activity. First, the various chemicals that are produced by living cells and are susceptible to be sensed in-situ in a cell culture medium are reviewed. Then, we discuss the various materials used to make the substrate onto which cells can be grown, as well as the materials used for making the transistors. The main part of this review discusses the up-to-date transistor architectures that have been described for cell monitoring to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-based Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle The Importance of Multifrequency Impedance Sensing of Endothelial Barrier Formation Using ECIS Technology for the Generation of a Strong and Durable Paracellular Barrier
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030064
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate the application of electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology for measuring differences in the formation of a strong and durable endothelial barrier model. In addition, we highlight the capacity of ECIS technology to model the parameters of the
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In this paper, we demonstrate the application of electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology for measuring differences in the formation of a strong and durable endothelial barrier model. In addition, we highlight the capacity of ECIS technology to model the parameters of the physical barrier associated with (I) the paracellular space (referred to as Rb) and (II) the basal adhesion of the endothelial cells (α, alpha). Physiologically, both parameters are very important for the correct formation of endothelial barriers. ECIS technology is the only commercially available technology that can measure and model these parameters independently of each other, which is important in the context of ascertaining whether a change in overall barrier resistance (R) occurs because of molecular changes in the paracellular junctional molecules or changes in the basal adhesion molecules. Finally, we show that the temporal changes observed in the paracellular Rb can be associated with changes in specific junctional proteins (CD144, ZO-1, and catenins), which have major roles in governing the overall strength of the junctional communication between neighbouring endothelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomedical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Lectin- and Saccharide-Functionalized Nano-Chemiresistor Arrays for Detection and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria Infection
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030063
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
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Abstract
Improvement upon, and expansion of, diagnostic tools for clinical infections have been increasing in recent years. The simplicity and rapidity of techniques are imperative for their adoption and widespread usage at point-of-care. The fabrication and evaluation of such a device is reported in
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Improvement upon, and expansion of, diagnostic tools for clinical infections have been increasing in recent years. The simplicity and rapidity of techniques are imperative for their adoption and widespread usage at point-of-care. The fabrication and evaluation of such a device is reported in this work. The use of a small bioreceptor array (based on lectin-carbohydrate binding) resulted in a unique response profile, which has the potential to be used for pathogen identification, as demonstrated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The performance of the chemiresistive device was tested with Escherichia coli K12, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Salmonella typhi. The limits of detection, based on concanavalin A (conA) lectin as the bioreceptor, are 4.7 × 103 cfu/mL, 25 cfu/mL, 7.4 × 104 cfu/mL, and 6.3 × 102 cfu/mL. This shows that the detection of pathogenic bacteria is achieved with clinically relevant concentrations. Importantly, responses measured in spiked artificial saliva showed minimal matrix interference. Furthermore, the exploitation of the distinctive outer composition of the bacteria and selectivity of lectin-carbohydrate interactions allowed for the discrimination of bacterial infections from viral infections, which is a current and urgent need for diagnosing common clinical infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-free Biosensing)
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Open AccessReview Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy and Microfluidics: Towards Ultrasensitive Label-Free Sensing
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030062
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
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Abstract
Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have demonstrated their potential as ultrasensitive detection techniques in the past decades. Specifically, and as a result of the flourishing of nanotechnology, SERS is nowadays one of the most powerful sensing techniques, not only because
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Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have demonstrated their potential as ultrasensitive detection techniques in the past decades. Specifically, and as a result of the flourishing of nanotechnology, SERS is nowadays one of the most powerful sensing techniques, not only because of the low detection limits that it can achieve, but also for the structural information that it offers and its capability of multiplexing. Similarly, microfluidics technology is having an increased presence not only in fundamental research, but also in the industry. The latter is because of the intrinsic characteristics of microfluidics, being automation, high-throughput, and miniaturization. However, despite miniaturization being an advantage, it comes together with the need to use ultrasensitive techniques for the interrogation of events happening in extremely small volumes. The combination of SERS with microfluidics can overcome bottlenecks present in both technologies. As a consequence, the integration of Raman and SERS in microfluidics is being investigated for the label-free biosensing of relevant research challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-free Biosensing)
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Open AccessReview Application of Biosensors Based on Lipid Membranes for the Rapid Detection of Toxins
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030061
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
Lipid assemblies in the form of two dimensional films have been used extensively as biosensing platforms. These films exhibit certain similarities with cell membranes, thus providing a suitable means for the immobilization of proteinaceous moieties and, further, a number of intrinsic signal amplification
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Lipid assemblies in the form of two dimensional films have been used extensively as biosensing platforms. These films exhibit certain similarities with cell membranes, thus providing a suitable means for the immobilization of proteinaceous moieties and, further, a number of intrinsic signal amplification mechanisms. Their implementation in the detection of toxins yielded reliable and fast detectors for in field analyses of environmental and clinical samples. Some examples are presented herein, including aflatoxin and cholera toxin detection. The conditions and parameters that determine the analytical specifications of the lipid membrane sensors are discussed, advantages and technology bottlenecks are reviewed, and possible further developments are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Transfer Learning for Improved Audio-Based Human Activity Recognition
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030060
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
Human activities are accompanied by characteristic sound events, the processing of which might provide valuable information for automated human activity recognition. This paper presents a novel approach addressing the case where one or more human activities are associated with limited audio data, resulting
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Human activities are accompanied by characteristic sound events, the processing of which might provide valuable information for automated human activity recognition. This paper presents a novel approach addressing the case where one or more human activities are associated with limited audio data, resulting in a potentially highly imbalanced dataset. Data augmentation is based on transfer learning; more specifically, the proposed method: (a) identifies the classes which are statistically close to the ones associated with limited data; (b) learns a multiple input, multiple output transformation; and (c) transforms the data of the closest classes so that it can be used for modeling the ones associated with limited data. Furthermore, the proposed framework includes a feature set extracted out of signal representations of diverse domains, i.e., temporal, spectral, and wavelet. Extensive experiments demonstrate the relevance of the proposed data augmentation approach under a variety of generative recognition schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomedical Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Nanoscale Biosensors Based on Self-Propelled Objects
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030059
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments (2016–2018 period) in the nano and micromotors field for biosensing applications. Nano and micromotor designs, functionalization, propulsion modes and transduction mechanism are described. A second important part of the review is devoted to
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This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments (2016–2018 period) in the nano and micromotors field for biosensing applications. Nano and micromotor designs, functionalization, propulsion modes and transduction mechanism are described. A second important part of the review is devoted to novel in vitro and in vivo biosensing schemes. The potential and future prospect of such moving nanoscale biosensors are given in the conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
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Open AccessErratum Erratum: Khan, N.I.; Maddaus, A.G.; Song, E. A Low-Cost Inkjet-Printed Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for the Selective Detection of Lysozyme. Biosensors 2018, 8, 7
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030058
Received: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
The Biosensors Editorial Office wishes to correct the following errors in this paper [...] Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Electrochemical (Bio) Sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030057
Received: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, great progress has been made in the development of sensors and biosensors to meet the demands of environmental and food analysis. In this Special Issue, the state of art and the future trends in the field of environmental and food
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In recent years, great progress has been made in the development of sensors and biosensors to meet the demands of environmental and food analysis. In this Special Issue, the state of art and the future trends in the field of environmental and food analyses have been explored. A total of seven papers (three research and four review papers) are included. These are focused on the fabrication and detection of contaminates such as heavy metals, pesticides and food components, including uric acid and 3-hydroxybutyrate. Included in this Issue is a paper dedicated to the experimental determination of the electroactive area of screen-printed electrodes, an important parameter in the development of such sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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