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Biosensors, Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessArticle C-Type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) Inhibition of Interferon-γ-Mediated Gene Expression in Human Endothelial Cells In Vitro
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030086
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, now account for more deaths in the Western world than from any other cause. Atherosclerosis has a chronic inflammatory component involving Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, which is known to induce endothelial cell inflammatory responses. On the other
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Cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, now account for more deaths in the Western world than from any other cause. Atherosclerosis has a chronic inflammatory component involving Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, which is known to induce endothelial cell inflammatory responses. On the other hand CNP, which acts via its receptors to elevate intracellular cGMP, is produced by endothelium and endocardium and is upregulated in atherosclerosis. It is believed to be protective, however its role in vascular inflammation is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CNP on human endothelial cell inflammatory responses following IFN-γ stimulation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with either IFN-γ (10 ng/mL) or CNP (100 nm), or both in combination, followed by analysis by flow cytometry for expression of MHC class I and ICAM-1. IFN-γ significantly increased expression of both molecules, which was significantly inhibited by CNP or the cGMP donor 8-Bromoguanosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate (1 µm). CNP also reduced IFN-γ mediated kynurenine generation by the IFN-γ regulated enzyme indoleamine-2,3-deoxygenase (IDO). We conclude that CNP downmodulates IFN-γ induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in human endothelial cells via a cGMP-mediated pathway. Thus, CNP may have a protective role in vascular inflammation and novel therapeutic strategies for CVD based on upregulation of endothelial CNP expression could reduce chronic EC inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Automatic Spot Identification Method for High Throughput Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Analysis
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030085
Received: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
An automatic spot identification method is developed for high throughput surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) analysis. As a combination of video accessing, image enhancement, image processing and parallel processing techniques, the method can identify the spots in SPRi images of the microarray from
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An automatic spot identification method is developed for high throughput surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) analysis. As a combination of video accessing, image enhancement, image processing and parallel processing techniques, the method can identify the spots in SPRi images of the microarray from SPRi video data. In demonstrations of the method, SPRi video data of different protein microarrays were processed by the method. Results show that our method can locate spots in the microarray accurately regardless of the microarray pattern, spot-background contrast, light nonuniformity and spotting defects, but also can provide address information of the spots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomedical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization and Application of Electrochemical Transducer for Detection of Specific Oligonucleotide Sequence for Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030084
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the electropolymerization of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) over graphite electrodes (GE) was optimized, aiming its application as a functionalized electrochemical platform for oligonucleotides immobilization. It was investigated for the number of potential cycles and the scan rate influence on the monomer
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In this study, the electropolymerization of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) over graphite electrodes (GE) was optimized, aiming its application as a functionalized electrochemical platform for oligonucleotides immobilization. It was investigated for the number of potential cycles and the scan rate influence on the monomer electropolymerization by using cyclic voltammetry technique. It was observed that the polymeric film showed a redox response in the region of +0.53/+0.38 V and the increase in the number of cycles produces more electroactive platforms because of the better electrode coverage. On the other hand, the decrease of scan rate produces more electroactive platforms because of the occurrence of more organized coupling. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the number of potential cycles influences the coverage and morphology of the electrodeposited polymeric film. However, the images also showed that at different scan rates a more organized material was produced. The influence of these optimized polymerization parameters was evaluated both in the immobilization of specific oligonucleotides and in the detection of hybridization with complementary target. Poly(4-HPA)/GE platform has shown efficient and sensitive for oligonucleotides immobilization, as well as for a hybridization event with the complementary oligonucleotide in all investigated cases. The electrode was modified with 100 cycles at 75 mV/s presented the best responses in function of the amplitude at the monitored peak current values for the Methylene Blue and Ethidium Bromide intercalators. The construction of the genosensor to detect a specific oligonucleotide sequence for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus confirmed the results regarding the poly(4-HPA)/GE platform efficiency since it showed excellent sensitivity. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification was found to be 0.56 (±0.05) μM and 8.6 (±0.7) μM, respectively operating with very low solution volumes (15 µL of probe and 10 µL target). The biosensor development was possible with optimization of the probe adsorption parameters and target hybridization, which led to an improvement in the decrease of the Methylene Blue (MB) reduction signal from 14% to 34%. In addition, interference studies showed that the genosensor has satisfactory selectivity since the hybridization with a non-specific probe resulted in a signal decrease (46% lower) when compared to the specific target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Sensing Employing Plant Electrical Signal Response-Classification of Stimuli Using Curve Fitting Coefficients as Features
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030083
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
In order to exploit plants as environmental biosensors, previous researches have been focused on the electrical signal response of the plants to different environmental stimuli. One of the important outcomes of those researches has been the extraction of meaningful features from the electrical
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In order to exploit plants as environmental biosensors, previous researches have been focused on the electrical signal response of the plants to different environmental stimuli. One of the important outcomes of those researches has been the extraction of meaningful features from the electrical signals and the use of such features for the classification of the stimuli which affected the plants. The classification results are dependent on the classifier algorithm used, features extracted and the quality of data. This paper presents an innovative way of extracting features from raw plant electrical signal response to classify the external stimuli which caused the plant to produce such a signal. A curve fitting approach in extracting features from the raw signal for classification of the applied stimuli has been adopted in this work, thereby evaluating whether the shape of the raw signal is dependent on the stimuli applied. Four types of curve fitting models—Polynomial, Gaussian, Fourier and Exponential, have been explored. The fitting accuracy (i.e., fitting of curve to the actual raw signal) depicted through R-squared values has allowed exploration of which curve fitting model performs best. The coefficients of the curve fit models were then used as features. Thereafter, using simple classification algorithms such as Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) etc. within the curve fit coefficient space, we have verified that within the available data, above 90% classification accuracy can be achieved. The successful hypothesis taken in this work will allow further research in implementing plants as environmental biosensors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fluorescent Nanosensor Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Coated on Graphene Quantum Dots for Fast Detection of Antibiotics
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030082
Received: 13 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
In this work, we developed a novel fluorescent sensor by combining molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) for the determination of tetracycline (TC) in aqueous samples. Firstly, we developed a one-pot green method to synthesize GQDs as the fluorescent probes.
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In this work, we developed a novel fluorescent sensor by combining molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with graphene quantum dots (GQDs) for the determination of tetracycline (TC) in aqueous samples. Firstly, we developed a one-pot green method to synthesize GQDs as the fluorescent probes. GQDs with carboxyl groups or amino groups were fabricated. It was found that carboxyl groups played an important role in the fluorescence quenching. Based on these findings, the GQDs-MIPs microspheres were prepared using a sol-gel process. GQDs-MIPs showed strong fluorescent emission at 410 nm when excited at 360 nm, and the fluorescence was quenched in the presence of TC. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of GQDs-MIPs decreased in response to the increase of TC concentration. The linear rage was from 1.0 to 104 µg·L−1, and the limit of detection was determined to be 1 µg·L−1. The GQDs-MIPs also demonstrated high selectivity towards TC. The fluorescent sensor was successfully applied for the detection of TC in real spiked milk samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Quality Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Modified Biosensor for Cholinesterase Inhibitors with Guinea Green B as the Color Indicator
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030081
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Colorimetric biosensors of cholinesterase inhibitors are ideal for fast, reliable, and very simple detection of agents in air, in water, and on surfaces. This paper describes an innovation of the Czech Detehit biosensor, which is based on a biochemical enzymatic reaction visualized by
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Colorimetric biosensors of cholinesterase inhibitors are ideal for fast, reliable, and very simple detection of agents in air, in water, and on surfaces. This paper describes an innovation of the Czech Detehit biosensor, which is based on a biochemical enzymatic reaction visualized by using Ellman’s reagent as a chromogenic indicator. The modification basically consists of a much more distinct color response of the biosensor, attained through optimization of the reaction system by using Guinea Green B as the indicator. The performance of the modified biosensor was verified on the chemical warfare agents (sarin, soman, cyclosarin, and VX) in water. The detection limits ascertained visually (with the naked eye) were about 0.001 µg/mL in water (exposure time 60 s, inhibition efficiency 25%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Surface Plasmon Resonance Optical Sensor: A Review on Light Source Technology
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030080
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 26 August 2018
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Abstract
The notion of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor research emerged more than eight decades ago from the first observed phenomena in 1902 until the first introduced principles for gas sensing and biosensing in 1983. The sensing platform has been hand-in-hand with the plethora
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The notion of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor research emerged more than eight decades ago from the first observed phenomena in 1902 until the first introduced principles for gas sensing and biosensing in 1983. The sensing platform has been hand-in-hand with the plethora of sensing technology advancement including nanostructuring, optical technology, fluidic technology, and light source technology, which contribute to substantial progress in SPR sensor evolution. Nevertheless, the commercial products of SPR sensors in the market still require high-cost investment, component, and operation, leading to unaffordability for their implementation in a low-cost point of care (PoC) or laboratories. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of SPR sensor development including the state of the art from a perspective of light source technology trends. Based on our review, the trend of SPR sensor configurations, as well as its methodology and optical designs are strongly influenced by the development of light source technology as a critical component. These simultaneously offer new underlying principles of SPR sensor towards miniaturization, portability, and disposability features. The low-cost solid-state light source technology, such as laser diode, light-emitting diode (LED), organic light emitting diode (OLED) and smartphone display have been reported as proof of concept for the future of low-cost SPR sensor platforms. Finally, this review provides a comprehensive overview, particularly for SPR sensor designers, including emerging engineers or experts in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection)
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Open AccessArticle Breathable Dry Silver/Silver Chloride Electronic Textile Electrodes for Electrodermal Activity Monitoring
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030079
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
The focus of this study is to design and integrate silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electronic textile (e-textile) electrodes into different textile substrates to evaluate their ability to monitor electrodermal activity (EDA). Ag/AgCl e-textiles were stitched into woven textiles of cotton, nylon, and polyester to
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The focus of this study is to design and integrate silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electronic textile (e-textile) electrodes into different textile substrates to evaluate their ability to monitor electrodermal activity (EDA). Ag/AgCl e-textiles were stitched into woven textiles of cotton, nylon, and polyester to function as EDA monitoring electrodes. EDA stimulus responses detected by dry e-textile electrodes at various locations on the hand were compared to the EDA signals collected by dry solid Ag/AgCl electrodes. 4-h EDA data with e-textile and clinically conventional rigid electrodes were compared in relation to skin surface temperature. The woven cotton textile substrate with e-textile electrodes (0.12 cm2 surface area, 0.40 cm distance) was the optimal material to detect the EDA stimulus responses with the highest average Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.913 ± 0.041 when placed on the distal phalanx of the middle finger. In addition, differences with EDA waveforms recorded on various fingers were observed. Trends of long-term measurements showed that skin surface temperature affected EDA signals recorded by non-breathable electrodes more than when e-textile electrodes were used. The effective design criteria outlined for e-textile electrodes can promote the development of comfortable and unobtrusive EDA monitoring systems, which can help improve our knowledge of the human neurological system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Biosensors 2019)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Fabrication of a BiCMOS Dielectric Sensor for Viscosity Measurements: A Possible Solution for Early Detection of COPD
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030078
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
The viscosity variation of sputum is a common symptom of the progression of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Since the hydration of the sputum defines its viscosity level, dielectric sensors could be used for the characterization of sputum samples collected from patients for
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The viscosity variation of sputum is a common symptom of the progression of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Since the hydration of the sputum defines its viscosity level, dielectric sensors could be used for the characterization of sputum samples collected from patients for early diagnosis of COPD. In this work, a CMOS-based dielectric sensor for the real-time monitoring of sputum viscosity was designed and fabricated. A proper packaging for the ESD-protection and short-circuit prevention of the sensor was developed. The performance evaluation results show that the radio frequency sensor is capable of measuring dielectric constant of biofluids with an accuracy of 4.17%. Integration of this sensor into a portable system will result in a hand-held device capable of measuring viscosity of sputum samples of COPD-patients for diagnostic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomedical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Development of MoSe2 Nano-Urchins as a Sensing Platform for a Selective Bio-Capturing of Escherichia coli Shiga Toxin DNA
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030077
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
The present study was aimed to develop “fluorine doped” tin oxide glass electrode with a MoSe2 nano-urchin based electrochemical biosensor for detection of Escherichia coli Shiga toxin DNA. The study comprises two conductive electrodes, and the working electrodes were drop deposited using
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The present study was aimed to develop “fluorine doped” tin oxide glass electrode with a MoSe2 nano-urchin based electrochemical biosensor for detection of Escherichia coli Shiga toxin DNA. The study comprises two conductive electrodes, and the working electrodes were drop deposited using MoSe2 nano-urchin, and DNA sequences specific to Shiga toxin Escherichia coli. Morphological characterizations were performed using Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer; X-ray diffraction technique and scanning electron microscopy. All measurements were done using methylene blue as an electrochemical indicator. The proposed electrochemical geno-sensor showed good linear detection range of 1 fM–100 µM with a low detection limit of 1 fM where the current response increased linearly with Escherichia coli Shiga toxin dsDNA concentration with R2 = 0.99. Additionally, the real sample was spiked with the dsDNA that shows insignificant interference. The results revealed that the developed sensing platform significantly improved the sensitivity and can provide a promising platform for effective detection of biomolecules using minute samples due to its stability and sensitivity. Full article
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Open AccessReview Synergistic Integration of Laboratory and Numerical Approaches in Studies of the Biomechanics of Diseased Red Blood Cells
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030076
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
In red blood cell (RBC) disorders, such as sickle cell disease, hereditary spherocytosis, and diabetes, alterations to the size and shape of RBCs due to either mutations of RBC proteins or changes to the extracellular environment, lead to compromised cell deformability, impaired cell
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In red blood cell (RBC) disorders, such as sickle cell disease, hereditary spherocytosis, and diabetes, alterations to the size and shape of RBCs due to either mutations of RBC proteins or changes to the extracellular environment, lead to compromised cell deformability, impaired cell stability, and increased propensity to aggregate. Numerous laboratory approaches have been implemented to elucidate the pathogenesis of RBC disorders. Concurrently, computational RBC models have been developed to simulate the dynamics of RBCs under physiological and pathological conditions. In this work, we review recent laboratory and computational studies of disordered RBCs. Distinguished from previous reviews, we emphasize how experimental techniques and computational modeling can be synergically integrated to improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of hematological disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-based Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Computational Study of Sensitivity Enhancement in Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Biosensors by Using the Inclusion of the Core-Shell for Biomaterial Sample Detection
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030075
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
A theoretical analysis and computational study of biomaterial sample detection with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon spectroscopy are presented in this work with the objective of achieving more sensitive detection. In this paper, a Fe3O4@Au core-shell, a nanocomposite spherical
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A theoretical analysis and computational study of biomaterial sample detection with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon spectroscopy are presented in this work with the objective of achieving more sensitive detection. In this paper, a Fe3O4@Au core-shell, a nanocomposite spherical nanoparticle consisting of a spherical Fe3O4 core covered by an Au shell, was used as an active material for biomaterial sample detection, such as for blood plasma, haemoglobin (Hb) cytoplasm and lecithin, with a wavelength of 632.8 nm. We present the detection amplification technique through an attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectrum in the Kretschmann configuration. The system consists of a four-layer material, i.e., prism/Ag/Fe3O4@Au + biomaterial sample/air. The effective permittivity determination of the core-shell nanoparticle (Fe3O4@Au) and the composite (Fe3O4@Au + biomaterial sample) was done by applying the effective medium theory approximation, and the calculation of the reflectivity was carried out by varying the size of the core-shell, volume fraction and biomaterial sample. In this model, the refractive index (RI) of the BK7 prism is 1.51; the RI of the Ag thin film is 0.13455 + 3.98651i with a thickness of 40 nm; and the RI of the composite is varied depending on the size of the nanoparticle core-shell and the RI of the biomaterial samples. Our results show that by varying the sizes of the core-shell, volume fraction and the RIs of the biomaterial samples, the dip in the reflectivity (ATR) spectrum is shifted to the larger angle of incident light, and the addition of a core-shell in the conventional SPR-based biosensor leads to the enhancement of the SPR biosensor sensitivity. For a core-shell with a radius a = 2.5 nm, the sensitivity increased by 10% for blood plasma detection, 47.72% for Hb cytoplasm detection and by 22.08% for lecithin detection compared to the sensitivity of the conventional SPR-based biosensor without core-shell addition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensors)
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Open AccessCommunication Cytokeratins Biosensing Using Tilted Fiber Gratings
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030074
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Optical fiber gratings have widely proven their applicability in biosensing, especially when they are coupled with antibodies for specific antigen recognition. While this is customarily done with fibers coated by a thin metal film to benefit from plasmonic enhancement, in this paper, we
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Optical fiber gratings have widely proven their applicability in biosensing, especially when they are coupled with antibodies for specific antigen recognition. While this is customarily done with fibers coated by a thin metal film to benefit from plasmonic enhancement, in this paper, we propose to study their intrinsic properties, developing a label-free sensor for the detection of biomarkers in real-time without metal coatings for surface plasmon resonances. We focus on the inner properties of our modal sensor by immobilizing receptors directly on the silica surface, and reporting the sensitivity of bare tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) used at near infrared wavelengths. We test different strategies to build our sensing surface against cytokeratins and show that the most reliable functionalization method is the electrostatic adsorption of antibodies on the fiber, allowing a limit of detection reaching 14 pM by following the guided cladding modes near the cut-off area. These results present the biodetection performance that TFBGs bring through their modal properties for different functionalizations and data processing strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection)
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Open AccessReview Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes: Past, Present and Future
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030073
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Prior to the widespread use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), knowledge of the effects of exercise in type 1 diabetes (T1D) was limited to the exercise period, with few studies having the budget or capacity to monitor participants overnight. Recently, CGM has become
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Prior to the widespread use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), knowledge of the effects of exercise in type 1 diabetes (T1D) was limited to the exercise period, with few studies having the budget or capacity to monitor participants overnight. Recently, CGM has become a staple of many exercise studies, allowing researchers to observe the otherwise elusive late post-exercise period. We performed a strategic search using PubMed and Academic Search Complete. Studies were included if they involved adults with T1D performing exercise or physical activity, had a sample size greater than 5, and involved the use of CGM. Upon completion of the search protocol, 26 articles were reviewed for inclusion. While outcomes have been variable, CGM use in exercise studies has allowed the assessment of post-exercise (especially nocturnal) trends for different exercise modalities in individuals with T1D. Sensor accuracy is currently considered adequate for exercise, which has been crucial to developing closed-loop and artificial pancreas systems. Until these systems are perfected, CGM continues to provide information about late post-exercise responses, to assist T1D patients in managing their glucose, and to be useful as a tool for teaching individuals with T1D about exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuous Glucose Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Micro-Raman Spectroscopy for Monitoring of Deposition Quality of High-k Stack Protective Layer onto Nanowire FET Chips for Highly Sensitive miRNA Detection
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030072
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
Application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of quality of high-k (h-k) dielectric protective layer deposition onto the surface of a nanowire (NW) chip has been demonstrated. A NW chip based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures, protected with a layer of high-k dielectric ((h-k)-SOI-NW
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Application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of quality of high-k (h-k) dielectric protective layer deposition onto the surface of a nanowire (NW) chip has been demonstrated. A NW chip based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures, protected with a layer of high-k dielectric ((h-k)-SOI-NW chip), has been employed for highly sensitive detection of microRNA (miRNA) associated with oncological diseases. The protective dielectric included a 2-nm-thick Al2O3 surface layer and a 8-nm-thick HfO2 layer, deposited onto a silicon SOI-NW chip. Such a chip had increased time stability upon operation in solution, as compared with an unprotected SOI-NW chip with native oxide. The (h-k)-SOI-NW biosensor has been employed for the detection of DNA oligonucleotide (oDNA), which is a synthetic analogue of miRNA-21 associated with oncological diseases. To provide biospecificity of the detection, the surface of (h-k)-SOI-NW chip was modified with oligonucleotide probe molecules (oDVA probes) complementary to the sequence of the target biomolecule. Concentration sensitivity of the (h-k)-SOI-NW biosensor at the level of DL~10−16 M has been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Raman Techniques in Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle Label-Free Monitoring of Human IgG/Anti-IgG Recognition Using Bloch Surface Waves on 1D Photonic Crystals
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030071
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
Optical biosensors based on one-dimensional photonic crystals sustaining Bloch surface waves are proposed to study antibody interactions and perform affinity studies. The presented approach utilizes two types of different antibodies anchored at the sensitive area of a photonic crystal-based biosensor. Such a strategy
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Optical biosensors based on one-dimensional photonic crystals sustaining Bloch surface waves are proposed to study antibody interactions and perform affinity studies. The presented approach utilizes two types of different antibodies anchored at the sensitive area of a photonic crystal-based biosensor. Such a strategy allows for creating two or more on-chip regions with different biochemical features as well as studying the binding kinetics of biomolecules in real time. In particular, the proposed detection system shows an estimated limit of detection for the target antibody (anti-human IgG) smaller than 0.19 nM (28 ng/mL), corresponding to a minimum surface mass coverage of 10.3 ng/cm2. Moreover, from the binding curves we successfully derived the equilibrium association and dissociation constants (KA = 7.5 × 107 M−1; KD = 13.26 nM) of the human IgG–anti-human IgG interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoanalytical Tool with Electrochemical and Optical Detection)
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Open AccessArticle 3D Carbon Microelectrodes with Bio-Functionalized Graphene for Electrochemical Biosensing
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030070
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
An enzyme-based electrochemical biosensor has been developed with 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes that have been coated with bio-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The 3D carbon working electrode was microfabricated using the pyrolysis of photoresist precursor structures, which were subsequently functionalized with graphene oxide
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An enzyme-based electrochemical biosensor has been developed with 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes that have been coated with bio-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The 3D carbon working electrode was microfabricated using the pyrolysis of photoresist precursor structures, which were subsequently functionalized with graphene oxide and enzymes. Glucose detection was used to compare the sensor performance achieved with the 3D carbon microelectrodes (3DCMEs) to the 2D electrode configuration. The 3DCMEs provided an approximately two-fold higher sensitivity of 23.56 µA·mM−1·cm−2 compared to 10.19 µA mM−1·cm−2 for 2D carbon in glucose detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV). In amperometric measurements, the sensitivity was more than 4 times higher with 0.39 µA·mM−1·cm−2 for 3D electrodes and 0.09 µA·mM−1·cm−2 for the 2D configuration. The stability analysis of the enzymes on the 3D carbon showed reproducible results over 7 days. The selectivity of the electrode was evaluated with solutions of glucose, uric acid, cholesterol and ascorbic acid, which showed a significantly higher response for glucose. Full article
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Open AccessReview Conjugation of Nanomaterials and Nematic Liquid Crystals for Futuristic Applications and Biosensors
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030069
Received: 12 May 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
The established role of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) in the recent rapid development of displays has motivated researchers to modulate the electro-optical properties of LCs. Furthermore, adding nanomaterials into NLCs has led to enhancements of the properties of NLCs, like reduced threshold of
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The established role of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) in the recent rapid development of displays has motivated researchers to modulate the electro-optical properties of LCs. Furthermore, adding nanomaterials into NLCs has led to enhancements of the properties of NLCs, like reduced threshold of the operating voltage, variation in pretilt angle, reduced switching time, etc. These enhanced properties, due to interfacial dynamics, are enabling wider applications of NLCs and nanomaterials. The recent literature of nanomaterial-doped NLCs is rich with various kinds of nanomaterials in a variety of NLCs. The light has been focused on the most widely used and studied gold nanoparticles in NLCs. The intrinsic inherent property of easy excitation of surface plasmons polaritons (SPP) is the mediating interaction of NLC electric dipoles and the polarization of charges in the GNP surface. The concepts and methods for the application of metal nanomaterials as dopants in NLCs are discussed for future applications, especially biosensors. The biosensing application of NLCs alone has already been proven in the literature. However, it is always desirable to further enhance the detection efficiency and selectivity, which have been achieved by the conjugation of GNPs and nickel nanoparticles with NLCs and their compatibility with biological materials. This aspect of future application of nanoparticles and NLC makes the point more selective to be included in the present manuscript. Full article
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Open AccessReview Clinical Assessment of Dental Implant Stability During Follow-Up: What Is Actually Measured, and Perspectives
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030068
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
The optimization of loading protocols following dental implant insertion requires setting up patient-specific protocols, customized according to the actual implant osseointegration, measured through quantitative, objective methods. Various devices for the assessment of implant stability as an indirect measure of implant osseointegration have been
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The optimization of loading protocols following dental implant insertion requires setting up patient-specific protocols, customized according to the actual implant osseointegration, measured through quantitative, objective methods. Various devices for the assessment of implant stability as an indirect measure of implant osseointegration have been developed. They are analyzed here, introducing the respective physical models, outlining major advantages and critical aspects, and reporting their clinical performance. A careful discussion of underlying hypotheses is finally reported, as is a suggestion for further development of instrumentation and signal analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implantable Biosensors for in vivo Detection and Measurement)
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Open AccessReview Autoantibodies as Potential Biomarkers in Breast Cancer
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030067
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality in women; however, technologies for early stage screening and diagnosis (e.g., mammography and other imaging technologies) are not optimal for the accurate detection of cancer. This creates demand for a more effective diagnostic means to
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Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality in women; however, technologies for early stage screening and diagnosis (e.g., mammography and other imaging technologies) are not optimal for the accurate detection of cancer. This creates demand for a more effective diagnostic means to replace or be complementary to existing technologies for early discovery of breast cancer. Cancer neoantigens could reflect tumorigenesis, but they are hardly detectable at the early stage. Autoantibodies, however, are biologically amplified and hence may be measurable early on, making them promising biomarkers to discriminate breast cancer from healthy tissue accurately. In this review, we summarized the recent findings of breast cancer specific antigens and autoantibodies, which may be useful in early detection, disease stratification, and monitoring of treatment responses of breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
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Open AccessEditorial Microscale and Nanoscale Biosensors
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030066
Received: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
The emerge of nanotechnology along with the success of the microelectronics industry has motivated the miniaturization of biosensors into the nano/microscale. This Special Issue highlights recent advances in microscale and nanoscale biosensors, including self-propelled micromotors: their materials, fabrication, and applications. A total of
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The emerge of nanotechnology along with the success of the microelectronics industry has motivated the miniaturization of biosensors into the nano/microscale. This Special Issue highlights recent advances in microscale and nanoscale biosensors, including self-propelled micromotors: their materials, fabrication, and applications. A total of seven papers (five research and two review papers) are included. Different but related topics are covered, from biosensor design (paper strips and digital microfluidic chips) to integrated configurations that monitor metabolites in cellular environments. The reviews are devoted to protein-based biosensors and moving biosensors based on self-propelled micromotors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
Open AccessReview Transistors for Chemical Monitoring of Living Cells
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030065
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
We review here the chemical sensors for pH, glucose, lactate, and neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine or glutamate, made of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), including organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and electrolyte-gated OFETs (EGOFETs), for the monitoring of cell activity. First, the various chemicals that
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We review here the chemical sensors for pH, glucose, lactate, and neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine or glutamate, made of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), including organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and electrolyte-gated OFETs (EGOFETs), for the monitoring of cell activity. First, the various chemicals that are produced by living cells and are susceptible to be sensed in-situ in a cell culture medium are reviewed. Then, we discuss the various materials used to make the substrate onto which cells can be grown, as well as the materials used for making the transistors. The main part of this review discusses the up-to-date transistor architectures that have been described for cell monitoring to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-based Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle The Importance of Multifrequency Impedance Sensing of Endothelial Barrier Formation Using ECIS Technology for the Generation of a Strong and Durable Paracellular Barrier
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030064
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate the application of electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology for measuring differences in the formation of a strong and durable endothelial barrier model. In addition, we highlight the capacity of ECIS technology to model the parameters of the
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In this paper, we demonstrate the application of electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology for measuring differences in the formation of a strong and durable endothelial barrier model. In addition, we highlight the capacity of ECIS technology to model the parameters of the physical barrier associated with (I) the paracellular space (referred to as Rb) and (II) the basal adhesion of the endothelial cells (α, alpha). Physiologically, both parameters are very important for the correct formation of endothelial barriers. ECIS technology is the only commercially available technology that can measure and model these parameters independently of each other, which is important in the context of ascertaining whether a change in overall barrier resistance (R) occurs because of molecular changes in the paracellular junctional molecules or changes in the basal adhesion molecules. Finally, we show that the temporal changes observed in the paracellular Rb can be associated with changes in specific junctional proteins (CD144, ZO-1, and catenins), which have major roles in governing the overall strength of the junctional communication between neighbouring endothelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomedical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Lectin- and Saccharide-Functionalized Nano-Chemiresistor Arrays for Detection and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria Infection
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030063
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
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Abstract
Improvement upon, and expansion of, diagnostic tools for clinical infections have been increasing in recent years. The simplicity and rapidity of techniques are imperative for their adoption and widespread usage at point-of-care. The fabrication and evaluation of such a device is reported in
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Improvement upon, and expansion of, diagnostic tools for clinical infections have been increasing in recent years. The simplicity and rapidity of techniques are imperative for their adoption and widespread usage at point-of-care. The fabrication and evaluation of such a device is reported in this work. The use of a small bioreceptor array (based on lectin-carbohydrate binding) resulted in a unique response profile, which has the potential to be used for pathogen identification, as demonstrated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The performance of the chemiresistive device was tested with Escherichia coli K12, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Salmonella typhi. The limits of detection, based on concanavalin A (conA) lectin as the bioreceptor, are 4.7 × 103 cfu/mL, 25 cfu/mL, 7.4 × 104 cfu/mL, and 6.3 × 102 cfu/mL. This shows that the detection of pathogenic bacteria is achieved with clinically relevant concentrations. Importantly, responses measured in spiked artificial saliva showed minimal matrix interference. Furthermore, the exploitation of the distinctive outer composition of the bacteria and selectivity of lectin-carbohydrate interactions allowed for the discrimination of bacterial infections from viral infections, which is a current and urgent need for diagnosing common clinical infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-free Biosensing)
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Open AccessReview Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy and Microfluidics: Towards Ultrasensitive Label-Free Sensing
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030062
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
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Abstract
Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have demonstrated their potential as ultrasensitive detection techniques in the past decades. Specifically, and as a result of the flourishing of nanotechnology, SERS is nowadays one of the most powerful sensing techniques, not only because
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Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have demonstrated their potential as ultrasensitive detection techniques in the past decades. Specifically, and as a result of the flourishing of nanotechnology, SERS is nowadays one of the most powerful sensing techniques, not only because of the low detection limits that it can achieve, but also for the structural information that it offers and its capability of multiplexing. Similarly, microfluidics technology is having an increased presence not only in fundamental research, but also in the industry. The latter is because of the intrinsic characteristics of microfluidics, being automation, high-throughput, and miniaturization. However, despite miniaturization being an advantage, it comes together with the need to use ultrasensitive techniques for the interrogation of events happening in extremely small volumes. The combination of SERS with microfluidics can overcome bottlenecks present in both technologies. As a consequence, the integration of Raman and SERS in microfluidics is being investigated for the label-free biosensing of relevant research challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-free Biosensing)
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Open AccessReview Application of Biosensors Based on Lipid Membranes for the Rapid Detection of Toxins
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030061
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
Lipid assemblies in the form of two dimensional films have been used extensively as biosensing platforms. These films exhibit certain similarities with cell membranes, thus providing a suitable means for the immobilization of proteinaceous moieties and, further, a number of intrinsic signal amplification
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Lipid assemblies in the form of two dimensional films have been used extensively as biosensing platforms. These films exhibit certain similarities with cell membranes, thus providing a suitable means for the immobilization of proteinaceous moieties and, further, a number of intrinsic signal amplification mechanisms. Their implementation in the detection of toxins yielded reliable and fast detectors for in field analyses of environmental and clinical samples. Some examples are presented herein, including aflatoxin and cholera toxin detection. The conditions and parameters that determine the analytical specifications of the lipid membrane sensors are discussed, advantages and technology bottlenecks are reviewed, and possible further developments are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Transfer Learning for Improved Audio-Based Human Activity Recognition
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030060
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
Human activities are accompanied by characteristic sound events, the processing of which might provide valuable information for automated human activity recognition. This paper presents a novel approach addressing the case where one or more human activities are associated with limited audio data, resulting
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Human activities are accompanied by characteristic sound events, the processing of which might provide valuable information for automated human activity recognition. This paper presents a novel approach addressing the case where one or more human activities are associated with limited audio data, resulting in a potentially highly imbalanced dataset. Data augmentation is based on transfer learning; more specifically, the proposed method: (a) identifies the classes which are statistically close to the ones associated with limited data; (b) learns a multiple input, multiple output transformation; and (c) transforms the data of the closest classes so that it can be used for modeling the ones associated with limited data. Furthermore, the proposed framework includes a feature set extracted out of signal representations of diverse domains, i.e., temporal, spectral, and wavelet. Extensive experiments demonstrate the relevance of the proposed data augmentation approach under a variety of generative recognition schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomedical Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Nanoscale Biosensors Based on Self-Propelled Objects
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030059
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments (2016–2018 period) in the nano and micromotors field for biosensing applications. Nano and micromotor designs, functionalization, propulsion modes and transduction mechanism are described. A second important part of the review is devoted to
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This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments (2016–2018 period) in the nano and micromotors field for biosensing applications. Nano and micromotor designs, functionalization, propulsion modes and transduction mechanism are described. A second important part of the review is devoted to novel in vitro and in vivo biosensing schemes. The potential and future prospect of such moving nanoscale biosensors are given in the conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
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Open AccessErratum Erratum: Khan, N.I.; Maddaus, A.G.; Song, E. A Low-Cost Inkjet-Printed Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for the Selective Detection of Lysozyme. Biosensors 2018, 8, 7
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030058
Received: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
The Biosensors Editorial Office wishes to correct the following errors in this paper [...] Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Electrochemical (Bio) Sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses
Biosensors 2018, 8(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8030057
Received: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, great progress has been made in the development of sensors and biosensors to meet the demands of environmental and food analysis. In this Special Issue, the state of art and the future trends in the field of environmental and food
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In recent years, great progress has been made in the development of sensors and biosensors to meet the demands of environmental and food analysis. In this Special Issue, the state of art and the future trends in the field of environmental and food analyses have been explored. A total of seven papers (three research and four review papers) are included. These are focused on the fabrication and detection of contaminates such as heavy metals, pesticides and food components, including uric acid and 3-hydroxybutyrate. Included in this Issue is a paper dedicated to the experimental determination of the electroactive area of screen-printed electrodes, an important parameter in the development of such sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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